Saturday, January 8, 2011

John

John 1:1-18

#16ABC Solemnities ABC Context (Nativity of the Lord Christmas –Day ABC)

#19ABC Solemnities ABC Context (2nd Sunday after Christmas ABC)

#204 Weekday Year I & II Context (7th Day in the Octave of Christmas)

In the beginning was the Word,
and the Word was with God,
and the Word was God.
He was in the beginning with God.
All things came to be through him,
and without him nothing came to be.
What came to be through him was life,
and this life was the light of the human race;
the light shines in the darkness,
and the darkness has not overcome it.
A man named John was sent from God.
He came for testimony, to testify to the light,
so that all might believe through him.
He was not the light,
but came to testify to the light.
The true light, which enlightens everyone, was coming into the world.
He was in the world,
and the world came to be through him,
but the world did not know him.
He came to what was his own,
but his own people did not accept him.

But to those who did accept him
he gave power to become children of God,
to those who believe in his name,
who were born not by natural generation
nor by human choice nor by a man’s decision
but of God.
And the Word became flesh
and made his dwelling among us,
and we saw his glory,
the glory as of the Father’s only Son,
full of grace and truth.
John testified to him and cried out, saying,
“This was he of whom I said,
‘The one who is coming after me ranks ahead of me
because he existed before me.’”
From his fullness we have all received,
grace in place of grace,
because while the law was given through Moses,
grace and truth came through Jesus Christ.
No one has ever seen God.
The only Son, God, who is at the Father’s side,
has revealed him.
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Commentary on Jn 1:1-18

The introduction of St. John’s Gospel first provides the description of the relationship of God and Jesus who is the Logos – or word of God. The Word is light to the world and all things are subordinate to the Word because they were created by and through the Word.

St. John then introduces John the Baptist as one who came to testify to the light (now homologous above with the Word). His message, like that of Jesus was not accepted by the very people created by the Lord. He goes on to say that those who accept Christ are adopted by God.

Concluding this selection, the Evangelist makes his own profession as he speaks of the incarnation of the eternal as “the word became flesh and made his dwelling among us.” His divinity is once more established as he says “…we saw his glory, the glory as of the Father’s only Son.” This was the message St. John tells us he was sent to bring. He then reestablishes himself as messenger and servant of the one who sent him, Jesus. He says that while Moses brought the Law, Christ came and revealed God himself.

CCC: Jn 1:1-3 291; Jn 1:1 241, 454, 2780; Jn 1:3 268; Jn 1:4 612; Jn 1:6 717; Jn 1:7 719; Jn 1:9 1216; Jn 1:11 530; Jn 1:12-18 1996; Jn 1:12-13 706; Jn 1:12 526, 1692; Jn 1:13 496, 505, 526; Jn 1:14 423, 445, 454, 461, 594, 705, 2466; Jn 1:16 423, 504; Jn 1:17 2787; Jn 1:18 151, 454, 473
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OR: John 1:1-5, 9-14

In the beginning was the Word,
and the Word was with God,
and the Word was God.
He was in the beginning with God.
All things came to be through him,
and without him nothing came to be.
What came to be through him was life,
and this life was the light of the human race;
the light shines in the darkness,
and the darkness has not overcome it.
The true light, which enlightens everyone, was coming into the world.
He was in the world,
and the world came to be through him,
but the world did not know him.
He came to what was his own,
but his own people did not accept him.

But to those who did accept him
he gave power to become children of God,
to those who believe in his name,
who were born not by natural generation
nor by human choice nor by a man’s decision
but of God.
And the Word became flesh
and made his dwelling among us,
and we saw his glory,
the glory as of the Father’s only Son,
full of grace and truth.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Jn1:1-5, 9-14

In the shorter form, reference to St. John the Baptist is omitted.  The focus is on the introduction of St. John’s Gospel which first provides the description of the relationship of God and Jesus who is the Logos – or word of God. The Word is light to the world and all things are subordinate to the Word because they were created by and through the Word.

Concluding this selection, the Evangelist makes his own profession as he speaks of the incarnation of the eternal as “the word became flesh and made his dwelling among us.” His divinity is once more established as he says “…we saw his glory, the glory as of the Father’s only Son”. This was the message St. John tells us he was sent to bring. He then reestablishes himself as messenger and servant of the one who sent him, Jesus. He says that while Moses brought the Law, Christ came and revealed God himself.

CCC: Jn 1:1-3 291; Jn 1:1 241, 454, 2780; Jn 1:3 268; Jn 1:4 612; Jn 1:9 1216; Jn 1:11 530; Jn 1:12-18 1996; Jn 1:12-13 706; Jn 1:12 526, 1692; Jn 1:13 496, 505, 526; Jn 1:14 423, 445, 454, 461, 594, 705, 2466
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John 1:1-5, 9-14, 16-18

#755 Ritual Mass Context (I. For the Conferral of Christian Initiation, [Apart from the Easter Vigil], 1. Catechumenate and Christian Initiation of Adults, 7.)

In the beginning was the Word,
and the Word was with God,
and the Word was God.
He was in the beginning with God.
All things came to be through him,
and without him nothing came to be.
What came to be through him was life,
and this life was the light of the human race;
the light shines in the darkness,
and the darkness has not overcome it.
The true light, which enlightens everyone, was coming into the world.
He was in the world,
and the world came to be through him,
but the world did not know him.
He came to what was his own,
but his own people did not accept him.

But to those who did accept him
he gave power to become children of God,
to those who believe in his name,
who were born not by natural generation
nor by human choice nor by a man’s decision
but of God.
And the Word became flesh
and made his dwelling among us,
and we saw his glory,
the glory as of the Father’s only Son,
full of grace and truth.

From his fullness we have all received,
grace in place of grace,
because while the law was given through Moses,
grace and truth came through Jesus Christ.
No one has ever seen God.
The only-begotten Son, God, who is at the Father's Side,
has revealed him.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Jn1:1-5, 9-14, 16-18

In the shorter form, reference to St. John the Baptist is omitted.  The focus is on the introduction of St. John’s Gospel which first provides the description of the relationship of God and Jesus who is the Logos – or word of God. The Word is light to the world and all things are subordinate to the Word because they were created by and through the Word.

The Evangelist makes his own profession as he speaks of the incarnation of the eternal as “the word became flesh and made his dwelling among us.” His divinity is once more established as he says “…we saw his glory, the glory as of the Father’s only Son”. This was the message St. John tells us he was sent to bring. He then reestablishes himself as messenger and servant of the one who sent him, Jesus. He says that while Moses brought the Law, Christ came and revealed God himself.

 In the final verses, he contrasts "The Law" given by Moses as instructions for the faithful with grace - the ability to know the mind of God put forward in the words of "The Law". This distinction, provided for the benefit of Jewish converts, distinguishes salvation history (the people's experience with God) with the revelation of God in Christ Jesus. In Christ - God reveals himself ("The only-begotten Son, God, who is at the Father's Side,has revealed him.")

CCC: Jn 1:1-3 291; Jn 1:1 241, 454, 2780; Jn 1:3 268; Jn 1:4 612; Jn 1:9 1216; Jn 1:11 530; Jn 1:12-18 1996; Jn 1:12-13 706; Jn 1:12 526, 1692; Jn 1:13 496, 505, 526; Jn 1:14 423, 445, 454, 461, 594, 705, 2466;  Jn 1:16 423, 504; Jn 1:17 2787; Jn 1:18 151, 454, 473
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John 1:6-8, 19-28

#8B Solemnities B Context (3rd Sunday of Advent B)

A man named John was sent from God.
He came for testimony, to testify to the light,
so that all might believe through him.
He was not the light,
but came to testify to the light.

And this is the testimony of John.
When the Jews from Jerusalem sent priests
and Levites to him
to ask him, “Who are you?”
He admitted and did not deny it,
but admitted, “I am not the Christ.”
So they asked him,
“What are you then? Are you Elijah?”
And he said, “I am not.”
“Are you the Prophet?”
He answered, “No.”
So they said to him,
“Who are you, so we can give an answer to those who sent us?
What do you have to say for yourself?”
He said:
“I am the voice of one crying out in the desert,
‘make straight the way of the Lord,’”
as Isaiah the prophet said.”
Some Pharisees were also sent.
They asked him,
“Why then do you baptize
if you are not the Christ or Elijah or the Prophet?”
John answered them,
“I baptize with water;
but there is one among you whom you do not recognize,
the one who is coming after me,
whose sandal strap I am not worthy to untie.”
This happened in Bethany across the Jordan,
where John was baptizing.
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Commentary on Jn 1:6-8, 19-28

St. John, following the other Gospel authors, introduces St. John the Baptist as a critical figure in the fulfillment of God’s plan. St. John the Evangelist goes to great pains to distinguish the Baptist from Jesus saying St. John the Baptist “…was not the light, but came to testify to the light”.

The Evangelist uses the Pharisees interaction with St. John the Baptist to clarify both his prophetic role and to provide a vehicle for his own witness to Christ’s identity as the Son of God. Consistent with the synoptic Gospels, The Baptist is portrayed as eccentric and humble in his mission. Although the Baptist denies the claim that he is Elijah returned as his appearance and behavior (Matthew 3:4 ff.) suggest (saying “I am not”). Jesus makes it clear in St. Matthew’s Gospel (Matthew 11: 14) that he fulfils the prophecy that Elijah would come again as a sign the Messiah had arrived.(cf Malachi 3:23-24)

The Gospel passage makes it clear that Jesus will come unrecognized by the very community he comes to save. Jesus had not yet been publically revealed and would not be revealed until he came to the Baptist for his own baptism.

CCC: Jn 1:6 717; Jn 1:7 719; Jn 1:9 1216; Jn 1:11 530; Jn 1:12-18 1996; Jn 1:12-13 706; Jn 1:12 526, 1692; Jn 1:13 496, 505, 526; Jn 1:14 423, 445, 454, 461, 594, 705, 2466;  Jn 1:16 423, 504; Jn 1:17 2787; Jn 1:18 151, 454, 473; Jn 1:19 575, 613; Jn 1:23 719
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John 1:19-28

#205 Weekday Years I & II Context (January 2nd)

And this is the testimony of John.
When the Jews from Jerusalem sent priests and Levites to him
to ask him, “Who are you?”
He admitted and did not deny it, but admitted,
“I am not the Christ.”
So they asked him,
“What are you then? Are you Elijah?”
And he said, “I am not.”
“Are you the Prophet?”
He answered, “No.”
So they said to him,
“Who are you, so we can give an answer to those who sent us?
What do you have to say for yourself?”
He said:
“I am the voice of one crying out in the desert,
‘Make straight the way of the Lord,’
as Isaiah the prophet said.”
Some Pharisees were also sent.
They asked him,
“Why then do you baptize
if you are not the Christ or Elijah or the Prophet?”
John answered them,
“I baptize with water;
but there is one among you whom you do not recognize,
the one who is coming after me,
whose sandal strap I am not worthy to untie.”
This happened in Bethany across the Jordan,
where John was baptizing.
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Commentary on Jn 1:19-28

This is the formal introduction to St. John’s Gospel. In it the author addresses the question of St. John the Baptist’s role in God’s plan. The Jews from Jerusalem (Priests and Levites from the Temple) ask the Baptist who he is. It is John’s humility, or perhaps his own lack of understanding, that he does not even admit to being a prophet (although the language did say “The Prophet, most likely Moses). In one breath he denies the title, and in the very next he quotes the Prophet Isaiah as being one sent to herald the coming of the Messiah. (It is almost certain that, given the Baptist’s appearance and demeanor, some of the Jews from Jerusalem were convinced he was Elijah, whose coming was thought to be the sign that the Messiah was at hand. Malachi 3:23)

In union with the synoptic Gospels of Matthew, Mark, and Luke, John’s Gospel now relates how the Baptist informed those who question him that there was one coming after him who was greater than he. The one who follows, the Messiah, comes with a better baptism. He does not say, as the synoptic Gospels do, that the Christ will baptize with the Holy Spirit.

CCC: Jn 1:19 575, 613; Jn 1:23 719
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John 1:29-34

#64A Solemnities A Context (2nd Sunday in Ordinary Time A)

#206 Weekday Year I & II Context (January 3rd Christmas Weekday)

#755 Ritual Mass Context (I. For the Conferral of Christian Initiation, 1. Catechuminate and Christian Initiation for Adults, [Christian Initiation Appart from Easter Vigil], 8.)

John the Baptist saw Jesus coming toward him and said,
“Behold, the Lamb of God, who takes away the sin of the world.
He is the one of whom I said,
‘A man is coming after me who ranks ahead of me
because he existed before me.’
I did not know him,
but the reason why I came baptizing with water
was that he might be made known to Israel.”
John testified further, saying,
“I saw the Spirit come down like a dove from heaven
and remain upon him.
I did not know him,
but the one who sent me to baptize with water told me,
‘On whomever you see the Spirit come down and remain,
he is the one who will baptize with the Holy Spirit.’
Now I have seen and testified that he is the Son of God.”
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Commentary on Jn 1:29-34

St. John the Baptist professes the identity of Jesus as the Messiah, “the Lamb of God, who takes away the sin of the world.” The author’s theological understanding of the eternal nature of Christ is expressed in the Baptist’s words: “A man is coming after me who ranks ahead of me because he existed before me."

After stating the connection between Jesus Christ and the Baptist’s mission, the author follows the tradition of the synoptic Gospels as he describes Jesus emerging from his baptism in the Jordan and the descent of the Holy Spirit. St. John concludes this testimony by St. John the Baptist with a solid affirmation that Jesus is the Son of God.

John’s great epiphany guides the Church's Christology: Jesus followed John the Baptist, being born after he was but ranking high above him.  John the Baptist came baptizing with water; Jesus baptizes in the Holy Spirit. St. John recounts how, when Jesus came to the repentant bath in the Jordan, the dove descended and God the Father claimed him.

CCC: Jn 1:29 408, 523, 536, 608, 1137, 1505; Jn 1:31-34 486; Jn 1:31 438; Jn 1:32-34 713; Jn 1:32-33 536; Jn 1:33-36 719; Jn 1:33-34 1286
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John 1:35-51*

#861 Mass for Various Needs Context (I. For the Holy Church, 8. For Vocations to Holy Orders or Religious Life, 7.)

John was standing with two of his disciples,
and as he watched Jesus walk by, he said,
Behold, the Lamb of God
The two disciples heard what he said and followed Jesus.
Jesus turned and saw them following him and said to them,
“What are you looking for?”
They said to him, “Rabbi” (which translated means Teacher),
“where are you staying?”
He said to them, “Come, and you will see.”
So they went and saw where he was staying,
and they stayed with him that day.
It was about four in the afternoon.
Andrew, the brother of Simon Peter,
was one of the two who heard John and followed Jesus.
He first found his own brother Simon and told him,
“We have found the Messiah,” which is translated Christ.
Then he brought him to Jesus.
Jesus looked at him and said,
“You are Simon the son of John;
you will be called Cephas,” which is translated Peter.

The next day he decided to go to Galilee, and he found Philip.
And Jesus said to him, "Follow me."
Now Philip was from Bethsaida, the town of Andrew and Peter.
Philip found Nathanael and told him,
"We have found the one about whom Moses wrote in the law,
and also the prophets, Jesus, son of Joseph, from Nazareth."
But Nathanael said to him, "Can anything good come from Nazareth?"
Philip said to him, "Come and see."
Jesus saw Nathanael coming toward him and said of him,
"Here is a true child of Israel. There is no duplicity in him."
Nathanael said to him, "How do you know me?"
Jesus answered and said to him,
"Before Philip called you, I saw you under the fig tree."
Nathanael answered him, "Rabbi, you are the Son of God;
you are the King of Israel."
Jesus answered and said to hiin,
"Do you believe because I told you that
I saw you under the fig tree?
You will see greater things than this."
And he said to him, "Amen, amen, I say to you,
you will see the sky opened
and the angels of God ascending and descending on the Son of Man."

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Commentary on Jn 1:35-51

John the Baptist recognizes Jesus as the Messiah, once again pronouncing the words he spoke when the Lord presented himself for baptism; “Behold, the Lamb of God.” (John 1:29-34) It also shows the humility of the “Voice” always deferring to the “Word”. St. John’s disciples hear him identify Jesus as “the lamb of God” and follow Jesus. St. John, who must “decrease” (John 3:30) encourages his own disciples to follow Jesus. In this passage, a shortened version of the call of the first disciples, we see the impact of the prophet’s pronouncement on two of his own disciples, one of whom we will come to revere as one of the Twelve, Andrew. He is the brother of Peter, and, once he has become aware of the identity of Jesus invites his brother to join him in faith. It is Simon Peter who receives his new name; “Rock” in this story. (see also commentary on Matthew 16:13-19)

Word of mouth now attracts Philip and he in turn invites Nathanael. The symbolism in this passage is noteworthy. First when Jesus describes Nathanael as “A true Israelite. There is no duplicity in him” Jacob was the first to bear the name "Israel" (Genesis 32:29), but Jacob was a man of duplicity (Genesis 27:35-36).”

Jesus tells Nathanael “Before Philip called you, I saw you under the fig tree." “Under the fig tree: a symbol of messianic peace (cf Micah 4:4; Zechariah 3:10).”[8] So in essence, Jesus is saying that Nathanael was resting in Messianic Peace inferring from that that he had faithfully followed the Law and had a genuine love of God.

Jesus goes further than Nathanael’s faith in the final verse telling him that he, Jesus is the Anointed One. “…you will see the sky opened and the angels of God ascending and descending on the Son of Man."

We note in the next entry, Nathanael is called Bartholomew.

CCC: Jn 1:36 608; Jn 1:43 878
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Or Shorter Form - John 1:35-42 - See next entry

John 1:35-42

#65B Solemnities B Context (2nd Sunday in Ordinary Time B)

#207 Weekday Years I & II Context (January 4, Christmas Weekday)

#743 Ritual Mass Context (I. For the Conferral of Christian Initiation, 1. Catechumenate and Christian Initiation of Adults, Entrance into the Order of Catechumens)

#779 Ritual Mass Context (III. For Admission to Candidacy for the Diaconate and the Priesthood, 4.)

John was standing with two of his disciples,
and as he watched Jesus walk by, he said,
Behold, the Lamb of God
The two disciples heard what he said and followed Jesus.
Jesus turned and saw them following him and said to them,
“What are you looking for?”
They said to him, “Rabbi” (which translated means Teacher),
“where are you staying?”
He said to them, “Come, and you will see.”
So they went and saw where he was staying,
and they stayed with him that day.
It was about four in the afternoon.
Andrew, the brother of Simon Peter,
was one of the two who heard John and followed Jesus.
He first found his own brother Simon and told him,
“We have found the Messiah,” which is translated Christ.
Then he brought him to Jesus.
Jesus looked at him and said,
“You are Simon the son of John;
you will be called Cephas,” which is translated Peter.
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Commentary on Jn 1:35-42

John the Baptist recognizes Jesus as the Messiah, once again pronouncing the words he spoke when the Lord presented himself for baptism: “Behold, the Lamb of God” (John 1:29-34). It also shows the humility of the “Voice,” always deferring to the “Word.” St. John’s disciples hear him identify Jesus as “the Lamb of God” and follow Jesus. St. John, who must “decrease” (John 3:30), encourages his own disciples to follow Jesus. In this passage, a shortened version of the call of the first disciples, we see the impact of the prophet’s pronouncement on two of his own disciples, one of whom, St. Andrew, we will come to revere as one of the Twelve. He is the brother of Peter. Once he has become aware of the identity of Jesus, he invites his brother to join him in faith. It is Simon Peter who receives his new name, “Rock,” in this story. (See also the commentary on Matthew 16:13-19.)

It is interesting to note the evolution of the name given to St. Andrew's brother through the multi-linguistic nature of the translation.  “…you will be called Cephas,” which is translated Peter.” Cephas is from the Aramaic which means rock, however the original translation was from Aramaic to Greek.  Rock in Greek is rendered as Petros. Our name Peter derives from that form.

CCC: Jn 1:36 608
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John 1:43-51

#208 Weekday Years I & II Context (January 5, Christmas Weekday)

Jesus decided to go to Galilee, and he found Philip.
And Jesus said to him, “Follow me.”
Now Philip was from Bethsaida, the town of Andrew and Peter.
Philip found Nathanael and told him,
“We have found the one about whom Moses wrote in the law,
and also the prophets, Jesus, son of Joseph, from Nazareth.”
But Nathanael said to him,
“Can anything good come from Nazareth?”
Philip said to him, “Come and see.”
Jesus saw Nathanael coming toward him and said of him,
“Here is a true child of Israel.
There is no duplicity in him.”
Nathanael said to him, “How do you know me?”
Jesus answered and said to him,
“Before Philip called you, I saw you under the fig tree.”
Nathanael answered him,
“Rabbi, you are the Son of God; you are the King of Israel.”
Jesus answered and said to him,
“Do you believe
because I told you that I saw you under the fig tree?
You will see greater things than this.”
And he said to him, “Amen, amen, I say to you,
you will see the sky opened and the angels of God
ascending and descending on the Son of Man.”
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Commentary on Jn 1:43-51

This selection from the Gospel of St. John continues the call of the disciples. Word of mouth now attracts Philip and he in turn invites Nathanael. The symbolism in this passage is noteworthy. First when Jesus describes Nathanael as: “A true Israelite. There is no duplicity in him,” Jacob was the first to bear the name "Israel" (Genesis 32:29), but Jacob was a man of duplicity (Genesis 27:35-36).”

Jesus tells Nathanael: “Before Philip called you, I saw you under the fig tree." “Under the fig tree: a symbol of messianic peace (cf Micah 4:4; Zechariah 3:10).”[8] So in essence, Jesus is saying that Nathanael was resting in Messianic Peace, inferring from that Nathanael had faithfully followed the Law, and had a genuine love of God.

Jesus goes further than Nathanael’s faith in the final verse, telling Nathanael that he is the Anointed One (the Christ): “…you will see the sky opened and the angels of God ascending and descending on the Son of Man." We note in the next entry, Nathanael is called Bartholomew.

CCC: Jn 1:43 878
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John 1:45-51

#629 Proper of Saints Context (St. Bartholomew, Aug 24)

#779 Ritual Mass Context (III. For the Admission to Candidacy for the Diaconate or Priesthood, 5.)

Philip found Nathanael and told him,
“We have found the one about whom Moses wrote in the law,
and also the prophets, Jesus son of Joseph, from Nazareth.”
But Nathanael said to him,
“Can anything good come from Nazareth?”
Philip said to him, “Come and see.”
Jesus saw Nathanael coming toward him and said of him,
“Here is a true child of Israel.
There is no duplicity in him.”
Nathanael said to him, “How do you know me?”
Jesus answered and said to him,
“Before Philip called you, I saw you under the fig tree.”
Nathanael answered him,
“Rabbi, you are the Son of God; you are the King of Israel.”
Jesus answered and said to him,
“Do you believe
because I told you that I saw you under the fig tree?
You will see greater things than this.”
And he said to him, “Amen, amen, I say to you,
you will see heaven opened and the angels of God
ascending and descending on the Son of Man.”
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Commentary on Jn 1:45-51

St. John’s Gospel gives us the story of the call of Bartholomew (Nathaniel). The symbolism used in the story is rich in the Hebrew tradition. When Jesus comments: “Here is a true child of Israel. There is no duplicity in him,” he is referring to Jacob, who first was called Israel but tricked his father Isaac, receiving his blessing above Esau and therefore was considered duplicitous. “True son” would relate him to Abraham.

Next, we hear the Lord respond to Bartholomew when he asks: “How do you know me?” Jesus says,  “Before Philip called you, I saw you under the fig tree.” The fig tree is a symbol of Messianic Peace. In this statement Jesus identifies himself as the Messiah. Bartholomew understands and immediately responds in faith: “Rabbi, you are the Son of God…

There is a possible reference Genesis 28:11-17 in the final verse of St. John’s account. The dream of Jacob sees the same “angels of God ascending and descending.” Awakening from his dream, Jacob exclaims: “This is nothing else but an abode of God, and that is the gateway to heaven!"

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John 1:47-51

#647 Proper of Saints Context (Feast of Sts. Michael, Gabriel, and Raphael, Archangels, Sep 29)

Jesus saw Nathanael coming toward him and said of him,
“Here is a true child of Israel.
There is no duplicity in him.”
Nathanael said to him, “How do you know me?”
Jesus answered and said to him,
“Before Philip called you, I saw you under the fig tree.”
Nathanael answered him,
“Rabbi, you are the Son of God; you are the King of Israel.”
Jesus answered and said to him,
“Do you believe
because I told you that I saw you under the fig tree?
You will see greater things than this.”
And he said to him, “Amen, amen, I say to you,
you will see heaven opened
and the angels of God ascending and descending on the Son of Man.”
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Jn 1:47-51

Word of mouth attracts Philip to discipleship, and he in turn invites Nathanael. The symbolism in this passage is noteworthy, especially when Jesus describes Nathanael as “a true Israelite.

There is no duplicity in him: "Jacob was the first to bear the name "Israel" (Genesis 32:29), but Jacob was a man of duplicity (Genesis 27:35-36). Jesus tells Nathanael “"Before Philip called you, I saw you under the fig tree." The fig tree is a symbol of messianic peace (cf Micah 4:4; Zechariah 3:10) [8].

So in essence, Jesus is saying that Nathanael was resting in Messianic Peace, inferring from that state that he had faithfully followed Mosaic Law, and had a genuine love of God. Jesus goes further than Nathanael’s faith in the final verse, telling him that he, Jesus, is the Anointed One: “…you will see the sky opened and the angels of God ascending and descending on the Son of Man."

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John 2:1-11

#66C Solemnities C Context (2nd Sunday in Ordinary Time C)

#210 Weekday Year I & II Context (January 7 before Epiphany)

#531 Proper of Saints Context (Our Lady of Lourdes, Feb 11)

#712 Commons Context (Common of The Blessed Virgin Mary)

#805 Ritual Mass Context (VI. For the Conferral of the Sacrament of Marriage, 7.)

#9C BVM Context (Our Lady of Cana, Christmas 9)

#20O-I BVM Context (Holy Mary, the New Eve, Ordinary Time, 20)

#26O-1 BVM Context (The Blessed Virgin Mary, Image and Mother of the Church, II)

#30O-2 BVM Context (The Blessed Virgin Mary, Mother and Mediatrix of Grace)

#33O-2 BVM Context (The Blessed Virgin Mary, Mother of Good Counsel)

#37O-2 BVM Context (The Blessed Virgin Mary, Mother of Divine Hope)

#39O-3 BVM Context (Holy Mary, Queen and Mother of Mercy, I)

#40O-3 BVM Context (The Blessed Virgin Mary, Mother of Divine Providence)

#42O-3 BVM Context (The Blessed Virgin Mary, Help of Christians)

There was a wedding at Cana in Galilee,
and the mother of Jesus was there. ,
Jesus and his disciples were also invited to the wedding.
When the wine ran short,
the mother of Jesus said to him,
"They have no wine."
And Jesus said to her,
"Woman, how does your concern affect me?
My hour has not yet come."
His mother said to the servers,
"Do whatever he tells you."
Now there were six stone water jars there for Jewish ceremonial washings,
each holding twenty to thirty gallons.
Jesus told them,
"Fill the jars with water."
So they filled them to the brim.
Then he told them,
"Draw some out now and take it to the headwaiter."
So they took it.
And when the headwaiter tasted the water that had become wine,
without knowing where it came from
(although the servers who had drawn the water knew),
the headwaiter called the bridegroom and said to him,
"Everyone serves good wine first,
and then when people have drunk freely, an inferior one;
but you have kept the good wine until now."
Jesus did this as the beginning of his signs at Cana in Galilee
and so revealed his glory,
and his disciples began to believe in him.
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Commentary on Jn 2:1-11

St. John gives us the story of Jesus' first revelatory action following his Baptism by St. John the Baptist in the Jordan. He and his disciples are invited to a wedding and the wine runs out. Jesus’ mother lets her son know that the time has come for his revelation, even though Jesus does not think so.

Ironically the stone water jars were there for the ceremonial cleansing, the very Hebrew custom John the Baptist used in his call to repentance. The Hebrew custom was symbolic (as was St. John's invitation to be baptized in the Jordan); the Lord would later make Baptism efficacious as sins were forgiven. We also note the Hebrew Numerology applied to this scene. The number 6 represents one less than the perfect number 7. It was not yet Jesus’ time. The water became wine, not his blood which was yet to be poured out for the salvation of mankind.

The final statement in this story: “…his disciples began to believe in him,” is the only time in the Gospel of St. John where there was any doubt about the Lord’s true identity on their part.

CCC: Jn 2:1-12 2618; Jn 2:1-11 1613; Jn 2:1 495; Jn 2:11 486, 1335
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John 2:13-22

#671 Proper of Saints Context (Feast of the Dedication of the Lateran Basilica in Rome, Nov 9)

#706 Commons Context (The Common of the Anniversary of the Dedication of a Church)

Since the Passover of the Jews was near,
Jesus went up to Jerusalem.
He found in the temple area those who sold oxen, sheep, and doves,
as well as the money-changers seated there.
He made a whip out of cords
and drove them all out of the temple area, with the sheep and oxen,
and spilled the coins of the money-changers
and overturned their tables,
and to those who sold doves he said,
“Take these out of here,
and stop making my Father’s house a marketplace.”
His disciples recalled the words of Scripture,
Zeal for your house will consume me.
At this the Jews answered and said to him,
“What sign can you show us for doing this?”
Jesus answered and said to them,
“Destroy this temple and in three days I will raise it up.”
The Jews said,
“This temple has been under construction for forty-six years,
and you will raise it up in three days?”
But he was speaking about the temple of his Body.
Therefore, when he was raised from the dead,
his disciples remembered that he had said this,
and they came to believe the Scripture
and the word Jesus had spoken.
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Commentary on Jn 2:13-22

The Gospel, John 2:13-22, adds a christological crown to this rich scriptural offering. In John’s account, Jesus’ ‘cleansing’ of the Temple in Jerusalem is very radical. By driving out the animals and money changers he is really overthrowing the whole system of Temple worship based upon animal sacrifices that had existed hitherto. ‘Zeal for (his) Father’s house consumes’ him in that his whole life and teaching is one great campaign to disclose and make effective the presence of God on a vastly wider scale than in the confines of the material Temple. His ‘zeal’ or passion for this mission will ‘consume’ him in the sense of bringing him to his death. However, as his disciples subsequently realize, his own body will become the new place of God’s presence, the ‘Temple’ which, through rising from the dead, he will build ‘in three days’. Believers need not mourn the loss of the Temple in Jerusalem (destroyed by the Romans in 70 CE). They live within the new ‘Temple’ constituted by the body of their risen Lord.[7]

CCC: Jn 2:13-14 583; Jn 2:16-17 584; Jn 2:18-22 586; Jn 2:18 575; Jn 2:19-22 994; Jn 2:21 586
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John 2:13-25

#29B Solemnities B Context (3rd Sunday of Lent B)

Since the Passover of the Jews was near,
Jesus went up to Jerusalem.
He found in the temple area those who sold oxen, sheep, and doves,
as well as the money changers seated there.
He made a whip out of cords
and drove them all out of the temple area, with the sheep and oxen,
and spilled the coins of the money changers
and overturned their tables,
and to those who sold doves he said,
"Take these out of here,
and stop making my Father's house a marketplace."
His disciples recalled the words of Scripture,
Zeal for your house will consume me.
At this the Jews answered and said to him,
"What sign can you show us for doing this?"
Jesus answered and said to them,
"Destroy this temple and in three days I will raise it up."
The Jews said,
"This temple has been under construction for forty-six years,
and you will raise it up in three days?"
But he was speaking about the temple of his body.
Therefore, when he was raised from the dead,
his disciples remembered that he had said this,
and they came to believe the Scripture
and the word Jesus had spoken.

While he was in Jerusalem for the feast of Passover,
many began to believe in his name
when they saw the signs he was doing.
But Jesus would not trust himself to them because he knew them all,
and did not need anyone to testify about human nature.
He himself understood it well.
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Commentary on Jn 2:13-25

Jesus' actions there are acted-out prophecy and his play on words constitutes prophetic fore-telling. The temple transactions were legitimate; they were conducted in the appropriate temple area; and they were essential supports of the temple service.

The explanation of Jesus’ behavior is found in an allusion from Zechariah 14:21, who said that at the end-time there would be no need for merchants in the house of the Lord. The psalm text says that zeal for the house of God makes the psalmist vulnerable to the scorn and abuse of others (cf. Psalm 69:9). By driving the merchants out of the temple precincts, Jesus announces that the time of fulfillment has come. Identifying God as his Father affirms his right to make such a claim and to act in accord with it.

In the final verses of this passage Jesus sees that many of those who follow him do so only because of the miraculous signs he has performed (see also John 6:2). He recognizes that faith based upon the superficial signs is unstable and confused.

CCC: Jn 2:13-14 583; Jn 2:16-17 584; Jn 2:18-22 586; Jn 2:18 575; Jn 2:19-22 994; Jn 2:21 586; Jn 2:25 473
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John 3:1-8

#267 Weekday Years I & II Context (Monday of the 2nd Week of Easter)

There was a Pharisee named Nicodemus, a ruler of the Jews.
He came to Jesus at night and said to him,
"Rabbi, we know that you are a teacher who has come from God,
for no one can do these signs that you are doing
unless God is with him."
Jesus answered and said to him,
"Amen, amen, I say to you,
unless one is born from above, he cannot see the Kingdom of God."
Nicodemus said to him,
"How can a man once grown old be born again?
Surely he cannot reenter his mother's womb and be born again, can he?"
Jesus answered,
"Amen, amen, I say to you,
unless one is born of water and Spirit
he cannot enter the Kingdom of God.
What is born of flesh is flesh
and what is born of spirit is spirit.
Do not be amazed that I told you,
'You must be born from above.'
The wind blows where it wills,
and you can hear the sound it makes,
but you do not know where it comes from or where it goes;
so it is with everyone who is born of the Spirit."
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Commentary on Jn 3:1-8

During the Passover Feast, Jesus instructs Nicodemus on the need to turn away from the world of the flesh and focus instead on life in the Spirit of God. This passage is filled with the images of the Christian baptismal calling “Amen, amen, I say to you, no one can enter the kingdom of God without being born of water and Spirit.” Placed in the Easter season, this can be seen as a reference to the Lord’s resurrection in the spirit. It further points out that the Holy Spirit is himself a mystery that cannot be fully fathomed by human understanding but whose affects are quite apparent.

CCC: Jn 3:2 581; Jn 3:3-5 782; Jn 3:5-8 691, 728, 1287; Jn 3:5 432, 720, 1215, 1225, 1238, 1257, 1262, 2790; Jn 3:7 526, 591
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John 3:1-6

#755 Ritual Mass Context (I. For the Conferral of Christian Initiation,  1. Catechumenate and Christian Initiation of Adults, [Apart from the Easter Vigil], 9.)

#760 Ritual Mass Context (I. For the Conferral of Christian Initiation, 2. Conferral of Infant Baptism, 6.)

#16E BVM Context (Holy Mary/ Fountain of Light and Life, Easter 16)

There was a Pharisee named Nicodemus, a ruler of the Jews.
He came to Jesus at night and said to him,
"Rabbi, we know that you are a teacher who has come from God,
for no one can do these signs that you are doing
unless God is with him."
Jesus answered and said to him,
"Amen, amen, I say to you,
unless one is born from above, he cannot see the Kingdom of God."
Nicodemus said to him,
"How can a man once grown old be born again?
Surely he cannot reenter his mother's womb and be born again, can he?"
Jesus answered,
"Amen, amen, I say to you,
unless one is born of water and Spirit
he cannot enter the Kingdom of God.
What is born of flesh is flesh
and what is born of spirit is spirit.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Jn 3:1-6

During the Passover Feast, Jesus instructs Nicodemus on the need to turn away from the world of the flesh and focus instead on life in the Spirit of God. This passage is filled with the images of the Christian baptismal calling “Amen, amen, I say to you, no one can enter the kingdom of God without being born of water and Spirit.” Placed in the Easter season, this can be seen as a reference to the Lord’s resurrection in the spirit.

CCC: Jn 3:2 581; Jn 3:3-5 782; Jn 3:5-8 691, 728, 1287; Jn 3:5 432, 720, 1215, 1225, 1238, 1257, 1262, 2790
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John 3:7b-15

#268 Weekday Years I & II Context (Tuesday of the 2nd Week of Easter)

Jesus said to Nicodemus:
"'You must be born from above.'
The wind blows where it wills, and you can hear the sound it makes,
but you do not know where it comes from or where it goes;
so it is with everyone who is born of the Spirit."
Nicodemus answered and said to him,
'How can this happen?"
Jesus answered and said to him,
"You are the teacher of Israel and you do not understand this?
Amen, amen, I say to you,
we speak of what we know and we testify to what we have seen,
but you people do not accept our testimony.
If I tell you about earthly things and you do not believe,
how will you believe if I tell you about heavenly things?
No one has gone up to heaven
except the one who has come down from heaven, the Son of Man.
And just as Moses lifted up the serpent in the desert,
so must the Son of Man be lifted up,
so that everyone who believes in him may have eternal life."
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Commentary on Jn 3:7b-15

Jesus continues the discourse with Nicodemus started in John 3:1-8.  When Nicodemus still does not understand the resurrection to which Jesus points when the Lord says “You must be born from above,” he becomes more explicit, reminding Nicodemus of the remedy of the saraph serpents employed by Moses (Numbers 21:9).  He uses this as an analog to his own crucifixion, the salvation for all who are poisoned by sin.

CCC: Jn 3:7 526, 591; Jn 3:9 505; Jn 3:13 423, 440, 661; Jn 3:15 1033
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John 3:13-17

#638 Proper of Saints Context (Feast of the Exaltation of the Holy Cross, Sep 14)

Jesus said to Nicodemus:
“No one has gone up to heaven
except the one who has come down from heaven, the Son of Man.
And just as Moses lifted up the serpent in the desert,
so must the Son of Man be lifted up,
so that everyone who believes in him may have eternal life.”

For God so loved the world that he gave his only Son,
so that everyone who believes in him might not perish
but might have eternal life.
For God did not send his Son into the world to condemn the world,
but that the world might be saved through him.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Jn 3:13-17

In this passage from the Gospel of St. John, Jesus is in dialogue with Nicodemus. Jesus makes his formal declaration of his own divinity, as he describes the relationship between the Father and the Son of Man, and their authority over the gates of heaven. He uses the image of Moses lifting up the bronze serpent in Numbers 21:8, also captured in Wisdom 16:5-6ff, to provide a graphic image of the salvation to be brought about by his own ascent to the cross. The language used “…lifted up,” has a double emphasis, as both the image of Jesus being lifted up in crucifixion, and being raised up by the Father in the glory of the resurrection.

It is clear that St. John, the author, then speaks in the profession of faith. We are told the only reason we will ever be given for our redemption is that “God so loved the world.” Even though sin has come into the world, God did not send his Son to condemn the world, but to save it.

CCC: Jn 3:13 423, 440, 661; Jn 3:15 1033; Jn 3:16 219, 444, 454, 458, 706; Jn 3:17 2447
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John 3:14-21

#32B Solemnities B Context (4th Sunday of Lent B)

"And just as Moses lifted up the serpent in the desert,
so must the Son of Man be lifted up,
so that everyone who believes in him may have eternal life."

For God so loved the world that he gave his only Son,
so that everyone who believes in him might not perish
but might have eternal life.
For God did not send his Son into the world to condemn the world,
but that the world might be saved through him.
Whoever believes in him will not be condemned,
but whoever does not believe has already been condemned,
because he has not believed in the name of the only Son of God.
And this is the verdict,
that the light came into the world,
but people preferred darkness to light,
because their works were evil.
For everyone who does wicked things hates the light
and does not come toward the light,
so that his works might not be exposed.
But whoever lives the truth comes to the light,
so that his works may be clearly seen as done in God.
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Commentary on Jn 3:14-21

Jesus tells Nicodemus that humanity will be saved when the Son of Man is lifted up on the Cross. The passage continues as a monologue of the great profession of Jesus’ relation as only Son of God the Father and the redemptive mission upon which he was sent. The reference at the beginning to Moses and how he “…lifted up the serpent in the desert” is referring to Numbers 21:4-9. The incident in the desert is a corollary to God’s saving power and St. John links this to Christ’s crucifixion (“…so must the Son of Man be lifted up”) which has a double significance of both his death and being raised to glory in the resurrection. Both these words appear in Isaiah 52:13 to describe the Servant of the Lord.

The passage continues, clearly in the Evangelist’s voice “For God so loved the world that he gave his only Son, so that everyone who believes in him might not perish but might have eternal life.” In doing so he provides “the only explanation that we shall ever have of the gift of eternal life made possible for us in the redemption achieved in Christ is the incredible love of God for the world.” In as much as Christ has been set to the world for its salvation, failure to believe in that saving event is its own condemnation.

The Evangelist concludes this selection describing evil-doers as children of darkness who will not approach the light which is Christ. On the other hand, the one who "lives the truth"; this is an Old Testament expression (see Genesis 24:49 and Ezekiel 18:9f).

CCC: Jn 3:15 1033; Jn 3:16 219, 444, 454, 458, 706; Jn 3:17 2447; Jn 3:19-24 2845; Jn 3:19-20 208, 1781; Jn 3:21 2778
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John 3:16-21

#269 Weekday Years I & II Context (Wednesday of the 2nd Week of Easter)

#755 Ritual Mass Context (I For the Conferral of Christian Initiation, 1. Catechumenate and Christian Initiation of Adults, [Apart from the Easter Vigil], 10.)

#763 Ritual Mass Context (I. For the Conferral of Christian Initiation, 3. Reception of Baptized Christians into the Full Communion of the Catholic Church, 4.)

God so loved the world that he gave his only-begotten Son,
so that everyone who believes in him might not perish
but might have eternal life.
For God did not send his Son into the world to condemn the world,
but that the world might be saved through him.
Whoever believes in him will not be condemned,
but whoever does not believe has already been condemned,
because he has not believed in the name of the only-begotten Son of God.
And this is the verdict,
that the light came into the world,
but people preferred darkness to light,
because their works were evil.
For everyone who does wicked things hates the light
and does not come toward the light,
so that his works might not be exposed.
But whoever lives the truth comes to the light,
so that his works may be clearly seen as done in God.
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Commentary on Jn 3:16-21

The dialogue Jesus was having with Nicodemus has now turned into a famous monologue in this passage from the Gospel of St. John. Here, Jesus is clear about his own identity as God’s “only-begotten Son,” and his mission: “…that the world might be saved through him.

The Lord continues by explaining that the salvific event is dependent upon faith and acceptance by those to be saved (“…whoever believes in him will not be condemned”) and those who reject this belief are already condemned. The passage is concluded with the analogy of light and darkness where the Lord, who is light, comes to save the people but will be rejected by many (“…but people preferred darkness to light”). Those who believe in the Lord will be identified by their good works, and the glory that those works bring to God the Father.

CCC: Jn 3:16 219, 444, 454, 458, 706; Jn 3:17 2447; Jn 3:19-24 2845; Jn 3:19-20 208, 1781; Jn 3:21 2778
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John 3:16-18

#164A Solemnities A Context (The Solemnity of the Most Holy Trinity A)

God so loved the world that he gave his only Son,
so that everyone who believes in him might not perish
but might have eternal life.
For God did not send his Son into the world to condemn the world,
but that the world might be saved through him.
Whoever believes in him will not be condemned,
but whoever does not believe has already been condemned,
because he has not believed in the name of the only Son of God.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Jn 3:16-18

This passage is part of the section of St. John’s Gospel that describes Jesus’ dialogue with Nicodemus. At this point it has turned into a monologue and in these verses it is clear that the Evangelist is speaking as the promise of Eternal Life is made to those who believe in Jesus as the Only Son of God.

'Increasingly contemplating the whole of Christ's mystery, the Church knows with all the certainty of faith that the Redemption that took place through the Cross has definitively restored his dignity to man and given back meaning to his life in the world, a meaning that was lost to a considerable extent because of sin. And for that reason, the Redemption was accomplished in the paschal mystery, leading through the Cross and death to Resurrection" (St. John Paul II, "Redemptor Hominis", 10)." [20]

CCC: Jn 3:16 219, 444, 454, 458, 706; Jn 3:17 2447
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John 3:22-30

#217 Weekday Year I & II Context (Saturday following Epiphany)

Jesus and his disciples went into the region of Judea,
where he spent some time with them baptizing.
John was also baptizing in Aenon near Salim,
because there was an abundance of water there,
and people came to be baptized,
for John had not yet been imprisoned.
Now a dispute arose between the disciples of John and a Jew
about ceremonial washings.
So they came to John and said to him,
“Rabbi, the one who was with you across the Jordan,
to whom you testified,
here he is baptizing and everyone is coming to him.”
John answered and said,
“No one can receive anything except what has been given from heaven.
You yourselves can testify that I said that I am not the Christ,
but that I was sent before him.
The one who has the bride is the bridegroom;
the best man, who stands and listens for him,
rejoices greatly at the bridegroom’s voice.
So this joy of mine has been made complete.
He must increase; I must decrease.”
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Commentary on Jn 3:22-30

In this passage from St. John’s Gospel, it appears that Jesus is personally baptizing those who are coming to him. We learn later, in John 4:2, that it is just his disciples who are doing this. This section has only one purpose in being placed here, and that is to mark the end of the mission of St. John the Baptist and the ascendancy of Christ (“He must increase; I must decrease”). This is the end of the beginning of St. John’s Gospel .

CCC: Jn 3:29 523, 796; Jn 3:30 524
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John 3:31-36

#270 Weekday Years I & II Context (Thursday of the 2nd Week of Easter)

The one who comes from above is above all.
The one who is of the earth is earthly and speaks of earthly things.
But the one who comes from heaven is above all.
He testifies to what he has seen and heard,
but no one accepts his testimony.
Whoever does accept his testimony certifies that God is trustworthy.
For the one whom God sent speaks the words of God.
He does not ration his gift of the Spirit.
The Father loves the Son and has given everything over to him.
Whoever believes in the Son has eternal life,
but whoever disobeys the Son will not see life,
but the wrath of God remains upon him.
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Commentary on Jn 3:31-36

This selection draws a parallel with vv. 16-21 of the discourse with Nicodemus. It is almost a reflection by the Gospel writer on the preceding dialogue and monologue. The Lord is, in no uncertain terms, telling the community that the Messiah, who comes from above, is of God and with God in his kingship over all creation. He goes on to explain that all he has said and taught, since it proceeds from God's authority given to him by the father, is true, and all who believe in this truth shall receive eternal life.

The passage concludes with a formula similar to the “blessings and curses” statements made in God’s covenants with Abraham and Moses. “Whoever believes in the Son has eternal life, but whoever disobeys the Son will not see life, but the wrath of God remains upon him.

CCC: Jn 3:34 504, 690, 1286; Jn 3:36 161
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John 4:5-42*

#28A Solemnities A Contest (3rd Sunday of Lent A)

#29B Solemnities B Context (3rd Sunday of Lent B)**

#30C Solemnities C Context (3rd Sunday of Lent C)**

#236 Weekday Years I & II Context (OPTIONAL Weekday 3rd Week of Lent)

Jesus came to a town of Samaria called Sychar,
near the plot of land that Jacob had given to his son Joseph.
Jacob’s well was there.
Jesus, tired from his journey, sat down there at the well.
It was about noon.

A woman of Samaria came to draw water.
Jesus said to her,
“Give me a drink.”
His disciples had gone into the town to buy food.
The Samaritan woman said to him,
“How can you, a Jew, ask me, a Samaritan woman, for a drink?”
—For Jews use nothing in common with Samaritans.—
Jesus answered and said to her,
“If you knew the gift of God
and who is saying to you, ‘Give me a drink,‘
you would have asked him
and he would have given you living water.”
The woman said to him,
“Sir, you do not even have a bucket and the cistern is deep;
where then can you get this living water?
Are you greater than our father Jacob,
who gave us this cistern and drank from it himself
with his children and his flocks?”
Jesus answered and said to her,
“Everyone who drinks this water will be thirsty again;
but whoever drinks the water I shall give will never thirst;
the water I shall give will become in him
a spring of water welling up to eternal life.”
The woman said to him,
“Sir, give me this water, so that I may not be thirsty
or have to keep coming here to draw water.”

Jesus said to her,
“Go call your husband and come back.”
The woman answered and said to him,
“I do not have a husband.”
Jesus answered her,
“You are right in saying, ‘I do not have a husband.’
For you have had five husbands,
and the one you have now is not your husband.
What you have said is true.”
The woman said to him,
“Sir, I can see that you are a prophet.
Our ancestors worshiped on this mountain;
but you people say that the place to worship is in Jerusalem.”

Jesus said to her,
“Believe me, woman, the hour is coming
when you will worship the Father
neither on this mountain nor in Jerusalem.
You people worship what you do not understand;
we worship what we understand,
because salvation is from the Jews.
But the hour is coming, and is now here,
when true worshipers will worship the Father in Spirit and truth;
and indeed the Father seeks such people to worship him.
God is Spirit, and those who worship him
must worship in Spirit and truth.”
The woman said to him,
“I know that the Messiah is coming, the one called the Christ;
when he comes, he will tell us everything.”
Jesus said to her,
“I am he, the one speaking with you.”

At that moment his disciples returned,
and were amazed that he was talking with a woman,
but still no one said, “What are you looking for?”
or “Why are you talking with her?”
The woman left her water jar
and went into the town and said to the people,
“Come see a man who told me everything I have done.
Could he possibly be the Christ?”
They went out of the town and came to him.
Meanwhile, the disciples urged him, “Rabbi, eat.”
But he said to them,
“I have food to eat of which you do not know.”
So the disciples said to one another,
“Could someone have brought him something to eat?”
Jesus said to them,
“My food is to do the will of the one who sent me
and to finish his work.
Do you not say, ‘In four months the harvest will be here’?
I tell you, look up and see the fields ripe for the harvest.
The reaper is already receiving payment
and gathering crops for eternal life,
so that the sower and reaper can rejoice together.
For here the saying is verified that ‘One sows and another reaps.’
I sent you to reap what you have not worked for;
others have done the work,
and you are sharing the fruits of their work.”

Many of the Samaritans of that town began to believe in him
because of the word of the woman who testified,
“He told me everything I have done.”
When the Samaritans came to him,
they invited him to stay with them;
and he stayed there two days.
Many more began to believe in him because of his word,
and they said to the woman,
“We no longer believe because of your word;
for we have heard for ourselves,
and we know that this is truly the savior of the world.”
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Commentary on Jn 4:5-42

The story of the Samaritan Woman, told in its entirety, provides several theological points. First, the fact that Jesus came this way implies his broader mission, not just to the Jews but to the whole world. The fact that upon meeting the Samaritan woman he asked for a drink is significant in that, Jews would have never have considered drinking from the same vessel as a Samaritan woman who would have been considered ritually unclean.

Often what we hear in Sacred Scripture seems to have only one purpose when in fact there is more. We note that the location of this event is set at “Jacob’s Well”. It is a clear reference to Genesis 33:19-20, a place where Jacob “… set up an altar there and invoked “El, the God of Israel.

The discourse with the woman is instructive, providing rich imagery of water and spirit recalling the gifts given in Baptism. At the same time we see the recognition that Jesus is the Messiah (although the Samaritans would have had a different expectation of the Messiah, thinking more in the lines of a prophet like Moses (Deuteronomy 18:15).

There is further symbolism, culturally focused, in Jesus revelation to the woman. When he tells here she has been married 5 times it is a likely reference to the 5 images of Baal worshiped by the Samaritans. Women who practiced that religion were ritually married to the 5 idols.

The conclusion of the story demonstrates the clear perception by those who encounter Christ that he is the Messiah. This revelatory presence is noted in the concluding verses of the story as the Samarians exclaim “We no longer believe because of your word; for we have heard for ourselves, and we know that this is truly the savior of the world."

CCC: Jn 4:6-7 544; Jn 4:10-14 694, 1137; Jn 4:10 728, 2560, 2561; Jn 4:14 728, 1999, 2557, 2652; Jn 4:21 586; Jn 4:22 528, 586; Jn 4:23-24 586, 728; Jn 4:24 1179; Jn 4:25-26 439; Jn 4:34 606, 2611, 2824
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Or
Shorter Form: John: 4:5-15, 19b-26, 39a, 40-42

Jesus came to a town of Samaria called Sychar,
near the plot of land that Jacob had given to his son Joseph.
Jacob’s well was there.
Jesus, tired from his journey, sat down there at the well.
It was about noon.

A woman of Samaria came to draw water.
Jesus said to her,
“Give me a drink.”
His disciples had gone into the town to buy food.
The Samaritan woman said to him,
“How can you, a Jew, ask me, a Samaritan woman, for a drink?”
—For Jews use nothing in common with Samaritans.—
Jesus answered and said to her,
“If you knew the gift of God
and who is saying to you, ‘Give me a drink,‘
you would have asked him
and he would have given you living water.”
The woman said to him,
“Sir, you do not even have a bucket and the cistern is deep;
where then can you get this living water?
Are you greater than our father Jacob,
who gave us this cistern and drank from it himself
with his children and his flocks?”
Jesus answered and said to her,
“Everyone who drinks this water will be thirsty again;
but whoever drinks the water I shall give will never thirst;
the water I shall give will become in him
a spring of water welling up to eternal life.”
The woman said to him,
“Sir, give me this water, so that I may not be thirsty
or have to keep coming here to draw water.

“I can see that you are a prophet.
Our ancestors worshiped on this mountain;
but you people say that the place to worship is in Jerusalem.”
Jesus said to her,
“Believe me, woman, the hour is coming
when you will worship the Father
neither on this mountain nor in Jerusalem.
You people worship what you do not understand;
we worship what we understand,
because salvation is from the Jews.
But the hour is coming, and is now here,
when true worshipers will worship the Father in Spirit and truth;
and indeed the Father seeks such people to worship him.
God is Spirit, and those who worship him
must worship in Spirit and truth.”
The woman said to him,
“I know that the Messiah is coming, the one called the Christ;
when he comes, he will tell us everything.”
Jesus said to her,
“I am he, the one who is speaking with you.”

Many of the Samaritans of that town began to believe in him.
When the Samaritans came to him,
they invited him to stay with them;
and he stayed there two days.
Many more began to believe in him because of his word,
and they said to the woman,
“We no longer believe because of your word;
for we have heard for ourselves,
and we know that this is truly the savior of the world.”
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Commentary on Jn: 4:5-15, 19b-26, 39a, 40-42

In this shorter version of the story of the Samaritan Woman part of the dialogue is omitted that revolves around the primacy of the Jews in receiving God’s word. Also omitted is the Lord’s description of the woman’s past life and the encounter with the Lord’s disciples and his decision to stay.

Presented in this form the story focuses more on the identity of Christ and less on his universal mission.

CCC: Jn 4:6-7 544; Jn 4:10-14 694, 1137; Jn 4:21 586; Jn 4:22 528, 586; Jn 4:23-24 586, 728; Jn 4:24 1179; Jn 4:25-26 439;
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John 4:5-14

#760 Ritual Mass Context (I. For the Conferral of Christian Initiation, 2. Conferral of Infant Baptism, 7)

Jesus came to a town of Samaria called Sychar,
near the plot of land that Jacob had given to his son Joseph.
Jacob’s well was there.
Jesus, tired from his journey, sat down there at the well.
It was about noon.

A woman of Samaria came to draw water.
Jesus said to her,
“Give me a drink.”
His disciples had gone into the town to buy food.
The Samaritan woman said to him,
“How can you, a Jew, ask me, a Samaritan woman, for a drink?”
—For Jews use nothing in common with Samaritans.—
Jesus answered and said to her,
“If you knew the gift of God
and who is saying to you, ‘Give me a drink,‘
you would have asked him
and he would have given you living water.”
The woman said to him,
“Sir, you do not even have a bucket and the cistern is deep;
where then can you get this living water?
Are you greater than our father Jacob,
who gave us this cistern and drank from it himself
with his children and his flocks?”
Jesus answered and said to her,
“Everyone who drinks this water will be thirsty again;
but whoever drinks the water I shall give will never thirst;
the water I shall give will become in him
a spring of water welling up to eternal life.”
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Commentary on Jn: 4:5-14

The story of the Samaritan Woman, told in its entirety provides several theological points. First, the fact that Jesus came this way implies his broader mission, not just to the Jews but to the whole world. The fact that, upon meeting the Samaritan woman he asked for a drink is significant in that Jews would have never have considered drinking from the same vessel as a Samaritan woman who would have been considered ritually unclean.

Often what we hear in Sacred Scripture seems to have only one purpose when in fact there is more. We note that the location of this event is set at “Jacob’s Well”. It is a clear reference to Genesis 33:19-20, a place where Jacob “… set up an altar there and invoked “El, the God of Israel.

The discourse with the woman is instructive, providing rich imagery of water and spirit recalling the gifts given in Baptism. At the same time we see the recognition that Jesus is the Messiah (although the Samaritans would have had a different expectation of the Messiah, thinking more in the lines of a prophet like Moses (Deuteronomy 18:15).

CCC: Jn 4:6-7 544; Jn 4:10-14 694, 1137;
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John 4:19-24

#706 Commons Context (The Common of the Anniversary of the Dedication of a Church)

#822 Ritual Mass Context (IX. For the Dedication or Blessing of a Church or an Altar, 2. For the Dedication of an Altar, Second Option)

The Samaritan woman said to Jesus,
"Sir, I can see that you are a prophet.
Our ancestors worshiped on this mountain;
but you people say that the place to worship is in Jerusalem."
Jesus said to her,
"Believe me, woman, the hour is coming
when you will worship the Father
neither on this mountain nor in Jerusalem.
You people worship what you do not understand;
we worship what we understand,
because salvation is from the Jews.
But the hour is coming, and is now here,
when true worshipers will worship the Father in Spirit and truth;
and indeed the Father seeks such people to worship him.
God is Spirit, and those who worship him
must worship in Spirit and truth."
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Jn 4:19-24

This short selection from the Lord’s discourse with the Samaritan Woman focuses on the Lord’s revelation that true worship of his Heavenly Father had not been genuine by either the pagans who worshiped Baal (such as the Samaritans) or by the Jews (although the Lord makes clear that God’s true revelation was to the Jewish people first “…salvation is from the Jews”.

Jesus makes it clear that the worship of God in “Spirit and truth” may take place in any location (not just Jerusalem and not on the mountain of the Samaritans). The Father, Jesus says, “…seeks such people to worship him.” It is an implicit invitation to all peoples to find the true God and his Only Begotten Son.

CCC: Jn 4:21 586; Jn 4:22 528, 586; Jn 4:23-24 586, 728; Jn 4:24 1179
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John 4:43-54

#244 Weekday Years I & II Context (Monday of the 4th Week of Lent)

At that time Jesus left [Samaria] for Galilee.
For Jesus himself testified
that a prophet has no honor in his native place.
When he came into Galilee, the Galileans welcomed him,
since they had seen all he had done in Jerusalem at the feast;
for they themselves had gone to the feast.

Then he returned to Cana in Galilee,
where he had made the water wine.
Now there was a royal official whose son was ill in Capernaum.
When he heard that Jesus had arrived in Galilee from Judea,
he went to him and asked him to come down
and heal his son, who was near death.
Jesus said to him,
“Unless you people see signs and wonders, you will not believe.”
The royal official said to him,
“Sir, come down before my child dies.”
Jesus said to him, “You may go; your son will live.”
The man believed what Jesus said to him and left.
While the man was on his way back,
his slaves met him and told him that his boy would live.
He asked them when he began to recover.
They told him,
“The fever left him yesterday, about one in the afternoon.”
The father realized that just at that time Jesus had said to him,
“Your son will live,”
and he and his whole household came to believe.
Now this was the second sign Jesus did
when he came to Galilee from Judea.
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Commentary on Jn 4:43-54

This selection from St. John’s Gospel is the story of Jesus’ arrival in Cana in Galilee and the second sign of his messianic identity. Here we find the life-giving word of Jesus being displayed. Jesus challenges the official asking for his aid: “Unless you people see signs and wonders, you will not believe.” The official's faithful response provides the setting.  Jesus tells him: “You may go; your son will live.” This statement coincides with the healing that occurred some distance away.

We note that of the 37 miracles documented in the Gospels (not including the conversion of St. Paul documented in the Acts of the Apostles), this occurrence and the healing of the daughter of the Syrophoenician Woman (Matthew 15:21-28 and Mark 7:24-30)  are the only healing miracles done at a distance.  This is important in that it shows that Christ’s will is omnipresent, that is, he can direct the love of God to any place he chooses.

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John 5:1-16

#245 Weekday Years I & II Context (Tuesday of the 4th Week of Lent)

There was a feast of the Jews, and Jesus went up to Jerusalem.
Now there is in Jerusalem at the Sheep Gate
a pool called in Hebrew Bethesda, with five porticoes.
In these lay a large number of ill, blind, lame, and crippled.
One man was there who had been ill for thirty-eight years.
When Jesus saw him lying there
and knew that he had been ill for a long time, he said to him,
“Do you want to be well?”
The sick man answered him,
“Sir, I have no one to put me into the pool
when the water is stirred up;
while I am on my way, someone else gets down there before me.”
Jesus said to him, “Rise, take up your mat, and walk.”
Immediately the man became well, took up his mat, and walked.
Now that day was a sabbath.
So the Jews said to the man who was cured,
“It is the sabbath, and it is not lawful for you to carry your mat.”
He answered them, “The man who made me well told me,
‘Take up your mat and walk.’“
They asked him,
“Who is the man who told you, ‘Take it up and walk’?”
The man who was healed did not know who it was,
for Jesus had slipped away, since there was a crowd there.
After this Jesus found him in the temple area and said to him,
“Look, you are well; do not sin any more,
so that nothing worse may happen to you.”
The man went and told the Jews
that Jesus was the one who had made him well.
Therefore, the Jews began to persecute Jesus
because he did this on a sabbath.
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Commentary on Jn 5:1-16

This passage from St. John is the third sign used in the Lord’s self-revelation. Jesus cures the paralytic by his word, something that could not be accomplished by the waters of faith in Judaism. When Jesus first approached the paralytic, he complained that he could not get to the waters at the pool called Bethesda “when they were stirred up.” This is taken from a belief at the time that periodically an angel of God would come down and stir up the waters of the pool, and the first person to touch them in that state was cured.

It is explicitly mentioned that Jesus does this on the Sabbath which precipitates the controversy with the Jewish leadership. It is also noteworthy that Jesus does not say to the paralytic that his sin has caused his condition, he tells him “Look, you are well; do not sin any more, so that nothing worse may happen to you." This last reference is probably to final judgment.

CCC: Jn 5:1 583; Jn 5:10 575; Jn 5:14 583; Jn 5:16-18 594
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John 5:17-30

#246 Weekday Years I & II Context (Wednesday of the 4th Week of Lent)

Jesus answered the Jews:
“My Father is at work until now, so I am at work.”
For this reason they tried all the more to kill him,
because he not only broke the sabbath
but he also called God his own father, making himself equal to God.
Jesus answered and said to them,
“Amen, amen, I say to you, the Son cannot do anything on his own,
but only what he sees the Father doing;
for what he does, the Son will do also.
For the Father loves the Son
and shows him everything that he himself does,
and he will show him greater works than these,
so that you may be amazed.
For just as the Father raises the dead and gives life,
so also does the Son give life to whomever he wishes.
Nor does the Father judge anyone,
but he has given all judgment to the Son,
so that all may honor the Son just as they honor the Father.
Whoever does not honor the Son
does not honor the Father who sent him.
Amen, amen, I say to you, whoever hears my word
and believes in the one who sent me
has eternal life and will not come to condemnation,
but has passed from death to life.
Amen, amen, I say to you, the hour is coming and is now here
when the dead will hear the voice of the Son of God,
and those who hear will live.
For just as the Father has life in himself,
so also he gave to the Son the possession of life in himself.
And he gave him power to exercise judgment,
because he is the Son of Man.
Do not be amazed at this,
because the hour is coming in which all who are in the tombs
will hear his voice and will come out,
those who have done good deeds
to the resurrection of life,
but those who have done wicked deeds
to the resurrection of condemnation.

“I cannot do anything on my own;
I judge as I hear, and my judgment is just,
because I do not seek my own will
but the will of the one who sent me.”
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Commentary on Jn 5:17-30

In the Gospel from John, Jesus has already angered the Jews by violating the Sabbath. (This passage immediately follows the story about the cure of the paralytic at the pool of Bethesda.) Now he really upsets them by apparently blaspheming, saying God is his own Father. Almost as if to cement his fate, he makes sure we understand that he did not make that statement casually. Rather he paints a complete analogy of biological father and son. Jesus goes on to state that the authority to judge the actions and lives of others has also been given to him. The inheritance is complete.

Failure to hear and believe will result in resurrection to condemnation. "Another work of the Son is that of judgment, a divine prerogative that the father has given him (cf. John 3:35).  Again it is brought out (cf. John 3:18) that judgment takes place not only at the end of time but in the here and now, on the basis of acceptance or rejection of Christ." [17]

The passage concludes with the promise of salvation to those who hear and understand; that salvation is eternal life.

CCC: Jn 5:16-18 594; Jn 5:18 574, 589; Jn 5:19 859, 1063; Jn 5:22 679; Jn 5:24-25 994; Jn 5:24 1470; Jn 5:25 635; Jn 5:26 612, 679; Jn 5:27 679; Jn 5:28-29 1038; Jn 5:29 998; Jn 5:30 859, 2824
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John 5:24-29

#668 Proper of Saints Context (The Commemoration of All the Faithful Departed Nov 2)

#1016 Mass for the Dead Context (11.)

Jesus answered the Jews and said to them:
Amen, amen, I say to you, whoever hears my word
and believes in the one who sent me
has eternal life and will not come to condemnation,
but has passed from death to life.
Amen, amen, I say to you, the hour is coming and is now here
when the dead will hear the voice of the Son of God,
and those who hear will live.
For just as the Father has life in himself,
so also he gave to the Son the possession of life in himself.
And he gave him power to exercise judgment,
because he is the Son of Man.
Do not be amazed at this,
because the hour is coming in which all who are in the tombs
will hear his voice and will come out,
those who have done good deeds
to the resurrection of life,
but those who have done wicked deeds
to the resurrection of condemnation.
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Commentary on Jn 5:24-29

Jesus is refuting the Jews who are challenging his interpretation of the Law.  In this passage he first establishes his authority regarding God's Judgement, establishing that he and the Father are one and belief in the Father requires belief in Jesus, the Son. The future event of his defeat of sin and death has in effect already occurred and those who believe in Jesus, have already received God's salvation - eternal life (see also 1 Corinthians 15:24ff). Failure to hear and believe will likewise result in resurrection, but to condemnation.

CCC: Jn 5:24-25 994; Jn 5:24 1470; Jn 5:25 635; Jn 5:26 612, 679; Jn 5:27 679; Jn 5:28-29 1038; Jn 5:29 998
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John 5:31-47

#247 Weekday Years I & II Context (Thursday of the 4th Week of Lent)

Jesus said to the Jews:
“If I testify on my own behalf, my testimony is not true.
But there is another who testifies on my behalf,
and I know that the testimony he gives on my behalf is true.
You sent emissaries to John, and he testified to the truth.
I do not accept human testimony,
but I say this so that you may be saved.
He was a burning and shining lamp,
and for a while you were content to rejoice in his light.
But I have testimony greater than John’s.
The works that the Father gave me to accomplish,
these works that I perform testify on my behalf
that the Father has sent me.
Moreover, the Father who sent me has testified on my behalf.
But you have never heard his voice nor seen his form,
and you do not have his word remaining in you,
because you do not believe in the one whom he has sent.
You search the Scriptures,
because you think you have eternal life through them;
even they testify on my behalf.
But you do not want to come to me to have life.
“I do not accept human praise;
moreover, I know that you do not have the love of God in you.
I came in the name of my Father,
but you do not accept me;
yet if another comes in his own name,
you will accept him.
How can you believe, when you accept praise from one another
and do not seek the praise that comes from the only God?
Do not think that I will accuse you before the Father:
the one who will accuse you is Moses,
in whom you have placed your hope.
For if you had believed Moses,
you would have believed me,
because he wrote about me.
But if you do not believe his writings,
how will you believe my words?”
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Commentary on Jn 5:31-47

Jesus continues his discourse as his revelation continues. He now focuses on testimony other than his own to demonstrate that he is the Son of God. He starts with John the Baptist and then moves to the works he has performed in the Father’s name, indicating that those actions give testimony that he is from God. Jesus finally points to Holy Scripture and tells the Jews that even scripture testifies to his identity.

In the final section of this passage, Jesus chastises the Jews for their lack of belief in him. He points out that he did not come seeking praise or glory for his own sake (“I do not accept human praise”). He goes on to tell them they do not see the truth but will believe a lie if it conforms to what they believe the truth should be (“…you do not accept me; yet if another comes in his own name, you will accept him”).

The logic of the Lord’s words in the final verses crashes down on them. If they reject Jesus in favor of the glory that comes from false prophets, then he does not need to condemn them, they are self condemned. He tells them that if they believed Moses (the author of revelation in the Old Testament) they would believe in him (Jesus) and are now condemned by Moses as well, because by rejecting Jesus, they have disbelieved in the word of Moses.

CCC: Jn 5:33 719; Jn 5:36 548, 582; Jn 5:39 702; Jn 5:46 702
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John 5:33-36

#191 Weekday I & II Context (Friday of the 3rd Week of Advent)

Jesus said to the Jews:
"You sent emissaries to John, and he testified to the truth.
I do not accept testimony from a human being,
but I say this so that you may be saved.
John was a burning and shining lamp,
and for a while you were content to rejoice in his light.
But I have testimony greater than John's.
The works that the Father gave me to accomplish,
these works that I perform testify on my behalf
that the Father has sent me."
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Commentary on Jn 5:33-36

Jesus continues his discourse as the revelation of his divinity continues. He now focuses on testimony other than his own to demonstrate that he is the Son of God. He starts with John the Baptist and then moves to the works he has performed in the Father’s name, indicating that those actions give testimony that he is from God.

CCC: Jn 5:33 719; Jn 5:36 548, 582
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John 6:1-15

#110B Solemnities B Context (17th Sunday in Ordinary Time B)

#271 Weekday Years I & II Context (Friday of the 2nd Week of Easter)

#789 Ritual Mass Context (IV. For the Conferral of Ministries, 2. Institution of Acolytes, 4.)

#981 Votive Mass Context (The Most Holy Eucharist, 6)

Jesus went across the Sea of Galilee.
A large crowd followed him,
because they saw the signs he was performing on the sick.
Jesus went up on the mountain,
and there he sat down with his disciples.
The Jewish feast of Passover was near.
When Jesus raised his eyes and saw that a large crowd was coming to him,
he said to Philip, "Where can we buy enough food for them to eat?"
He said this to test him,
because he himself knew what he was going to do.
Philip answered him,
"Two hundred days' wages worth of food would not be enough
for each of them to have a little."
One of his disciples,
Andrew, the brother of Simon Peter, said to him,
"There is a boy here who has five barley loaves and two fish;
but what good are these for so many?"
Jesus said, "Have the people recline."
Now there was a great deal of grass in that place.
So the men reclined, about five thousand in number.
Then Jesus took the loaves, gave thanks,
and distributed them to those who were reclining,
and also as much of the fish as they wanted.
When they had had their fill, he said to his disciples,
"Gather the fragments left over,
so that nothing will be wasted."
So they collected them,
and filled twelve wicker baskets with fragments
from the five barley loaves that had been more than they could eat.
When the people saw the sign he had done, they said,
"This is truly the Prophet, the one who is to come into the world."
Since Jesus knew that they were going to come and carry him off
to make him king,
he withdrew again to the mountain alone.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Jn 6:1-15

This selection from St. John is the fourth sign from his Gospel, the multiplication of the loaves. It is the only miracle story carried in all four Gospels, and closely follows the synoptic Gospels (Mark 6:34-44, Luke 9:10-17, Matthew 14:13-21 and Matthew 15:32-39) in most details.

We see in this passage the strong reference to the Eucharist as well as a demonstration of God’s great love and mercy. More subtle is the reference to feeding the poor. Barley loaves were traditionally the fare of the poor. It is also interesting to note that, in the Jerusalem translation, the Lord “escaped” into the hills at the end of the story. This implied that the people were immediately aware of the great sign he had facilitated.

CCC: Jn 6 1338; Jn 6:5-15 549; Jn 6:15 439, 559
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

John 6:16-21

#272 Weekday Years I & II Context (Saturday of the Second Week of Easter)

When it was evening, the disciples of Jesus went down to the sea,
embarked in a boat, and went across the sea to Capernaum.
It had already grown dark, and Jesus had not yet come to them.
The sea was stirred up because a strong wind was blowing.
When they had rowed about three or four miles,
they saw Jesus walking on the sea and coming near the boat,
and they began to be afraid.
But he said to them, “It is I. Do not be afraid.”
They wanted to take him into the boat,
but the boat immediately arrived at the shore to which they were heading.
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Commentary on Jn 6:16-21

This is the fifth sign of Jesus’ identity as the Son of God from John’s Gospel. We see Jesus sharing God’s power (see also Job 9:8). The disciples are in a boat at night and the sea is up (“The sea was stirred up because a strong wind was blowing”). They were clearly frightened by their situation when the Lord appeared and said: “It is I, Do not be afraid.” Immediately they were relieved and wanted to take him aboard but before they could do so they arrived at their destination.

CCC: Jn 6 1338
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John 6:22-29

#273 Weekday Years I & II Context (Monday of the 3rd Week of Easter)

[After Jesus had fed the five thousand men, his disciples saw him walking on the sea.]
The next day, the crowd that remained across the sea
saw that there had been only one boat there,
and that Jesus had not gone along with his disciples in the boat,
but only his disciples had left.
Other boats came from Tiberias
near the place where they had eaten the bread
when the Lord gave thanks.
When the crowd saw that neither Jesus nor his disciples were there,
they themselves got into boats
and came to Capernaum looking for Jesus.
And when they found him across the sea they said to him,
"Rabbi, when did you get here?"
Jesus answered them and said,
"Amen, amen, I say to you, you are looking for me
not because you saw signs
but because you ate the loaves and were filled.
Do not work for food that perishes
but for the food that endures for eternal life,
which the Son of Man will give you.
For on him the Father, God, has set his seal."
So they said to him,
"What can we do to accomplish the works of God?"
Jesus answered and said to them,
"This is the work of God, that you believe in the one he sent."
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Commentary on Jn 6:22-29

This dialogue with the people begins St. John’s great discourse on the bread of life. In this selection Jesus begins by telling the crowd, which had just been witness to the feeding of the multitude with the barley loaves, that they should focus on spiritual food rather than filling their stomachs. The use of the word “bread” in this entire section is a metaphor for “doctrine.” His reference here is, through their belief in him as the Son of God, they are doing God’s will.

CCC: Jn 6 1338; Jn 6:26-58 2835
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John 6:24-35

#113B Solemnities B Context (18th Sunday in Ordinary Time B)

#789 Ritual Mass Context (IV. For the Conferral of Ministries, 2. Institution of Acolytes, 5.)

#981 Votive Mass Context (The Most Holy Eucharist, 7.)

When the crowd saw that neither Jesus nor his disciples were there,
they themselves got into boats
and came to Capernaum looking for Jesus.
And when they found him across the sea they said to him,
“Rabbi, when did you get here?”
Jesus answered them and said,
“Amen, amen, I say to you,
you are looking for me not because you saw signs
but because you ate the loaves and were filled.
Do not work for food that perishes
but for the food that endures for eternal life,
which the Son of Man will give you.
For on him the Father, God, has set his seal.”
So they said to him,
“What can we do to accomplish the works of God?”
Jesus answered and said to them,
“This is the work of God, that you believe in the one he sent.”
So they said to him,
“What sign can you do, that we may see and believe in you?
What can you do?
Our ancestors ate manna in the desert, as it is written:
He gave them bread from heaven to eat.”
So Jesus said to them,
“Amen, amen, I say to you,
it was not Moses who gave the bread from heaven;
my Father gives you the true bread from heaven.
For the bread of God is that which comes down from heaven
and gives life to the world.”

So they said to him,
“Sir, give us this bread always.”
Jesus said to them,
“I am the bread of life;
whoever comes to me will never hunger,
and whoever believes in me will never thirst.”
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Jn 6:24-35

This dialogue with the people begins St. John’s great discourse on the bread of life. In this selection Jesus begins by telling the crowd, which had just been witness to the feeding of the multitude with the barley loaves, that they should focus on spiritual food rather than filling their stomachs. His reference here is that through their belief in him as the Son of God, they are doing God’s will.

The people misunderstand and think Jesus is asking for faith in order to perform a sign (see also Mark 8:11Matthew 16:1, and Luke 11:16) The Jews in dialogue with Jesus refer to the favor shown by God, as in the desert following the exodus, God showered Manna upon the people. They quote Nehemiah 9:15, again seeking physical bread when Jesus is offering the spiritual. In this selection St. John provides the most solemn of statements by Jesus which are unambiguous statements about his real presence in the Eucharist: “I am the bread of life; whoever comes to me will never hunger, and whoever believes in me will never thirst.” In this offer, Jesus provides sustenance for the spirit while physical bread only supports the mortal body.

CCC: Jn 6 1338; Jn 6:26-58 2835; Jn 6:27 698, 728, 1296; Jn 6:32 1094; Jn 6:33 423
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

John 6:30-35

#274 Weekday Years I & II Context (Tuesday of the 3rd Week of Easter)

The crowd said to Jesus:
"What sign can you do, that we may see and believe in you?
What can you do?
Our ancestors ate manna in the desert, as it is written:

He gave them bread from heaven to eat."

So Jesus said to them,
"Amen, amen, I say to you,
it was not Moses who gave the bread from heaven;
my Father gives you the true bread from heaven.
For the bread of God is that which comes down from heaven
and gives life to the world."

So they said to Jesus,
"Sir, give us this bread always."
Jesus said to them, "I am the bread of life;
whoever comes to me will never hunger,
and whoever believes in me will never thirst."
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Jn 6:30-35

Jesus continues the “Bread of Life” discourse. The people misunderstand and think Jesus is asking for faith in order to perform a sign (see also Mark 8:11, Matthew 16:1, and Luke 11:16). The Jews, in dialogue with Jesus, refer to the favor shown by God, as in the desert following the exodus, God showered Manna upon the people. They quote Nehemiah 9:15, again seeking physical bread, when Jesus is offering the spiritual. In this selection St. John provides the most solemn of statements by Jesus, which are unambiguous statements about his real presence in the Eucharist: “I am the bread of life; whoever comes to me will never hunger, and whoever believes in me will never thirst.” In this offer, Jesus provides sustenance for the spirit, while physical bread only supports the mortal body.

CCC: Jn 6 1338; Jn 6:26-58 2835; Jn 6:32 1094; Jn 6:33 423
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John 6:35-40

#275 Weekday Years I & II Context (Wednesday of the 3rd Week of Easter)

#795 Ritual Mass Context (V. For the Pastoral Care for the Sick and Dying, 1. Anointing of the Sick, 17. [For the Dying])

Jesus said to the crowds,
"I am the bread of life;
whoever comes to me will never hunger,
and whoever believes in me will never thirst.
But I told you that although you have seen me,
you do not believe.
Everything that the Father gives me will come to me,
and I will not reject anyone who comes to me,
because I came down from heaven not to do my own will
but the will of the one who sent me.
And this is the will of the one who sent me,
that I should not lose anything of what he gave me,
but that I should raise it on the last day.
For this is the will of my Father,
that everyone who sees the Son and believes in him
may have eternal life,
and I shall raise him on the last day."
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Jn 6:35-40

St. John’s “Bread of Life” discourse continues with the repetition of the great Eucharistic pronouncement – “I am the Bread of Life.” The Lord states that in spite of their lack of belief, his presence with them is part of God’s revelatory plan (“I came down from heaven not to do my own will but the will of the one who sent me”), and that all who come to believe in the Son of God, the Bread of Life, will be welcome (“I will not reject anyone who comes to me”).

The selection concludes with the promise of eternal life for those who believe in Jesus, the Son of God. They will be raised with him in glory on the “last day.”

CCC: Jn 6 1338; Jn 6:38 606, 2824; Jn 6:39-40 989, 1001; Jn 6:40 161, 994
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John 6:37-40*

#668^ Proper of Saints Context (The Commemoration of All the Faithful Departed, Nov 2)

#1016 Mass for the Dead Context (12.)

#1022 Mass for the Dead Context (Funerals for Baptized Children, 3. [Shorter Form Offered])

Jesus said to the crowds:
“Everything that the Father gives me will come to me,
and I will not reject anyone who comes to me,
because I came down from heaven not to do my own will
but the will of the one who sent me.
And this is the will of the one who sent me,
that I should not lose anything of what he gave me,
but that I should raise it on the last day.
For this is the will of my Father,
that everyone who sees the Son and believes in him
may have eternal life,
and I shall raise him on the last day.”
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Jn 6:37-40

This Gospel passage is part of the “Bread of Life” section from St. John’s Gospel. Jesus first clearly identifies himself as having come from God, his Father, and as heir to the kingdom of Heaven with “Everything that the Father gives me will come to me”. The Lord tells those gathered that no one will be rejected that asks to follow the Son of God. He goes further, telling the crowds that anyone who believes in him “may have eternal life.” For the faithful, this is an invitation to participate in eternal life.

We note the humility with which the Lord makes this offer (I came down from heaven not to do my own will but the will of the one who sent me). “St. Augustine, commenting on vv. 37 and 38, praises the humility of Jesus, the perfect model for the humility of the Christian: Jesus chose not to do His own will but that of the Father who sent Him: "Humbly am I come, to teach humility am I come, as the master of humility am I come; he who comes to Me is incorporated in Me; he who comes to Me, becomes humble; he who cleaves to Me will be humble, for he does not his will but God's" ("In Ioann. Evang.", 25, 15 and 16)”[6].

CCC: Jn 6 1338; Jn 6:38 606, 2824; Jn 6:39-40 989, 1001; Jn 6:40 161, 994
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Or
Shorter Form John 6:37-39

Jesus said to the crowds:
“Everything that the Father gives me will come to me,
and I will not reject anyone who comes to me,
because I came down from heaven not to do my own will
but the will of the one who sent me.
And this is the will of the one who sent me,
that I should not lose anything of what he gave me,
but that I should raise it on the last day.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Jn 6:37-39

This shorter form of the Gospel passage is part of the “Bread of Life” section from St. John’s Gospel. Jesus first clearly identifies himself as having come from God, his Father and heir to the kingdom of Heaven with “Everything that the Father gives me will come to me”. The Lord tells those gathered that no one will be rejected that asks to follow the Son of God.

CCC: Jn 6 1338; Jn 6:38 606, 2824; Jn 6:39-40 989, 1001
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John 6:41-50 Note: all references to this citation are incorrect - see John 6:41-51.

John 6:41-51

#116B Solemnities B Context (19th Sunday in Ordinary Time B)

#789 Ritual Mass Context (IV. For the Conferral of Ministries, 2. Institution of Acolytes, 6.)

#800 Ritual Mass Context (V. For the Pastoral Care of the Sick and Dying, 2. Viaticum, First Option)

#981 Votive Mass Context (The Most Holy Eucharist, 8.)

The Jews murmured about Jesus because he said,
“I am the bread that came down from heaven, ”
and they said,
“Is this not Jesus, the son of Joseph?
Do we not know his father and mother?
Then how can he say,
‘I have come down from heaven’?”
Jesus answered and said to them,
“Stop murmuring among yourselves.
No one can come to me unless the Father who sent me draw him,
and I will raise him on the last day.
It is written in the prophets:

They shall all be taught by God.

Everyone who listens to my Father and learns from him comes to me.
Not that anyone has seen the Father
except the one who is from God;
he has seen the Father.
Amen, amen, I say to you,
whoever believes has eternal life.
I am the bread of life.
Your ancestors ate the manna in the desert, but they died;
this is the bread that comes down from heaven
so that one may eat it and not die.
I am the living bread that came down from heaven;
whoever eats this bread will live forever;
and the bread that I will give is my flesh
for the life of the world.”
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Jn 6:41-51

St. John’s “Bread of Life” discourse continues in response to the protest of the crowd. We hear Jesus telling the crowd that no one comes to God unless it is willed by the Father (who sent me). Then Jesus says the remarkable; “…and I will raise him on the last day.” This is a clear statement that the Lord has been given the authority to judge the living and the dead in the Eschaton (the last day).

The Lord makes reference to Isaiah 54:13 (“They shall all be taught by God.”), interpreting that passage as it relates to him as the “teacher” sent by God. He now launches into the answer to the earlier request "Sir, give us this bread always." (John 6:34) saying “I am the bread of life”. He follows this reiteration of his identity by recalling God’s salvation of the Hebrew people who were fleeing Egypt and starving in the desert but were rescued by God’s gift of manna (Exodus 16:1ff). Then going further, he tells the crowd that they must eat (John uses the graphic word gnaw) the bread of life to have eternal life and that the bread he gives them is his life for the salvation of all mankind.

CCC: Jn 6 1338; Jn 6 1338; Jn 6:44 259, 591, 1001, 1428; Jn 6:46 151; Jn 6:51 728, 1355, 1406, 2837
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

John 6:44-51

#276 Weekday Years I & II Context (Thursday of the 3rd Week of Easter)

Jesus said to the crowds:
"No one can come to me unless the Father who sent me draw him,
and I will raise him on the last day.
It is written in the prophets:

They shall all be taught by God.

Everyone who listens to my Father and learns from him comes to me.
Not that anyone has seen the Father
except the one who is from God;
he has seen the Father.
Amen, amen, I say to you,
whoever believes has eternal life.
I am the bread of life.
Your ancestors ate the manna in the desert, but they died;
this is the bread that comes down from heaven
so that one may eat it and not die.
I am the living bread that came down from heaven;
whoever eats this bread will live forever;
and the bread that I will give
is my Flesh for the life of the world."
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Jn 6:44-51

St. John’s “Bread of Life” discourse continues in response to the protest of the crowd. In the first part of the passage, we hear Jesus telling the crowd that no one comes to God unless it is willed by the Father (who sent me). Then Jesus says the remarkable: “…and I will raise him on the last day.” This is a clear statement that the Lord has been given the authority to judge the living and the dead on the Eschaton (the last day).

The Lord makes reference to Isaiah 54:13 (“They shall all be taught by God.”), interpreting the passage as it relates to him as the “teacher” sent by God. He next launches into the answer to the earlier request: "Sir, give us this bread always" (John 6:34) saying: “I am the bread of life.” He follows this reiteration of his identity by recalling God’s salvation of the Hebrew people, who were fleeing Egypt and starving in the desert, but were rescued by God’s gift of manna (Exodus 16:1ff). Then, going further, he tells the crowd that they must eat (John uses the graphic word gnaw) the bread of life to have eternal life, and that the bread he gives them is his life for the salvation of all mankind.

CCC: Jn 6 1338; Jn 6 1338; Jn 6:44 259, 591, 1001, 1428; Jn 6:46 151; Jn 6:51 728, 1355, 1406, 2837
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John 6:44-47

#760 Ritual Mass Context (I. Conferral of Christian Initiation, 2. Conferral of Infant Baptism, 8.)

Jesus said to the crowds:
"No one can come to me unless the Father who sent me draw him,
and I will raise him on the last day.
It is written in the prophets:

They shall all be taught by God.

Everyone who listens to my Father and learns from him comes to me.
Not that anyone has seen the Father
except the one who is from God;
he has seen the Father.
Amen, amen, I say to you,
whoever believes has eternal life.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Jn 6:44-47

St. John’s “Bread of Life” discourse continues in response to the protest of the crowd. In the first part of the passage we hear Jesus telling the crowd that no one comes to God unless it is willed by the Father (who sent me). Then Jesus says the remarkable; “…and I will raise him on the last day.” This is a clear statement that the Lord has been given the authority to judge the living and the dead in the Eschaton (the last day).

The Lord makes reference to Isaiah 54:13 (“They shall all be taught by God.”), interpreting that passage as it relates to him as the “teacher” sent by God. Continuing the logical progression, Jesus tells his listeners that those taught by God will follow him because (as the Lord infers next) he and the Father are one.  Whoever accepts this reality shares the reward of eternal life.

CCC: Jn 6 1338; Jn 6 1338; Jn 6:44 259, 591, 1001, 1428; Jn 6:46 151
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John 6:51-58

#119B Solemnities B Context (20th Sunday in Ordinary Time B)

#167A Solemnities A Context (Solemnity of the Most Holy Body and Blood of Christ A)

#789 Ritual Mass Context (IV. For the Conferral of Ministries, 2. Institution of Acolytes, 7.)

#800 Ritual Mass Context (V. For the Pastoral Care of the Sick and Dying, 2. Viaticum, Second Option)

#981 Votive Mass Context (The Most Holy Eucharist, 9.)

#1016 Mass for the Dead Context (13.)

#1022 Mass for the Dead Context (Funerals for Baptized Children, 4. [For a Child who had already received the Eucharist])

Jesus said to the Jewish crowds:
"I am the living bread that came down from heaven;
whoever eats this bread will live forever;
and the bread that I will give
is my flesh for the life of the world."

The Jews quarreled among themselves, saying,
"How can this man give us his flesh to eat?"
Jesus said to them,
"Amen, amen, I say to you,
unless you eat the flesh of the Son of Man and drink his blood,
you do not have life within you.
Whoever eats my flesh and drinks my blood
has eternal life,
and I will raise him on the last day.
For my flesh is true food,
and my blood is true drink.
Whoever eats my flesh and drinks my blood
remains in me and I in him.
Just as the living Father sent me
and I have life because of the Father,
so also the one who feeds on me
will have life because of me.
This is the bread that came down from heaven.
Unlike your ancestors who ate and still died,
whoever eats this bread will live forever."
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Jn 6:51-58

The “Bread of Life” discourse continues and the Lord escalates his language. The people who had come to him because they had been fed with the five barley loaves just cannot make the leap from bread made from wheat or barley to the Bread of Life offered as true food and drink for the spirit. Even when he uses Manna as an example of real food they still do not see that the Son of God offers them his resurrected body as their meal and they are repulsed – especially because of the language he uses (Jesus uses the word gnaw not just eat in the original texts.)

CCC: Jn 6 1338; Jn 6:51 728, 1355, 1406, 2837; Jn 6:53-56 2837; Jn 6:53 1384; Jn 6:54 994, 1001, 1406, 1509, 1524; Jn 6:56 787, 1391, 1406; Jn 6:57 1391; Jn 6:58 1509
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

John 6:52-59

#277 Weekday Years I & II Context (Friday of the 3rd Week of Easter)

The Jews quarreled among themselves, saying,
"How can this man give us his Flesh to eat?"
Jesus said to them,
"Amen, amen, I say to you,
unless you eat the Flesh of the Son of Man and drink his Blood,
you do not have life within you.
Whoever eats my Flesh and drinks my Blood
has eternal life,
and I will raise him on the last day.
For my Flesh is true food,
and my Blood is true drink.
Whoever eats my Flesh and drinks my Blood
remains in me and I in him.
Just as the living Father sent me
and I have life because of the Father,
so also the one who feeds on me will have life because of me.
This is the bread that came down from heaven.
Unlike your ancestors who ate and still died,
whoever eats this bread will live forever."
These things he said while teaching in the synagogue in Capernaum.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Jn 6:52-59

The “Bread of Life” discourse continues (some what redundant with the preceding verses), and the Lord escalates his language. The people who had come to him because they had been fed with the five barley loaves just cannot make the leap from bread made from wheat or barley to the “Bread of Life,” offered as true food and drink for the spirit. Even when he alludes to manna as an example of real food (Exodus 16:1ff), they still do not see that the Son of God offers them his resurrected body as their meal and they are repulsed, especially because of the language he uses (the word “gnaw” is used not just “eat” in the original texts).

Verse 58 (“This is the bread that came down from heaven. Unlike your ancestors who ate and still died, whoever eats this bread will live forever”) conveys the key purpose to the Lord's discourse, the offer of salvation, eternal life with the father.  Just as he will later say to the "Good Thief" as they hang on the cross, "Today you will be with me in paradise," (Luke 23:43) he speaks to this crowd of the offer he makes available through his sacrifice.

CCC: Jn 6 1338; Jn 6:53-56 2837; Jn 6:53 1384; Jn 6:54 994, 1001, 1406, 1509, 1524; Jn 6:56 787, 1391, 1406; Jn 6:57 1391; Jn 6:58 1509
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John 6:53-58

#795 Ritual Mass Context (V. For the Pastoral Care of the Sick and the Dying, 1. Anointing of the Sick, 18. [For the Dying])

Jesus said to the crowds:
"Amen, amen, I say to you,
unless you eat the Flesh of the Son of Man and drink his Blood,
you do not have life within you.
Whoever eats my Flesh and drinks my Blood
has eternal life,
and I will raise him on the last day.
For my Flesh is true food,
and my Blood is true drink.
Whoever eats my Flesh and drinks my Blood
remains in me and I in him.
Just as the living Father sent me
and I have life because of the Father,
so also the one who feeds on me will have life because of me.
This is the bread that came down from heaven.
Unlike your ancestors who ate and still died,
whoever eats this bread will live forever."
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Jn 6:53-58

The “Bread of Life” discourse continues (some what redundant with the proceeding verses) and the Lord escalates his language. The people who had come to him because they had been fed with the five barley loaves just cannot make the leap from bread made from wheat or barley to the “Bread of Life” offered as true food and drink for the spirit. Even when he alludes to manna as an example of real food (Exodus 16:1ff) they still do not see that the Son of God offers them his resurrected body as their meal and they are repulsed – especially because of the language he uses (The word “gnaw” is used not just “eat” in the original texts).

The final verse of this selection conveys the key purpose to the Lord's discourse; the offer of salvation, eternal life with the father.  Just as he will later say to the Good Thief as they hang on the cross; "Today you will be with me in paradise." (Luke 23:43) he speaks to this crowd of the offer he makes available through his sacrifice.

CCC: Jn 6 1338; Jn 6:53-56 2837; Jn 6:53 1384; Jn 6:54 994, 1001, 1406, 1509, 1524; Jn 6:56 787, 1391, 1406; Jn 6:57 1391; Jn 6:58 1509
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John 6:60-69

#122B Solemnities B Context (21st Sunday in Ordinary Time B)

#278 Weekday Years I & II Context (Saturday of the 3rd Week of Easter)

Many of the disciples of Jesus who were listening said,
"This saying is hard; who can accept it?"
Since Jesus knew that his disciples were murmuring about this,
he said to them, "Does this shock you?
What if you were to see the Son of Man ascending to where he was before?
It is the Spirit that gives life, while the flesh is of no avail.
The words I have spoken to you are Spirit and life.
But there are some of you who do not believe."
Jesus knew from the beginning the ones who would not believe
and the one who would betray him.
And he said, "For this reason I have told you that no one can come to me
unless it is granted him by my Father."

As a result of this,
many of his disciples returned to their former way of life
and no longer walked with him.
Jesus then said to the Twelve, "Do you also want to leave?"
Simon Peter answered him, "Master, to whom shall we go?
You have the words of eternal life.
We have come to believe
and are convinced that you are the Holy One of God."
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Jn 6:60-69

St. John describes the ebb and flow of the Lord’s followers. He is concluding his discourse on the “Bread of Life” and has just told the disciples once more: “For my flesh is true food, and my blood is true drink. Whoever eats my flesh and drinks my blood remains in me and I in him.” This was cannibalism, they did not understand the transformative event that was to take place, and they did not like what they did understand. As a result, many who had seen him perform the sign of the "Multiplication of the Loaves" and followed him now were repulsed and went home.

The twelve stayed with him and in response to Jesus' question: “Do you also want to leave?" Simon Peter answers with his profession of faith: “Master, to whom shall we go? You have the words of eternal life. We have come to believe and are convinced that you are the Holy One of God."

CCC: Jn 6:60 1336; Jn 6:61 473; Jn 6:62-63 728; Jn 6:62 440; Jn 6:63 2766; Jn 6:67 1336; Jn 6:68 1336; Jn 6:69 438
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

John 7:1-2, 10, 25-30

#248 Weekday Years I & II Context (Friday of the 4th Week of Lent)

Jesus moved about within Galilee;
he did not wish to travel in Judea,
because the Jews were trying to kill him.
But the Jewish feast of Tabernacles was near.

But when his brothers had gone up to the feast,
he himself also went up, not openly but as it were in secret.

Some of the inhabitants of Jerusalem said,
"Is he not the one they are trying to kill?
And look, he is speaking openly and they say nothing to him.
Could the authorities have realized that he is the Christ?
But we know where he is from.
When the Christ comes, no one will know where he is from."
So Jesus cried out in the temple area as he was teaching and said,
"You know me and also know where I am from.
Yet I did not come on my own,
but the one who sent me, whom you do not know, is true.
I know him, because I am from him, and he sent me."
So they tried to arrest him,
but no one laid a hand upon him,
because his hour had not yet come.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Jn 7:1-2, 10, 25-30

Jesus leaves Galilee for the last time and goes down to Jerusalem to celebrate the Jewish feast of Tabernacles. He goes, knowing there is a plot to kill him. The suggestion in v. 10 is that he did not come with the fanfare that would have normally been associated with a prominent teacher or prophet. Still, he is recognized by his teachings in the temple area by people who know of him, and the negative view the Sanhedrin has about him. There is an ironic statement by St. John; “Could the authorities have realized that he is the Christ?

Jesus challenges the Jew's understanding that the Christ (Messiah) would reveal himself “suddenly and unmistakably, and that prior to this manifestation he would be completely hidden.” The Lord proclaims himself to be the one who was foretold and says further that they know what he is talking about.

The fact that they cannot arrest him testifies to the fact that the crowd, at least, was divided on his identity. The authorities would not have wanted to stir up controversy in the middle of the celebration of a major feast.

CCC: Jn 7:1 583; Jn 7:10 583
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John 7:14-18

#784 Ritual Mass Context (IV. For the Conferral of Ministries, 1. Institution of Readers, 5.)

When the feast was already half over,
Jesus went up the the temple area and began to teach.
The Jews were amazed and said,
"How does he know Scripture with having studied?"
Jesus answered them and said,
"My teaching is not my own
but is from the One who sent me.
Whoever chooses to do his will
shall know whether my teaching is from God
or whether I speak on my own.
Whoever speaks on his own seeks his own glory,
but whoever seeks the glory of the one who sent him is truthful,
and there is no wrong in him."
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Jn 7:14-18

Jesus leaves Galilee for the last time and goes down to Jerusalem to celebrate the Jewish feast of Tabernacles. He goes, knowing there is a plot to kill him.  In this passage we hear him teaching in the temple precincts. The Feast of Tabernacles lasted 8 days, so the Lord at this writing arrives around the 4th day. The crowd is surprised because Jesus is not known to have attended the rabbinical schools (Mark 1:21; Luke 4:22). Jesus responds saying he is not self-taught but what he teaches is of divine origin. Anyone who seeks the grace and will of the Father will recognize it as such. Yet, those who speak for their own gratification have no authority. The passage provides an excellent foundation for differentiating between biblical exegesis and those who misinterpret scripture to fit their own views.

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John 7:37b-39***

#760 Ritual Mass Context (For the Conferral of Christian Initiation, 2. Infant Baptism, 9.)

#768 Ritual Mass Context (For the Conferral of Christian Initiation, 4. Confirmation, 8.)

Jesus stood up and exclaimed,
"Let anyone who thirsts come to me and drink.
Whoever believes in me, as Scripture says:

Rivers of living water will flow from within him."

He said this in reference to the Spirit
that those who came to believe in him were to receive.
There was, of course, no Spirit yet,
because Jesus had not yet been glorified.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Jn 7:37b-39

“On each of the eight days of the feast of Tabernacles the high priest went to the pool of Siloam and used a golden cup to bring water to the temple and sprinkle it on the altar, in remembrance of the water which sprang up miraculously in the desert, asking God to send rain in plenty (cf. Exodus 17:1-7). Meanwhile, a passage from the prophet Isaiah was chanted (cf. Isaiah 12:3) which told of the coming of the Savior and of the outpouring of heavenly gifts that would accompany him; Ezekiel 47 was also read, in which it spoke of the torrents of water which would pour out of the temple. Jesus, who would have been at this ceremony, now proclaims - in the presence of a huge crowd, undoubtedly, because it was the most solemn day of the festival- that that time has come: "If any one thirst, let him come to me and drink ...” This invitation recalls the words of divine wisdom: "Come to me, you who desire me, and eat your fill" (Sirach 24:19; cf. Proverbs 9:4-5). Our Lord presents himself as him who can fill man's heart and bring him peace (cf. also Matthew 11:28). In this connection St Augustine exclaims: "You made us for yourself. Lord, and our hearts find no peace until they rest in you" (Confessions, 1, 1, 1).”[4]

Jesus scriptural reference is probably to Ezekiel 36:25ff providing a strong the theological link between the initial gift of the Holy Spirit (“I will put my spirit within you “) and baptism (“I will sprinkle clean water upon you to cleanse you from all your impurities“. This symbolic action of washing, a Hebrew ritual, becomes an efficacious sign of grace when coupled with God’s presence in the Holy Spirit.

CCC: Jn 7:37-39 728, 1287, 2561; Jn 7:38-39 1999; Jn 7:38 694; Jn 7:39 244, 690
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John 7:37-39

#62ABC Solemnities ABC Context (Pentecost at the Vigil Mass)

On the last and greatest day of the feast,
Jesus stood up and exclaimed,
"Let anyone who thirsts come to me and drink.
As Scripture says:
Rivers of living water will flow from within him who
believes in me."

He said this in reference to the Spirit
that those who came to believe in him were to receive.
There was, of course, no Spirit yet,
because Jesus had not yet been glorified.
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Commentary on Jn 7:37-39

“On each of the eight days of the feast of Tabernacles the high priest went to the pool of Siloam and used a golden cup to bring water to the temple and sprinkle it on the altar, in remembrance of the water which sprang up miraculously in the desert, asking God to send rain in plenty (cf. Exodus 17:1-7). Meanwhile, a passage from the prophet Isaiah was chanted (cf. Isaiah 12:3) which told of the coming of the Savior and of the outpouring of heavenly gifts that would accompany him; Ezekiel 47 was also read, in which it spoke of the torrents of water which would pour out of the temple. Jesus, who would have been at this ceremony, now proclaims - in the presence of a huge crowd, undoubtedly, because it was the most solemn day of the festival- that that time has come: "If any one thirst, let him come to me and drink ...” This invitation recalls the words of divine wisdom: "Come to me, you who desire me, and eat your fill" (Sirach 24:19; cf. Proverbs 9:4-5). Our Lord presents himself as him who can fill man's heart and bring him peace (cf. also Matthew 11:28). In this connection St Augustine exclaims: "You made us for yourself. Lord, and our hearts find no peace until they rest in you" (Confessions, 1, 1, 1).”[4]

Jesus scriptural reference is probably to Ezekiel 36:25ff providing a strong the theological link between the initial gift of the Holy Spirit (“I will put my spirit within you “) and baptism (“I will sprinkle clean water upon you to cleanse you from all your impurities “). This symbolic action of washing, a Hebrew ritual, becomes an efficacious sign of grace when coupled with God’s presence in the Holy Spirit.

CCC: Jn 7:37-39 728, 1287, 2561; Jn 7:38-39 1999; Jn 7:38 694; Jn 7:39 244, 690
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John 7:37-39a

#31O-2 BVM Context (The Blessed Virgin Mary, Fountain of Salvation, I)

On the last and greatest day of the feast,
Jesus stood up and exclaimed,
"Let anyone who thirsts come to me and drink.
As Scripture says:
Rivers of living water will flow from within him who
believes in me."

He said this in reference to the Spirit
that those who came to believe in him were to receive.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Jn 7:37-39

“On each of the eight days of the feast of Tabernacles the high priest went to the pool of Siloam and used a golden cup to bring water to the temple and sprinkle it on the altar, in remembrance of the water which sprang up miraculously in the desert, asking God to send rain in plenty (cf. Exodus 17:1-7). Meanwhile, a passage from the prophet Isaiah was chanted (cf. Isaiah 12:3) which told of the coming of the Savior and of the outpouring of heavenly gifts that would accompany him; Ezekiel 47 was also read, in which it spoke of the torrents of water which would pour out of the temple. Jesus, who would have been at this ceremony, now proclaims - in the presence of a huge crowd, undoubtedly, because it was the most solemn day of the festival- that that time has come: "If any one thirst, let him come to me and drink ...” This invitation recalls the words of divine wisdom: "Come to me, you who desire me, and eat your fill" (Sirach 24:19; cf. Proverbs 9:4-5). Our Lord presents himself as him who can fill man's heart and bring him peace (cf. also Matthew 11:28). In this connection St Augustine exclaims: "You made us for yourself. Lord, and our hearts find no peace until they rest in you" (Confessions, 1, 1, 1).”[4]

Jesus scriptural reference is probably to Ezekiel 36:25ff providing a strong the theological link between the initial gift of the Holy Spirit (“I will put my spirit within you “) and baptism (“I will sprinkle clean water upon you to cleanse you from all your impurities “). This symbolic action of washing, a Hebrew ritual, becomes an efficacious sign of grace when coupled with God’s presence in the Holy Spirit.

CCC: Jn 7:37-39 728, 1287, 2561; Jn 7:38-39 1999; Jn 7:38 694; Jn 7:39 244, 690
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John 7:40-53

#249 Weekday Years I & II Context (Saturday of the 4th Week of Lent)

Some in the crowd who heard these words of Jesus said,
"This is truly the Prophet."
Others said, "This is the Christ."
But others said, "The Christ will not come from Galilee, will he?
Does not Scripture say that the Christ will be of David's family
and come from Bethlehem, the village where David lived?"
So a division occurred in the crowd because of him.
Some of them even wanted to arrest him,
but no one laid hands on him.
So the guards went to the chief priests and Pharisees,
who asked them, "Why did you not bring him?"
The guards answered, "Never before has anyone spoken like this man."
So the Pharisees answered them, "Have you also been deceived?
Have any of the authorities or the Pharisees believed in him?
But this crowd, which does not know the law, is accursed."
Nicodemus, one of their members who had come to him earlier, said to them,
"Does our law condemn a man before it first hears him
and finds out what he is doing?"
They answered and said to him,
"You are not from Galilee also, are you?
Look and see that no prophet arises from Galilee."
Then each went to his own house.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Jn 7:40-53

The irony of St. John’s Gospel shows in the first part of this passage. The crowd is pointing at facts about the Davidic Messiah, specifically where he was prophesied to have been born. They recite the prophecy: the Messiah will be from the line of King David (cf 2 Samuel 7:12-14; Isaiah 9:6-7; Jeremiah 23:5; and Ezekiel 34:23-24), and Jesus is. He will have been born in Bethlehem (cf Micah 5:2), as Jesus was. Not knowing the truth about these facts the crowd is not wholly convinced.

In the second part St. John describes the deliberations in the Sanhedrin. Why had the guards not arrested Jesus? Based upon the description, we can infer that those present actually prevented the guards from taking that step. The religious leaders cynically say that “the crowd which does not know the law is accursed.” After more discussion, they are still not ready to act and return to their homes; action for the moment is delayed.

CCC: Jn 7:48-49 575; Jn 7:49 588; Jn 7:50 595; Jn 7:52 574
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John 8:1-11

#36C Solemnities C Context (5th Sunday of Lent C)

#251 Weekday Years I & II Context (Monday of the 5th Week of Lent Years A & B)

Jesus went to the Mount of Olives.
But early in the morning he arrived again in the temple area,
and all the people started coming to him,
and he sat down and taught them.
Then the scribes and the Pharisees brought a woman
who had been caught in adultery
and made her stand in the middle.
They said to him,
“Teacher, this woman was caught
in the very act of committing adultery.
Now in the law, Moses commanded us to stone such women.
So what do you say?”
They said this to test him,
so that they could have some charge to bring against him.
Jesus bent down and began to write on the ground with his finger.
But when they continued asking him,
he straightened up and said to them,
“Let the one among you who is without sin
be the first to throw a stone at her.”
Again he bent down and wrote on the ground.
And in response, they went away one by one,
beginning with the elders.
So he was left alone with the woman before him.
Then Jesus straightened up and said to her,
“Woman, where are they?
Has no one condemned you?”
She replied, “No one, sir.”
Then Jesus said, “Neither do I condemn you.
Go, and from now on do not sin any more.”
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Jn 8:1-11

John’s Gospel places Jesus once more in the temple precincts. The story of Jesus and the Adulterous Woman constitutes another example of how the Jewish leadership attempts to trap Jesus with a difficult legal problem.  They have no doubt heard the Lord’s teaching about loving one another and believe that he will not condemn the adulterous woman and thereby give them reason to call him “blasphemer.” As a side note, most scripture scholars believe this passage was not originally in St. John’s Gospel but was borrowed from St. Luke.  Regardless, from a very early period it has been considered sacred in the current context.

It is not completely clear what Jesus is being asked to judge.  The law concerning adultery by a betrothed virgin was stoning (see Deuteronomy 22:23-24).  However, the law concerning married women was simply death (see Leviticus 20:10 and Deuteronomy 22:22) and was generally carried out by strangulation.

In response, rather than debating the law, he simply begins writing in the dust. Tradition tells us that what he wrote with his finger was a list of the sins of those gathered to stone the woman caught in adultery. He then asked that the one without sin should cast the first stone. (The first stones were to be thrown by the witnesses.)

In either case, Jesus should not have been able to commute her sentence without going against the law so he uses his knowledge of people’s hearts to have the charges withdrawn.  As we saw in the first reading, two accusers are required to condemn a person under the law.

The story continues that after his second set of writings in the dust, the group gathered to stone the woman; “…went away one by one, beginning with the elders.” Even, or more importantly first, the elders left. No one was without sin. In the closing statement Jesus does something unexpected. He does not judge the woman either; rather he tells her to go and sin no more emphasizing that Jesus came into the world not to judge it but through his presence save it.

CCC: Jn 8:2 583
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John 8:12-20

#251 Weekday Years I & II Context (Monday of the 5th Week of Lent Year C only)

Jesus spoke to them again, saying,
“I am the light of the world.
Whoever follows me will not walk in darkness,
but will have the light of life.”
So the Pharisees said to him,
“You testify on your own behalf,
so your testimony cannot be verified.”
Jesus answered and said to them,
“Even if I do testify on my own behalf, my testimony can be verified,
because I know where I came from and where I am going.
But you do not know where I come from or where I am going.
You judge by appearances, but I do not judge anyone.
And even if I should judge, my judgment is valid,
because I am not alone,
but it is I and the Father who sent me.
Even in your law it is written
that the testimony of two men can be verified.
I testify on my behalf and so does the Father who sent me.”
So they said to him, “Where is your father?”
Jesus answered, “You know neither me nor my Father.
If you knew me, you would know my Father also.”
He spoke these words
while teaching in the treasury in the temple area.
But no one arrested him, because his hour had not yet come.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Jn 8:12-20

While this selection follows the confrontation with the Pharisees over the adulterous woman (John 8:1-11), the Gospel is re-connecting with the themes of “Life and Light” associated in the Jewish tradition with the Feast of Tabernacles started in the previous chapter (John 7:1ff). In establishing himself as the “light of the world” Jesus makes reference to his eternal status in union with the creator who establishes the foundational elements of life and light in the world. The Pharisees take issue with this demanding disinterested testimony as to this truth (similar to the discourse in John 5:31-47.

Because of the unity with the Father established by Jesus and the fact that both Jesus and the Father testify to the Lord’s identity as the Light of the World, the Mosaic requirement that two men must verify the testimony is fulfilled (Deuteronomy 17:6, 19:5). The Pharisees fail to understand Jesus’ relation to the Father asking “Where is your father?” The Gospel retorts with final irony as Jesus responds from “treasury in the temple area” implying the Pharisees did not understand who was to take the place of the Temple in the time to come.

CCC: Jn 8:12 2466
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John 8:21-30

#252 Weekday Years I & II Context (Tuesday of the 5th Week of Lent)

Jesus said to the Pharisees:
“I am going away and you will look for me,
but you will die in your sin.
Where I am going you cannot come.”
So the Jews said,
“He is not going to kill himself, is he,
because he said, ‘Where I am going you cannot come’?”
He said to them, “You belong to what is below,
I belong to what is above.
You belong to this world,
but I do not belong to this world.
That is why I told you that you will die in your sins.
For if you do not believe that I AM,
you will die in your sins.”
So they said to him, “Who are you?”
Jesus said to them, “What I told you from the beginning.
I have much to say about you in condemnation.
But the one who sent me is true,
and what I heard from him I tell the world.”
They did not realize that he was speaking to them of the Father.
So Jesus said to them,
“When you lift up the Son of Man,
then you will realize that I AM,
and that I do nothing on my own,
but I say only what the Father taught me.
The one who sent me is with me.
He has not left me alone,
because I always do what is pleasing to him.”
Because he spoke this way, many came to believe in him.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Jn 8:21-30

Jesus continues his discourse with the Pharisees, trying to lead them to understanding. He tells them that he is going away, clearly implying his own death, and tells them they may not follow him. Their unbelief is sin and hence they will die in their sin. They do not understand the manner of his death (that he will lay his life down) but rather see a partial truth in thinking he will kill himself.

Even though he uses language filled with specific clues (e.g. the use of the phrase “I Am”, God’s own designation for himself) they still do not understand. Toward the end he alludes to the Saraph image from Numbers: “When you lift up the Son of Man, then you will realize that I Am,” and at the same time makes it clear whose Son he is.

CCC: Jn 8:28 211, 653, 2812; Jn 8:29 603, 1693, 2824, 2825
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John 8:31-42

#253 Weekday Years I & II Context (Wednesday of the 5th Week of Lent)

Jesus said to those Jews who believed in him,
“If you remain in my word, you will truly be my disciples,
and you will know the truth, and the truth will set you free.”
They answered him, “We are descendants of Abraham
and have never been enslaved to anyone.
How can you say, ‘You will become free’?”
Jesus answered them, “Amen, amen, I say to you,
everyone who commits sin is a slave of sin.
A slave does not remain in a household forever,
but a son always remains.
So if the Son frees you, then you will truly be free.
I know that you are descendants of Abraham.
But you are trying to kill me,
because my word has no room among you.
I tell you what I have seen in the Father’s presence;
then do what you have heard from the Father.”

They answered and said to him, “Our father is Abraham.”
Jesus said to them, “If you were Abraham’s children,
you would be doing the works of Abraham.
But now you are trying to kill me,
a man who has told you the truth that I heard from God;
Abraham did not do this.
You are doing the works of your father!”
So they said to him, “We were not born of fornication.
We have one Father, God.”
Jesus said to them, “If God were your Father, you would love me,
for I came from God and am here;
I did not come on my own, but he sent me.”
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Jn 8:31-42

In this passage from St. John’s Gospel, Jesus continues his discourse with the Jews “who believed in him.” This statement is ironic, since just a few verses later (v. 37) he says: “But you are trying to kill me.” The point made here is that all are enslaved by sin and only Jesus, who is sent by the Father, can release us from that slavery. As much as the Jews argue that they have come from Abraham, Jesus pushes back and says, if you came from Abraham, your actions would make that clear, if you believe in God that also would be clear – something different must therefore be true.

CCC: Jn 8:31-32 89; Jn 8:32 1741, 2466; Jn 8:33-36 588; Jn 8:34-36 549, 601, 613
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John 8:51-59

#254 Weekday Years I & II Context (Thursday of the 5th Week of Lent)

Jesus said to the Jews:
"Amen, amen, I say to you,
whoever keeps my word will never see death."
So the Jews said to him,
"Now we are sure that you are possessed.
Abraham died, as did the prophets, yet you say,
'Whoever keeps my word will never taste death.'
Are you greater than our father Abraham, who died?
Or the prophets, who died?
Who do you make yourself out to be?"
Jesus answered, "If I glorify myself, my glory is worth nothing;
but it is my Father who glorifies me,
of whom you say, 'He is our God.'
You do not know him, but I know him.
And if I should say that I do not know him,
I would be like you a liar.
But I do know him and I keep his word.
Abraham your father rejoiced to see my day;
he saw it and was glad."
So the Jews said to him,
"You are not yet fifty years old and you have seen Abraham?"
Jesus said to them, "Amen, amen, I say to you,
before Abraham came to be, I AM."
So they picked up stones to throw at him;
but Jesus hid and went out of the temple area.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Jn 8:51-59

St. John’s Gospel continues Jesus’ dialogue with the Jews in the Temple area. He again alludes to the resurrection of the faithful (“…whoever keeps my word will never see death”), but these Jews either do not understand or do not believe in the resurrection. They challenge Jesus, asking if he places himself above Abraham and the prophets who died.

In response, the Lord reiterates his relationship to the Father, and in doing so makes clear that Abraham would have recognized his status because he (Jesus) is eternal (“…before Abraham came to be, I Am”). Jesus uses the title God ascribes to himself and that is reserved to the Logos, the word made flesh.

Not understanding the truth of Jesus’ words, the Jews “picked up stones” to punish him for blasphemy but Jesus left the temple area.

CCC: Jn 8:55 473; Jn 8:58 590; Jn 8:59 574
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

John 9:1-41*

#31A Solemnities A Context (4th Sunday of Lent)

#243 Weekday Years I & II Context (Optional Mass of the 4th Week of Lent)

As Jesus passed by he saw a man blind from birth.
His disciples asked him,
“Rabbi, who sinned, this man or his parents,
that he was born blind?”
Jesus answered,
“Neither he nor his parents sinned;
it is so that the works of God might be made visible through him.
We have to do the works of the one who sent me while it is day.
Night is coming when no one can work.
While I am in the world, I am the light of the world.”
When he had said this, he spat on the ground
and made clay with the saliva,
and smeared the clay on his eyes,
and said to him,
“Go wash in the Pool of Siloam” —which means Sent—.
So he went and washed, and came back able to see.

His neighbors and those who had seen him earlier as a beggar said,
“Isn’t this the one who used to sit and beg?”
Some said, “It is, “
but others said, “No, he just looks like him.”
He said, “I am.”
So they said to him, “How were your eyes opened?”
He replied,
“The man called Jesus made clay and anointed my eyes
and told me, ‘Go to Siloam and wash.’
So I went there and washed and was able to see.”
And they said to him, “Where is he?”
He said, “I don’t know.”

They brought the one who was once blind to the Pharisees.
Now Jesus had made clay and opened his eyes on a sabbath.
So then the Pharisees also asked him how he was able to see.
He said to them,
“He put clay on my eyes, and I washed, and now I can see.”
So some of the Pharisees said,
“This man is not from God,
because he does not keep the sabbath.”
But others said,
“How can a sinful man do such signs?”
And there was a division among them.
So they said to the blind man again,
“What do you have to say about him,
since he opened your eyes?”
He said, “He is a prophet.”

Now the Jews did not believe
that he had been blind and gained his sight
until they summoned the parents of the one who had gained his sight.
They asked them,
“Is this your son, who you say was born blind?
How does he now see?”
His parents answered and said,
“We know that this is our son and that he was born blind.
We do not know how he sees now,
nor do we know who opened his eyes.
Ask him, he is of age;
he can speak for himself.”
His parents said this because they were afraid
of the Jews, for the Jews had already agreed
that if anyone acknowledged him as the Christ,
he would be expelled from the synagogue.
For this reason his parents said,
“He is of age; question him.”

So a second time they called the man who had been blind
and said to him, “Give God the praise!
We know that this man is a sinner.”
He replied,
“If he is a sinner, I do not know.
One thing I do know is that I was blind and now I see.”
So they said to him,
“What did he do to you?
How did he open your eyes?”
He answered them,
“I told you already and you did not listen.
Why do you want to hear it again?

Do you want to become his disciples, too?”
They ridiculed him and said,
“You are that man’s disciple;
we are disciples of Moses!
We know that God spoke to Moses,
but we do not know where this one is from.”
The man answered and said to them,
“This is what is so amazing,
that you do not know where he is from, yet he opened my eyes.
We know that God does not listen to sinners,
but if one is devout and does his will, he listens to him.
It is unheard of that anyone ever opened the eyes of a person born blind.
If this man were not from God,
he would not be able to do anything.”
They answered and said to him,
“You were born totally in sin,
and are you trying to teach us?”
Then they threw him out.

When Jesus heard that they had thrown him out,
he found him and said, (Do you believe in the Son of Man?”
He answered and said,
“Who is he, sir, that I may believe in him?”
Jesus said to him,
“You have seen him,
the one speaking with you is he.”
He said,
“I do believe, Lord,” and he worshiped him.
Then Jesus said,
“I came into this world for judgment,
so that those who do not see might see,
and those who do see might become blind.”

Some of the Pharisees who were with him heard this
and said to him, “Surely we are not also blind, are we?”
Jesus said to them,
“If you were blind, you would have no sin;
but now you are saying, ‘We see,’ so your sin remains.
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Commentary on Jn 9:1-41

The story of the healing of the man born blind is the sixth sign that Jesus is the Son of God from St. John’s Gospel. In this story we are presented with Jesus as “The light of the world”. The story provides a number of key theological points that help understand the mission of Christ.

The first of these points is the understanding that sin is not inherited. The Jews believed that the man born blind had inherited sin ("Rabbi, who sinned, this man or his parents, that he was born blind?") This understanding would have been shared by the Pharisees in that it was supported by both tradition and Old Testament Scripture (Exodus 20:5).

Next we see that the Pharisees are accusing Jesus of violating the Sabbath, considering it “work” to cure a person on that day when all work was to cease. The logic that flowed from this was that Jesus could not he a Prophet (much less the Messiah) if he did not keep the scrupulous Pharisaic Laws governing the Sabbath.

The references to the miracle were clearly disturbing to the people of the Jewish community as we hear even the parents of the man born blind avoiding validating Jesus’ standing as prophet or Messiah for fear of be called blasphemous and being thrown out or shunned by the faith community. This is what happened to the man born blind as he continued to argue that Jesus was from God and that he was the Messiah. This reaction/rejection attitude about Jesus as Messiah was formalized by the Jewish hierarchy around 85 A.D. when the curse against the minim or heretics was introduced into the "Eighteen Benedictions."

CCC: Jn 9:6 1151, 1504; Jn 9:7 1504; Jn 9:16-17 595; Jn 9:16 596, 2173; Jn 9:22 575, 596; Jn 9:31 2827; Jn  9:34 588; Jn 9:40-41 588
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Or
Shorter Form : John 9:1, 6-9, 13-17, 34-38

As Jesus passed by he saw a man blind from birth.
He spat on the ground and made clay with the saliva,
and smeared the clay on his eyes,
and said to him,
“Go wash in the Pool of Siloam” — which means Sent —.
So he went and washed, and came back able to see.

His neighbors and those who had seen him earlier as a beggar said,
“Isn’t this the one who used to sit and beg?”
Some said, “It is, “
but others said, “No, he just looks like him.”
He said, “I am.”

They brought the one who was once blind to the Pharisees.
Now Jesus had made clay and opened his eyes on a sabbath.
So then the Pharisees also asked him how he was able to see.
He said to them,
“He put clay on my eyes, and I washed, and now I can see.”
So some of the Pharisees said,
“This man is not from God,
because he does not keep the sabbath.”
But others said,
“How can a sinful man do such signs?”
And there was a division among them.
So they said to the blind man again,
“What do you have to say about him,
since he opened your eyes?”
He said, “He is a prophet.”

They answered and said to him,
“You were born totally in sin,
and are you trying to teach us?”
Then they threw him out.

When Jesus heard that they had thrown him out,
he found him and said, “Do you believe in the Son of Man?”
He answered and said,
“Who is he, sir, that I may believe in him?”
Jesus said to him,
“You have seen him, and
the one speaking with you is he.”
He said,
“I do believe, Lord,” and he worshiped him.
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Commentary on Jn 9:1, 6-9, 13-17, 34-38

The shorter form of the story omits the iterative nature of the questioning of the Pharisees, their own condemnation as being blind, and skips straight to Jesus’ profession of faith and that of the man born blind as he replied to Jesus question concerning his identity with the profession: “’I do believe, Lord,’ and he worshiped him.”

CCC: Jn 9:6 1151, 1504; Jn 9:7 1504; Jn 9:16-17 595; Jn 9:16 596, 2173; Jn  9:34 588; Jn 9:40-41 588
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John 9:1-7

#760 Ritual Mass Context (I. For the Conferral of Christian Initiation, 2. Conferral of Infant Baptism, 10.)

#795 Ritual Mass Context (V. For the Pastoral Care for the Sick and Dying, 1. Anointing of the Sick, 19.)

As Jesus passed by he saw a man blind from birth.
His disciples asked him,
“Rabbi, who sinned, this man or his parents,
that he was born blind?”
Jesus answered,
“Neither he nor his parents sinned;
it is so that the works of God might be made visible through him.
We have to do the works of the one who sent me while it is day.
Night is coming when no one can work.
While I am in the world, I am the light of the world.”
When he had said this, he spat on the ground
and made clay with the saliva,
and smeared the clay on his eyes,
and said to him,
“Go wash in the Pool of Siloam” (which means Sent).
So he went and washed, and came back able to see.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Jn 9:1-7

The story of the healing of the man born blind is the sixth sign that Jesus is the Son of God from St. John’s Gospel. In this story we are presented with Jesus as “The light of the world”. The story provides a key theological point that help understand the mission of Christ.

The point is the understanding that sin is not inherited. The Jews believed that the man born blind had inherited sin ("Rabbi, who sinned, this man or his parents, that he was born blind?") This understanding would have been shared by the Pharisees in that it was supported by both tradition and Old Testament Scripture (Exodus 20:5).

Jesus goes on to cure the man, explaining that his blindness and cure were intended to demonstrate to all God's greatness and the depth of his mercy.

CCC: Jn 9:6 1151, 1504; Jn 9:7 1504
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John 10:1-10

#49A Solemnities A Context (4th Sunday of Easter A)

#279 Weekday Years I & II Context (Monday of the 4th Week of Easter) Note: designated only in Cycle A the alternate reading John 10:11-18 is used in years B&C.

Jesus said:
“Amen, amen, I say to you,
whoever does not enter a sheepfold through the gate
but climbs over elsewhere is a thief and a robber.
But whoever enters through the gate is the shepherd of the sheep.
The gatekeeper opens it for him, and the sheep hear his voice,
as the shepherd calls his own sheep by name and leads them out.
When he has driven out all his own,
he walks ahead of them, and the sheep follow him,
because they recognize his voice.
But they will not follow a stranger;
they will run away from him,
because they do not recognize the voice of strangers.”
Although Jesus used this figure of speech,
the Pharisees did not realize what he was trying to tell them.

So Jesus said again, “Amen, amen, I say to you,
I am the gate for the sheep.
All who came before me are thieves and robbers,
but the sheep did not listen to them.
I am the gate.
Whoever enters through me will be saved,
and will come in and go out and find pasture.
A thief comes only to steal and slaughter and destroy;
I came so that they might have life and have it more abundantly.”
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Jn 10:1-10

“The good shepherd discourse continues the theme of attack on the Pharisees that ends John 9. The figure is allegorical: the hired hands are the Pharisees who excommunicated the cured blind man. It serves as a commentary on John 9. For the shepherd motif, used of Yahweh in the Old Testament, cf Exodus 34; Genesis 48:15; 49:24; Micah 7:14; Psalm 23:1-4; Psalm 80:1.” [19]

In the opening verses, the Lord’s analogy to the sheep not entering through the sheep gate reiterates the message explicitly stated in the Bread of Life discourse – no one comes to the Father except through the Son. He continues to explain in detail that he is the gate – and that to deny him as the Son of God leads not to the Father but to death. But, whoever comes to Him will be saved (“…might have life and have it more abundantly.”)

CCC: Jn 10:1-21 764; Jn 10:11-15 754; Jn 10:11 553, 754; Jn 10:16 60; Jn 10:17-18 614, 649; Jn 10:17 606; Jn 10:18 609
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

John 10:11-18

#50B Solemnities B Context (4th Sunday of Easter B)

#279 Weekday Years I & II Context (Monday of the 4th Week of Easter) Note: in Cycles A and B when this passage is used on the 4th Sunday of Easter, the alternate John 10:1-10 is used.

#601B Proper of Saints Context (St. Apollinaris, Jul 20)+

#795 Ritual Mass Context (V. Pastoral Care of the Sick and Dying, 1. Anointing of the Sick, 20)

#1000 Votive Mass Context (The Most Sacred Heart of Jesus, 4.)

Jesus said:
“I am the good shepherd.
A good shepherd lays down his life for the sheep.
A hired man, who is not a shepherd
and whose sheep are not his own,
sees a wolf coming and leaves the sheep and runs away,
and the wolf catches and scatters them.
This is because he works for pay and has no concern for the sheep.
I am the good shepherd,
and I know mine and mine know me,
just as the Father knows me and I know the Father;
and I will lay down my life for the sheep.
I have other sheep that do not belong to this fold.
These also I must lead, and they will hear my voice,
and there will be one flock, one shepherd.
This is why the Father loves me,
because I lay down my life in order to take it up again.
No one takes it from me, but I lay it down on my own.
I have power to lay it down, and power to take it up again.
This command I have received from my Father.”
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Jn 10:11-18

We come to the climax of Jesus' debates with the Jewish leadership. This discourse intensifies our consideration of the topic of Jesus, the Good Shepherd. Here the Lord differentiates his love for humanity against those who do not take ownership of their charge. "'He did what he said he would do,' St. Gregory comments; 'He gave his life for his sheep, and he gave his body and blood in the Sacrament to nourish with His flesh the sheep He had redeemed' (In Evangelia Homilae, 14, ad loc.)." [22]

The Lord is in the temple precincts at this point. He came there at a time when many Jews from all over the region would be there, the Feast of Hanukkah. Here he contrasts himself (the Good Shepherd) with false shepherds (see Ezekiel 34:1-16), presumably the Pharisees who fail to recognize him as the Messiah.

Using the analogy of the sheepfold, he reminds the listener that all manner of people may enter a sheepfold. Those “false shepherds” scatter the sheep and they fall to utter ruin. But only the rightful owner will be recognized by the sheep and find safety (salvation). The analogy concludes with the universal statement of unity “…there will be one flock, one shepherd."

The final verses speak directly of Jesus’ death and resurrection for the salvation of all: “I lay down my life in order to take it up again.” Special emphasis is placed on Jesus’ ability to lay his life down and take it up through the power he has been given by the Father. We note a contrast here between God’s active role in the resurrection (see Acts 2:24; Acts 4:10.; Romans 1:4; 4:24.) with Jesus' stated power to take up his own life. But even here, credit is given to the Father (“This command I have received from my Father.")

CCC: Jn 10:11-15 754; Jn 10:11 553, 754; Jn 10:16 60; Jn 10:17-18 614, 649; Jn 10:17 606; Jn 10:18 609
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John 10:11-16

#553A^ Proper of Saints Context (St. Adalbert, Apr 23)

#577 Proper of Saints Context (St. Boniface Jun 5)

#670 Proper of Saints Context (St. Charles Borromeo Nov 4)

#688 Proper of Saints Context (St. Ambrose Dec 7)

#724 Commons Context (Common of Pastors)

#774 Ritual Mass Context (II. For the Conferral of Holy Orders, 8. )

#847 Mass for Various Needs Context (I. For the Holy Church, 5. For Priests, 5.)

#871 Mass for Various Needs Context (I. For the Holy Church, 10. For the Unity of Christians, 3. )

Jesus said:
"I am the good shepherd.
A good shepherd lays down his life for the sheep.
A hired man, who is not a shepherd
and whose sheep are not his own,
sees a wolf coming and leaves the sheep and runs away,
and the wolf catches and scatters them.
This is because he works for pay and has no concern for the sheep.
I am the good shepherd,
and I know mine and mine know me,
just as the Father knows me and I know the Father;
and I will lay down my life for the sheep.
I have other sheep that do not belong to this fold.
These also I must lead, and they will hear my voice,
and there will be one flock, one shepherd."
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Jn 10:11-16

We come to the climax of Jesus' debates with the Jewish leadership. He is in the temple precincts now. He came there at a time when many of those from all over the region would be there, the Feast of Hanukkah. Here he contrasts himself (the Good Shepherd) with false shepherds (see Ezekiel 34:1-16), presumably the Pharisees who fail to recognize him. Using the analogy of the sheepfold, he reminds the listener that all manner of people may enter a sheepfold. Those “false shepherds” scatter the sheep and they fall to utter ruin. But only the rightful owner will be recognized by the sheep and bring safety (salvation). The passage concludes with the universal statement of unity: “…there will be one flock, one shepherd."

CCC: Jn 10:11-15 754; Jn 10:11 553, 754; Jn 10:16 60
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John 10:22-30

#280 Weekday Years I & II Context (Tuesday of the fourth Week of Easter)

The feast of the Dedication was taking place in Jerusalem.
It was winter.
And Jesus walked about in the temple area on the Portico of Solomon.
So the Jews gathered around him and said to him,
"How long are you going to keep us in suspense?
If you are the Christ, tell us plainly."
Jesus answered them, "I told you and you do not believe.
The works I do in my Father's name testify to me.
But you do not believe, because you are not among my sheep.
My sheep hear my voice;
I know them, and they follow me.
I give them eternal life, and they shall never perish.
No one can take them out of my hand.
My Father, who has given them to me, is greater than all,
and no one can take them out of the Father's hand.
The Father and I are one."
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Jn 10:22-30

This is the conclusion of Jesus’ debates with the Jewish leadership. He is in the temple precincts at this point. He came there at a time when many of those from all over the region would be there, the Feast of Hanukkah. They press him to state plainly whether or not he is the Messiah. His final response, again using the “Good Shepherd” analogy, is a chain of logic that leads to his final statement: “The Father and I are one.

This passage is set within the great discourse of Jesus at the Feast of the Dedication of the Temple. The topic sets the stage for the second theme, “Jesus the life.” [The first theme was “Jesus as light”] The “Good Shepherd” takes the sheep, his flock, as his own possession, represented by the faithful. As this passage concludes, we hear conclusively that the Lord is one with the Father, truly God as well as true man. “The Lord utters one of his ‘hard sayings’ which evoke the wrath of the Jews, ‘the Father and I are one.’ In context, Jesus is amplifying his statement that no one can snatch the sheep from him because they have been given him by the father; Father and Son are one in mind, will, and action.” [13]

“The shepherd was often depicted as the self-sacrificing caretaker of sheep who was dedicated to their well-being, brought back strays, and kept them safe from the many dangers of the world (cf. 1 Samuel 17:34-35Psalm 23:2Amos 3:12Matthew 18:12). Thus the Lord was the Shepherd of Israel in poetic language (Genesis 49:24Psalm 80:2). He led his people through the desert like a shepherd leading his flock (Psalm 77:20Psalm 78:52). The trust that the Israelite should have in the Lord is epitomized by Psalm 23.”[14]

CCC: Jn 10:22-23 583; Jn 10:25 548, 582; Jn 10:30 590
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John 10:27-30

#51C Solemnities C Context (4th Sunday of Easter C)

Jesus said:
“My sheep hear my voice;
I know them, and they follow me.
I give them eternal life, and they shall never perish.
No one can take them out of my hand.
My Father, who has given them to me, is greater than all,
and no one can take them out of the Father’s hand.
The Father and I are one.”
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Jn 10:27-30

This passage is set within the great discourse of Jesus at the Feast of the Dedication of the Temple. The topic sets the stage for the second theme, “Jesus the life.” [The first theme was “Jesus as light”] The “Good Shepherd” takes the sheep, his flock, as his own possession, represented by the faithful. As this passage concludes, we hear conclusively that the Lord is one with the Father, truly God as well as true man. “The Lord utters one of his ‘hard sayings’ which evoke the wrath of the Jews, ‘the Father and I are one.’ In context, Jesus is amplifying his statement that no one can snatch the sheep from him because they have been given him by the father; Father and Son are one in mind, will, and action.” [13]

“The shepherd was often depicted as the self-sacrificing caretaker of sheep who was dedicated to their well-being, brought back strays, and kept them safe from the many dangers of the world (cf. 1 Samuel 17:34-35; Psalm 23:2; Amos 3:12; Matthew 18:12). Thus the Lord was the Shepherd of Israel in poetic language (Genesis 49:24; Psalm 80:2). He led his people through the desert like a shepherd leading his flock (Psalm 77:20; Psalm 78:52). The trust that the Israelite should have in the Lord is epitomized by Psalm 23.”[14]

CCC: Jn 10:30 590
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John 10:31-42

#255 Weekday Years I & II Context (Friday of the 5th Week of Lent)

The Jews picked up rocks to stone Jesus.
Jesus answered them, "I have shown you many good works from my Father.
For which of these are you trying to stone me?"
The Jews answered him,
"We are not stoning you for a good work but for blasphemy.
You, a man, are making yourself God."
Jesus answered them,
"Is it not written in your law, 'I said, You are gods"'?
If it calls them gods to whom the word of God came,
and Scripture cannot be set aside,
can you say that the one
whom the Father has consecrated and sent into the world
blasphemes because I said, 'I am the Son of God'?
If I do not perform my Father's works, do not believe me;
but if I perform them, even if you do not believe me,
believe the works, so that you may realize and understand
that the Father is in me and I am in the Father."
Then they tried again to arrest him;
but he escaped from their power.

He went back across the Jordan
to the place where John first baptized, and there he remained.
Many came to him and said,
"John performed no sign,
but everything John said about this man was true."
And many there began to believe in him.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Jn 10:31-42

Jesus is in the Temple at Jerusalem, once again on a festival day (probably the Feast of the Dedication or Festival of Lights). He has just finished his discourse on the Good Shepherd and a number of those present are pressing him to declare that he is the Messiah. Immediately preceding this reading, he answered them, “The Father and I are one.” Now his enemies pick up stones ready to punish him for this blasphemy.

Instead of leaving immediately, Jesus tells them to look at his works, the signs he has performed, and judge if he is not doing the Father’s work. When they tell him it is not his works they challenge but his assertion that he is God, Jesus tells them: “Is it not written in your law, 'I said, You are gods'?” This is a reference to the judges of Israel who, since they exercised the divine prerogative to judge (Deuteronomy 1:17), were called "gods"; cf Exodus 21:6, in addition to Psalm 82:6 from which the quotation comes.

Jesus continues to point at his salvific actions, but the agents of the Sanhedrin do not accept this argument, although many in the crowd do since we hear: “…they tried again to arrest him; but he escaped their power.” This would seem to imply that they feared intervention from the crowd. Jesus leaves followed by “many” and continues to teach, across the Jordan.

CCC: Jn 10:31-38 548; Jn 10:31 574; Jn 10:33 574, 589, 594; Jn 10:36-38 591; Jn 10:36 437, 444, 1562; Jn 10:37-38 582; Jn 10:38 548
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John 11:1-45*

#34A Solemnities A Context (5th Sunday of Lent A)

#35B Solemnities B Context (5th Sunday of Lent B)

#36C Solemnities C Context (5th Sunday of Lent C)

#250 Weekdays Years I & II Context (Optional Mass of the 5th Week of Lent)

Now a man was ill, Lazarus from Bethany,
the village of Mary and her sister Martha.
Mary was the one who had anointed the Lord with perfumed oil
and dried his feet with her hair;
it was her brother Lazarus who was ill.

So the sisters sent word to him saying,
“Master, the one you love is ill.”
when Jesus heard this he said,
“This illness is not to end in death,
but is for the glory of God,
that the Son of God may be glorified through it.”
Now Jesus loved Martha and her sister and Lazarus.
So when he heard that he was ill,
he remained for two days in the place where he was.
Then after this he said to his disciples,
“Let us go back to Judea.”
The disciples said to him,
“Rabbi, the Jews were just trying to stone you,
and you want to go back there?”
Jesus answered,
“Are there not twelve hours in a day?
If one walks during the day, he does not stumble,
because he sees the light of this world.
But if one walks at night, he stumbles,
because the light is not in him.”
He said this, and then told them,
“Our friend Lazarus is asleep,
but I am going to awaken him.”
So the disciples said to him,
“Master, if he is asleep, he will be saved.”
But Jesus was talking about his death,
while they thought that he meant ordinary sleep.
So then Jesus said to them clearly,
“Lazarus has died.
And I am glad for you that I was not there,
that you may believe.
Let us go to him.”
So Thomas, called Didymus, said to his fellow disciples,
“Let us also go to die with him.”

When Jesus arrived, he found that Lazarus
had already been in the tomb for four days.
Now Bethany was near Jerusalem, only about two miles away.
And many of the Jews had come to Martha and Mary
to comfort them about their brother.
When Martha heard that Jesus was coming,
she went to meet him;
but Mary sat at home.
Martha said to Jesus,
“Lord, if you had been here,
my brother would not have died.
But even now I know that whatever you ask of God,
God will give you.”
Jesus said to her,

“Your brother will rise.”
Martha said to him,
“I know he will rise,
in the resurrection on the last day.”
Jesus told her,
“I am the resurrection and the life;
whoever believes in me, even if he dies, will live,
and everyone who lives and believes in me will never die.
Do you believe this?”
She said to him, “Yes, Lord.
I have come to believe that you are the Christ, the Son of God,
the one who is coming into the world.”

When she had said this,
she went and called her sister Mary secretly, saying,
“The teacher is here and is asking for you.”
As soon as she heard this,
she rose quickly and went to him.
For Jesus had not yet come into the village,
but was still where Martha had met him.
So when the Jews who were with her in the house comforting her
saw Mary get up quickly and go out,
they followed her,
presuming that she was going to the tomb to weep there.
When Mary came to where Jesus was and saw him,
she fell at his feet and said to him,
“Lord, if you had been here,
my brother would not have died.”
When Jesus saw her weeping and the Jews who had come with her weeping,
he became perturbed and deeply troubled, and said,
“Where have you laid him?”
They said to him, “Sir, come and see.”
And Jesus wept.
So the Jews said, “See how he loved him.”
But some of them said,
“Could not the one who opened the eyes of the blind man
have done something so that this man would not have died?”

So Jesus, perturbed again, came to the tomb.
It was a cave, and a stone lay across it.
Jesus said, “Take away the stone.”
Martha, the dead man’s sister, said to him,
“Lord, by now there will be a stench;
he has been dead for four days.”
Jesus said to her,
“Did I not tell you that if you believe
you will see the glory of God?”
So they took away the stone.
And Jesus raised his eyes and said,

“Father, I thank you for hearing me.
I know that you always hear me;
but because of the crowd here I have said this,
that they may believe that you sent me.”
And when he had said this,
He cried out in a loud voice,
“Lazarus, come out!”
The dead man came out,
tied hand and foot with burial bands,
and his face was wrapped in a cloth.
So Jesus said to them,
“Untie him and let him go.”

Now many of the Jews who had come to Mary
and seen what he had done began to believe in him.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Jn 11:1-45

We join Jesus’ last journey to Jerusalem recounted in St. John’s Gospel. The story of Lazarus’ resurrection is part of what is known as “The seventh sign”. The Jerome Biblical Commentary does a nice job of summarizing the purpose: “In the narration of this miracle Jn gives at one and the same time a supreme proof of the Lord's life-giving power and a visualization of the doctrine contained in the conversation of vv. 23-27. The miracle literally fulfills the words of Jesus in 5:28; it is a sign, therefore, both of the final resurrection and of the rising from sin to grace that takes place in the soul of the believer.”[2]

Within the story we see the very human emotions of Jesus they range from confidence in his relationship with the Father at the end of the story to the all too human grief and fear as he expresses his concern at what this revelatory event has cost his close friends, Martha and Mary, as they see their brother die. This exchange of fear for faith seen in the witnesses is the same conversion the Gospel attempts to initiate in the Christian faithful in response to these events.

CCC: Jn 11 994; Jn 11:24 993, 1001; Jn 11:25 994; Jn 11:27 439; Jn 11:28 581; Jn 11:34 472; Jn 11:39 627; Jn 11:41-42 2604; Jn 11:44 640
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

OR
Shorter Form: John 11:3-7, 17, 20-27, 33b-45

The sisters of Lazarus sent word to Jesus, saying,
“Master, the one you love is ill.”
When Jesus heard this he said,
“This illness is not to end in death,
but is for the glory of God,
that the Son of God may be glorified through it.”
Now Jesus loved Martha and her sister and Lazarus.
So when he heard that he was ill,
he remained for two days in the place where he was.
Then after this he said to his disciples,
+Let us go back to Judea.”

When Jesus arrived, he found that Lazarus
had already been in the tomb for four days.
When Martha heard that Jesus was coming,
she went to meet him;
but Mary sat at home.
Martha said to Jesus,
“Lord, if you had been here,
my brother would not have died.
But even now I know that whatever you ask of God,
God will give you.”
Jesus said to her,

“Your brother will rise.”
Martha said,
“I know he will rise,
in the resurrection on the last day.”
Jesus told her,
“I am the resurrection and the life;
whoever believes in me, even if he dies, will live,
and everyone who lives and believes in me will never die.
Do you believe this?”
She said to him, “Yes, Lord.
I have come to believe that you are the Christ, the Son of God,
the one who is coming into the world.”

He became perturbed and deeply troubled, and said,
“Where have you laid him?”
They said to him, “Sir, come and see.”
And Jesus wept.
So the Jews said, “See how he loved him.”
But some of them said,
“Could not the one who opened the eyes of the blind man
have done something so that this man would not have died?”

So Jesus, perturbed again, came to the tomb.
It was a cave, and a stone lay across it.
Jesus said, “Take away the stone.”
Martha, the dead man’s sister, said to him,
“Lord, by now there will be a stench;
he has been dead for four days.”
Jesus said to her,
“Did I not tell you that if you believe
you will see the glory of God?”
So they took away the stone.
And Jesus raised his eyes and said,
“Father, I thank you for hearing me.
I know that you always hear me;
but because of the crowd here I have said this,
that they may believe that you sent me.”
And when he had said this,
He cried out in a loud voice,
“Lazarus, come out!”
The dead man came out,
tied hand and foot with burial bands,
and his face was wrapped in a cloth.
So Jesus said to them,
“Untie him and let him go.”

Now many of the Jews who had come to Mary
and seen what he had done began to believe in him.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Jn 11:3-7, 17, 20-27, 33b-45

Perhaps the most significant omission from the Lazarus story in this shortened form is the subtext around the situation in Bethany and the danger Jesus walked into. Also left out was the disciples reluctance to take that path knowing that the Jewish leadership in Jerusalem was plotting against him. We see that clearly when St. Thomas says, as they are departing “Let us also go to die with him.” The shorter form removes the story from the context of the journey toward the cross and establishes it as a proof of the identity of Jesus.

CCC: Jn 11 994; Jn 11:24 993, 1001; Jn 11:25 994; Jn 11:27 439; Jn 11:34 472; Jn 11:39 627; Jn 11:41-42 2604; Jn 11:44 640
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John 11:17-27*

#668^ Proper of Saints Context (The Commemoration of All the Faithful Departed, Nov 2)

#1016 Mass for the Dead Context (14.) [Shorter Form Offered]

When Jesus arrived in Bethany, he found that Lazarus
had already been in the tomb for four days.
Now Bethany was near Jerusalem, only about two miles away.
Many of the Jews had come to Martha and Mary
to comfort them about their brother.
When Martha heard that Jesus was coming,
she went to meet him;
but Mary sat at home.
Martha said to Jesus,
"Lord, if you had been here,
my brother would not have died.
But even now I know that whatever you ask of God,
God will give you."
Jesus said to her,
"Your brother will rise."
Martha said to him,
"I know he will rise,
in the resurrection on the last day."
Jesus told her,
"I am the resurrection and the life;
whoever believes in me, even if he dies, will live,
and everyone who lives and believes in me will never die.
Do you believe this?"
She said to him, "Yes, Lord.
I have come to believe that you are the Christ, the Son of God,
the one who is coming into the world."
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Jn 11:17-27

Within the story or the death and resurrection of Lazarus we see the very human emotions of Jesus they range from confidence in his relationship with the Father at the end of the story to the all too human grief and fear as he expresses his concern at what this revelatory event has cost his close friends, Martha and Mary, as they see their brother die. The encounter describes how Martha’s fear and remorse change to faith as she makes her profession of faith (“I have come to believe that you are the Christ, the Son of God”) This exchange of fear for faith seen in the witnesses is the same conversion the Gospel attempts to initiate in the Christian faithful in response to these events.

CCC: Jn 11 994; Jn 11:24 993, 1001; Jn 11:25 994; Jn 11:27 439
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
OR
Shorter Form: John 11:21-27

Martha said to Jesus,
"Lord, if you had been here,
my brother would not have died.
But even now I know that whatever you ask of God,
God will give you."
Jesus said to her,
"Your brother will rise."
Martha said to him,
"1 know he will rise,
in the resurrection on the last day."
Jesus told her,
"I am the resurrection and the life;
whoever believes in me, even if he dies, will live,
and everyone who lives and believes in me will never die.
Do you believe this?"
She said to him, "Yes, Lord.
I have come to believe that you are the Christ, the Son of God,
the one who is coming into the world."
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Jn 11:21-27

This shorter form within the story of Lazarus being raised from the dead begins with Martha's profession of faith in Jesus and in the resurrection. In stating the "I am the resurrection and the life;" Jesus identifies himself as having power over life and death, something only the Son of God may poses.

The final exchange, as Jesus asks Martha if she believes Jesus is that power, the Messiah, is the basis for the hope of all Christians. Those who believe in Jesus will have eternal life in heaven.

CCC: Jn 11 994; Jn 11:24 993, 1001; Jn 11:25 994; Jn 11:27 439
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

John 11:19-27

#607 Proper of Saints Context (St. Martha, Jul 29)

Many of the Jews had come to Martha and Mary
to comfort them about their brother [Lazarus, who had died].
When Martha heard that Jesus was coming,
she went to meet him; but Mary sat at home.
Martha said to Jesus,
"Lord, if you had been here,
my brother would not have died.
But even now I know that whatever you ask of God,
God will give you." Jesus said to her,
"Your brother will rise."
Martha said to him,
"I know he will rise,
in the resurrection on the last day."
Jesus told her,
"I am the resurrection and the life;
whoever believes in me, even if he dies, will live,
and anyone who lives and believes in me will never die.
Do you believe this?"
She said to him, "Yes, Lord.
I have come to believe that you are the Christ, the Son of God,
the one who is coming into the world."
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Jn 11:19-27

Within the story of the death and resurrection of Lazarus, we see the very human emotions of Jesus. They range from confidence in his relationship with the Father at the end of the story, to the all-too-human grief and fear, as he expresses his concern at what this revelatory event has cost his close friends, Martha and Mary, as they see their brother die. The encounter describes how Martha’s fear and remorse change to faith as she makes her profession of faith (“I have come to believe that you are the Christ, the Son of God”). This exchange of fear for faith, seen in the witnesses, is the same conversion the Gospel attempts to initiate in the Christian faithful in response to these events.

CCC: Jn 11 994; Jn 11:24 993, 1001; Jn 11:25 994; Jn 11:27 439
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

John 11:32-45

#668^ Proper of Saints Context (The Commemoration of All the Faithful Departed, Nov 2)

#1016 Mass for the Dead, Context (15.)

When Mary came to where Jesus was and saw him,
she fell at his feet and said to him,
"Lord, if you had been here,
my brother would not have died."
When Jesus saw her weeping and the Jews who had come with her
weeping,
he became perturbed and deeply troubled, and said,
"Where have you laid him?"
They said to him, "Sir, come and see."
And Jesus wept.
So the Jews said, "See how he loved him."
But some of them said,
"Could not the one who opened the eyes of the blind man
have done something so that this man would not have died?"

So Jesus, perturbed again, came to the tomb.
It was a cave, and a stone lay across it.
Jesus said, "Take away the stone."
Martha, the dead man's sister, said to him,
"Lord, by now there will be a stench;
he has been dead for four days."
Jesus said to her,
"Did I not tell you that if you believe
you will see the glory of God?"
So they took away the stone.
And Jesus raised his eyes and said,
"Father, I thank you for hearing me.
I know that you always hear me;
but because of the crowd here I have said this,
that they may believe that you sent me."
And when he had said this,
he cried out in a loud voice,
"Lazarus, come out!"
The dead man came out,
tied hand and foot with burial bands,
and his face was wrapped in a cloth.
So Jesus said to the crowd,
"Untie him and let him go."

Now many of the Jews who had come to Mary
and seen what he had done began to believe in him.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Jn 11:32-45

Within the story or the death and resurrection of Lazarus we see the very human emotions of Jesus they range from confidence in his relationship with the Father at the end of the story to the all too human grief and fear as he expresses his concern at what this revelatory event has cost his close friends, Martha and Mary, as they see their brother die.

Here, as he meets Martha's sister Mary (the one who sat at his feet as he spoke in Luke 10:39). Mary show the depth of her faith immediately as she makes the profession "Lord, if you had been here, my brother would not have died." The members of the Jewish community see the Lord's reaction to the pain Mary, here sister Martha, and their friends. As he weeps, they believe it is because of his love of Lazarus, not understanding that in the Jesus' eyes, Lazarus was not going to die, but provide yet another proof of the power Jesus has over sin and death.

The Lord proceeds to call Lazarus out of his tomb, still wrapped in the traditional burial wrappings. With Jesus command "Untie him and let him go" the Jesus effectively proclaims his mastery of death and sin. All of this is done to the greater glory of the Father as was stated in Jesus prayer.

CCC: Jn 11 994; Jn 11:34 472; Jn 11:39 627; Jn 11:41-42 2604; Jn 11:44 640
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

John 11:32-38,40

1022 Mass for  the Dead Context (Funerals for Baptized Children, 5.)

When Mary came to where Jesus was and saw him,
she fell at his feet and said to him,
"Lord, if you had been here,
my brother would not have died."
When Jesus saw her weeping and the Jews who had come with her
weeping,
he became perturbed and deeply troubled, and said,
"Where have you laid him?"
They said to him, "Sir, come and see."
And Jesus wept.
So the Jews said, "See how he loved him."
But some of them said,
"Could not the one who opened the eyes of the blind man
have done something so that this man would not have died?"

So Jesus, perturbed again, came to the tomb.
It was a cave, and a stone lay across it.
"Did I not tell you that if you believe
you will see the glory of God?"

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Jn 11:32-38, 40

Within the story or the death and resurrection of Lazarus we see the very human emotions of Jesus they range from confidence in his relationship with the Father at the end of the story to the all too human grief and fear as he expresses his concern at what this revelatory event has cost his close friends, Martha and Mary, as they see their brother die.

Here, as he meets Martha's sister Mary (the one who sat at his feet as he spoke in Luke 10:39). Mary show the depth of her faith immediately as she makes the profession "Lord, if you had been here, my brother would not have died." The members of the Jewish community see the Lord's reaction to the pain Mary, here sister Martha, and their friends. As he weeps, they believe it is because of his love of Lazarus, not understanding that in the Jesus' eyes, Lazarus was not going to die, but provide yet another proof of the power Jesus has over sin and death.

The passage concludes with Jesus reminding Mary that this event has taken place so that God may be glorified for his mercy. Jesus alone is the resurrection and the life.

CCC: Jn 11 994; Jn 11:34 472; Jn 11:39 627
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

John 11:45-56

#256 Weekday Years I & II Context (Saturday of the 5th Week of Lent)

Many of the Jews who had come to Mary
and seen what Jesus had done began to believe in him.
But some of them went to the Pharisees
and told them what Jesus had done.
So the chief priests and the Pharisees
convened the Sanhedrin and said,
"What are we going to do?
This man is performing many signs.
If we leave him alone, all will believe in him,
and the Romans will come
and take away both our land and our nation."
But one of them, Caiaphas,
who was high priest that year, said to them,
"You know nothing,
nor do you consider that it is better for you
that one man should die instead of the people,
so that the whole nation may not perish."
He did not say this on his own,
but since he was high priest for that year,
he prophesied that Jesus was going to die for the nation,
and not only for the nation,
but also to gather into one the dispersed children of God.
So from that day on they planned to kill him.

So Jesus no longer walked about in public among the Jews,
but he left for the region near the desert,
to a town called Ephraim,
and there he remained with his disciples.

Now the Passover of the Jews was near,
and many went up from the country to Jerusalem
before Passover to purify themselves.
They looked for Jesus and said to one another
as they were in the temple area, "What do you think?
That he will not come to the feast?"
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Jn 11:45-56

In the first section of this Gospel reading we can see the dilemma facing the Sanhedrin. The Messiah that God has sent is not the “Royal Messiah” coming to destroy the Roman domination, but a humble servant. If the people of Israel follow him, Rome will wipe Israel from the map.

Caiaphas is introduced as the architect of the ultimate plot to kill Jesus. He unwittingly predicts that Jesus will die to save the whole nation. He does so unwittingly because he does not understand that Jesus is God’s Son; only that he is a political threat. It is ironic that, in making this suggestion Caiaphas has prophetically identified Jesus as the Christ who offers God's salvation to all peoples of all nations.

This ends the period when Jesus was teaching openly in the temple area. He now leaves Jerusalem for a time. The plotting, however, continues as the scribes and Pharisees plan to seize him during the Passover.

CCC: Jn 11:47-48 548; Jn 11:48 596; Jn 11:49-50 596; Jn 11:52 58, 60, 706, 2793
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

John 11:45-52

#871 Mass for Various Needs Context (I. For the Holy Church, 10. For the Unity of Christians, 4.)

#876 Mass for Various Needs Context (I. For the Holy Church, 11. For the Evangelization of Peoples, 4.)

Many of the Jews who had come to Mary
and seen what Jesus had done began to believe in him.
But some of them went to the Pharisees
and told them what Jesus had done.
So the chief priests and the Pharisees
convened the Sanhedrin and said,
"What are we going to do?
This man is performing many signs.
If we leave him alone, all will believe in him,
and the Romans will come
and take away both our land and our nation."
But one of them, Caiaphas,
who was high priest that year, said to them,
"You know nothing,
nor do you consider that it is better for you
that one man should die instead of the people,
so that the whole nation may not perish."
He did not say this on his own,
but since he was high priest for that year,
he prophesied that Jesus was going to die for the nation,
and not only for the nation,
but also to gather into one the dispersed children of God.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Jn 11:45-52

In the first section of this Gospel reading we can see the dilemma facing the Sanhedrin. The Messiah the God has sent is not the “Royal Messiah” coming to destroy the Roman domination but a humble servant. If the people of Israel follow him, Rome will wipe Israel from the map.

Caiaphas is introduced as the architect of the ultimate plot to kill Jesus. He unwittingly predicts that Jesus will die to save the whole nation, unwittingly because he does not understand that Jesus is God’s Son, only that he is a political threat. It is ironic that, in making this suggestion Caiaphas has prophetically identified Jesus as the Christ who offers God's salvation to all peoples of all nations.

CCC: Jn 11:47-48 548; Jn 11:48 596; Jn 11:49-50 596; Jn 11:52 58, 60, 706, 2793
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John 12:1-11

#257 Weekday Years I & II Context (Monday of Holy Week)

Six days before Passover Jesus came to Bethany,
where Lazarus was, whom Jesus had raised from the dead.
They gave a dinner for him there, and Martha served,
while Lazarus was one of those reclining at table with him.
Mary took a liter of costly perfumed oil
made from genuine aromatic nard
and anointed the feet of Jesus and dried them with her hair;
the house was filled with the fragrance of the oil.
Then Judas the Iscariot, one of his disciples,
and the one who would betray him, said,
"Why was this oil not sold for three hundred days' wages
and given to the poor?"
He said this not because he cared about the poor
but because he was a thief and held the money bag
and used to steal the contributions.
So Jesus said, "Leave her alone.
Let her keep this for the day of my burial.
You always have the poor with you, but you do not always have me."
The large crowd of the Jews found out that he was there and came,
not only because of him, but also to see Lazarus,
whom he had raised from the dead.
And the chief priests plotted to kill Lazarus too,
because many of the Jews were turning away
and believing in Jesus because of him.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Jn 12:1-11

In this scene from St. John’s Gospel we are painted a picture of Judas not found in other accounts. John shows him as a greedy and dishonest person. We suspect this understanding of Judas came after his ultimate act of betrayal. At the time it would have seemed like a reasonable question. In St. Mark’s Gospel this event takes place two days before the Passover Feast as opposed to the numerically significant six days mentioned here. The number 6 being the most imperfect number in Hebrew numerology (See Mark 14:1-5).

Jesus again tells the disciples that the time for his trial is at hand as he says to them: “You will always have the poor with you, but you do not always have me.” The sense of finality is growing as we are also told of the plot to kill Lazarus as well as Jesus in an attempt to stamp out the Lord’s popularity among the people.

CCC: Jn 12:8 2449
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

John 12:12-16

37B Solemnities B Context (Palm Sunday of the Lord's Passion B -At the Procession with Palms)

When the great crowd that had come to the feast heard
that Jesus was coming to Jerusalem,
they took palm branches and went out to meet him, and cried out:
"Hosanna!
"Blessed is he who comes in the name of the Lord,
the king of Israel."
Jesus found an ass and sat upon it, as is written:
Fear no more, O daughter Zion;
see, your king comes, seated upon an ass's colt.
His disciples did not understand this at first,
but when Jesus had been glorified
they remembered that these things were written about him
and that they had done this for him.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Jn 12:12-16

The symbolism captured in St. John’s account of Jesus entry into Jerusalem clearly conveys the sense of the crowd’s expectation of the arrival of the “Royal Messiah.” “Palm branches: used to welcome great conquerors; cf 1 Maccabees 13:51; 2 Maccabees 10:7. They may be related to the lulab, the twig bundles used at the feast of Tabernacles. Hosanna: see Psalm 118:25-26. The Hebrew word means: "(O Lord), grant salvation." He who comes in the name of the Lord: referred in Psalm 118:26 to a pilgrim entering the temple gates, but here a title for Jesus (see the notes on Matthew 11:3 and John 6:14; 11:27). The king of Israel: perhaps from Zephaniah 3:14-15 in connection with the next quotation from Zechariah 9:9.”[9]

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

John 12:20-33

#35B Solemnities B Context (5th Sunday of Lent B)

Some Greeks who had come to worship at the Passover Feast
came to Philip, who was from Bethsaida in Galilee,
and asked him, "Sir, we would like to see Jesus."
Philip went and told Andrew;
then Andrew and Philip went and told Jesus.
Jesus answered them,
"The hour has come for the Son of Man to be glorified.
Amen, amen, I say to you,
unless a grain of wheat falls to the ground and dies,
it remains just a grain of wheat;
but if it dies, it produces much fruit.
Whoever loves his life loses it,
and whoever hates his life in this world
will preserve it for eternal life.
Whoever serves me must follow me,
and where I am, there also will my servant be.
The Father will honor whoever serves me.
"I am troubled now. Yet what should I say?
'Father, save me from this hour'?
But it was for this purpose that I came to this hour.
Father, glorify your name."
Then a voice came from heaven,
"I have glorified it and will glorify it again."
The crowd there heard it and said it was thunder;
but others said, "An angel has spoken to him."
Jesus answered and said,
"This voice did not come for my sake but for yours.
Now is the time of judgment on this world;
now the ruler of this world will be driven out.
And when I am lifted up from the earth,
I will draw everyone to myself."
He said this indicating the kind of death he would die.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Jn 12:20-33

St. John leads us to understand how Jesus’ mission expands from one directed to Israel expands to include all peoples of all nations. It begins with the Greeks asking for Jesus (in this case “Greeks” likely means Greek speaking gentiles). It is significant that this request is made of Philip (and of Andrew) the only two of the Twelve bearing Greek names.

Jesus response to this request “The hour has come for the Son of Man to be glorified” implies that only after his crucifixion could the Gospel encompass everyone. He then goes on to educate his disciples about the mystery of his atoning death. He uses the metaphor of the grain of wheat found in the other Gospel traditions (see Mark 8:35; Matthew 16:25; Luke 9:24; Matthew 10:39; Luke 17:33). When the Evangelist follows this with the statement that “Who ever loves his life loses it…” it is understood that the reference is to body and spirit since the Hebrews at this point did not recognize the separation of the two. The statement leads into and exhortation that those who follow Jesus (“Whoever serves me”) must accept the same defamatory treatment.

The Lord’s lament (“I am troubled…”) seems to interrupt this discourse; however, the narrative comes closest to the agony in the garden found in the other Gospels. Jesus, faced with a cruel and imminent death feels the anguish of his human fear. His petition (“Yet what should I say? 'Father, save me from this hour'?”), followed by acceptance (in this instance “But it was for this purpose that I came to this hour”) echoes the sentiment of complete acceptance of the Father’s will and justifies the Lord’s request that he be glorified by Him.

The discourse concludes with God’s answer to Jesus’ plea; understood only by Jesus. Those who heard and did not understand are informed by Jesus that the events that will unfold will open the gates to the judgment seat of God. Again the use of the term “lifted up” conveys the duel meaning of lifted up upon the cross in the crucifixion and raised to glory in the resurrection.

CCC: Jn 12:24 2731; Jn 12:27 363, 607; Jn 12:28 434; Jn 12:31 550, 2853; Jn 12:32 542, 662, 786, 1428, 2795
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John 12:23-28*

#1016 Mass for the Dead Context (16.)

Jesus said to his disciples:
"The hour has come for the Son of Man to be glorified.
Amen, amen, I say to you,
  unless a grain of wheat falls to the ground and dies,
  it remains just a grain of wheat;
  but if it dies, it produces much fruit.
Whoever loves his life will lose it,
  and whoever hates his life in this world
  will preserve it for eternal life.
Whoever serves me must follow me,
  and where I am, there also will my servant be.
The Father will honor whoever serves me.

"I am troubled now. Yet what should I say?
'Father, save me from this hour'?
But it was for this purpose that 1 came to this hour.
Father, glorify your name."
Then a voice came from heaven,
  "I have glorified it and will glorify it again."
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Jn 12:23-28

Jesus response to some Greeks who wished to seem him reflects his earlier statement that his mission on earth is to his own people, the Hebrews (Matthew 10:5ff) “The hour has come for the Son of Man to be glorified” implies that only after his crucifixion could the Gospel encompass everyone. He then goes on to educate his disciples about the mystery of his atoning death. He uses the metaphor of the grain of wheat found in the other Gospel traditions (see Mark 8:35Matthew 16:25Luke 9:24Matthew 10:39Luke 17:33). When the Evangelist follows this with the statement that “Who ever loves his life loses it…” it is understood that the reference is to body and spirit since the Hebrews at this point did not recognize the separation of the two. The statement leads into and exhortation that those who follow Jesus (“Whoever serves me”) must accept the same defamatory treatment.

The Lord’s lament (“I am troubled…”) seems to interrupt this discourse; however, the narrative comes closest to the agony in the garden found in the other Gospels. Jesus, faced with a cruel and imminent death feels the anguish of his human fear. His petition (“Yet what should I say? 'Father, save me from this hour'?”), followed by acceptance (in this instance “But it was for this purpose that I came to this hour”) echoes the sentiment of complete acceptance of the Father’s will and justifies the Lord’s request that he be glorified by Him.

CCC: Jn 12:24 2731; Jn 12:27 363, 607; Jn 12:28 434
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OR
Short Form John 12:23-26

Jesus said to his disciples:
"The hour has come for the Son of Man to be glorified.
Amen, amen, I say to you,
  unless a grain of wheat falls to the ground and dies,
  it remains just a grain of wheat;
  but if it dies, it produces much fruit.
Whoever loves his life will lose it,
  and whoever hates his life in this world
  will preserve it for eternal life.
Whoever serves me must follow me,
   and where I am, there also will my servant be.
The Father will honor whoever serves me."
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Jn 12:23-26

This shorter form focuses on Jesus education of his disciples about the mystery of his atoning death. He uses the metaphor of the grain of wheat found in the other Gospel traditions (see Mark 8:35Matthew 16:25Luke 9:24Matthew 10:39Luke 17:33). When the Evangelist follows this with the statement that “Who ever loves his life loses it…” it is understood that the reference is to body and spirit since the Hebrews at this point did not recognize the separation of the two. The statement leads into and exhortation that those who follow Jesus (“Whoever serves me”) must accept the same defamatory treatment.

CCC: Jn 12:24 2731
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John 12:24-26

#566A Proper of Saints Context (St. Christopher Magallanes and Companions, May 21)+

#596 Proper of Saints Context (St. Maria Goretti, Jul 6)

#596A Proper of Saints (Context) (Saint Augustine Zhao Rong, and Companions Jul 9)

#618 Proper of Saints Context (St. Lawrence, Aug 10)

#642 Proper of Saints Context (St Januarius, Sep 19)

#660 Proper of Saints Context (St. Ignatius of Antioch, Oct 17)

#718 Commons Context (Common of Martyrs)

#774 Ritual Mass Context (II. For the Conferral of Holy Orders, 9.)

#815 Ritual Mass Context (VIII. For the Consecration of Virgins and Religious Profession, 13.)

Jesus said to his disciples:
"Amen, amen, I say to you,
unless a grain of wheat falls to the ground and dies,
it remains just a grain of wheat;
but if it dies, it produces much fruit.
Whoever loves his life loses it,
and whoever hates his life in this world
will preserve it for eternal life.
Whoever serves me must follow me,
and where I am, there also will my servant be.
The Father will honor whoever serves me."
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on John 12:24-26

Jesus has made his final entry into Jerusalem.  His hour is at hand and, in the presence of Gentiles as well as his disciples he reflects on his salvific mission.  St. John’s passage, given here, is foundational to our understanding of the Paschal Mystery. Using the analogy of the grain of wheat, the Lord invites us to his own sacrifice.

"Beautifully, Christ begins to elucidate the mystery of his atoning death.  If it be thought strange that he must die in order to bring life, let it be remembered that this paradox already exists in nature.  The grain of wheat left to itself produces nothing; only when it appears to have died and has been buried does it bring forth fruit - in far greater abundance than itself (cf. 1 Corinthians 15:36)." [21]

Out of the Lord's analogy, wheat that comes from the seemingly dead and buried seed becomes the Eucharistic Sacrifice. Into the body's death to sin in Baptism, we are invited to share the salvation that comes from following Christ from death to life.

CCC: Jn 12:24 2731
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

John 12:31-36a

#822 Ritual Mass Context (IX. For the Dedication or Blessing of a Church or an Altar, 2. Dedication of an Altar, Third Option)

#974 Votive Mass Context (Mystery of the Holy Cross, Fourth Option)

Jesus said to the crowd:
"Now is the time of judgment on this world;
  now the ruler of this world will be driven out.
And when I am lifted up from the earth,
  I will draw everyone to myself."
He said this indicating the kind of death he would die.
So the crowd answered him,
   "We have heard from the law that the Christ remains forever.
Then how can you say that the Son of Man must be lifted up?
Who is this Son of Man?"
Jesus said to them,
   "The light will be among you only a little while.
Walk while you have the light,
   so that darkness may not overcome you.
Whoever walks in the dark does not know where he is going.
 While you have the light, believe in the light,
   so that you may become children of the light."
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on John 12:31-36a

Following the Lord's triumphant entry into Jerusalem and his discourse regarding the immediacy of his final act of salvation on earth, Jesus now speaks of his ultimate destiny; his death and resurrection.  He expounds upon what will become a paradox of the events that will unfold.  His seeming defeat will become a victory. (Again the use of the term “lifted up” conveys the duel meaning of lifted up upon the cross in the crucifixion and raised to glory in the resurrection.)

We note that Jesus does not try to answer the question "Who is the Son of Man?"  Rather he warns them once more that they have little time to come to belief (cf. John 8:12; John 9:4ff). The Lord uses the simile of light to indicate that he will continue to guide them in faith even after he has departed this world.

CCC: Jn 12:31 550, 2853; Jn 12:32 542, 662, 786, 1428, 2795
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

John 12:44-50

#281 Weekday Years I & II Context (Wednesday of the 4th Week of Easter)

#748 Ritual Mass Context (I. For the Conferral of Christian Initiation, 1. Catechumenate and Christian Initiation of Adults, Presentation of the Creed, Second Option)

#755 Ritual Mass Context (I. For the Conferral of Christian Initiation, 1. Catechumenate and Christian Initiation of Adults, Christian Initiation Apart from the Easter Vigil, 11)

#16E BVM Context (Holy Mary/ Fountain of Light and Life, Easter 16)

Jesus cried out and said,
"Whoever believes in me believes not only in me
but also in the one who sent me,
and whoever sees me sees the one who sent me.
I came into the world as light,
so that everyone who believes in me might not remain in darkness.
And if anyone hears my words and does not observe them,
I do not condemn him,
for I did not come to condemn the world but to save the world.
Whoever rejects me and does not accept my words
has something to judge him: the word that I spoke,
it will condemn him on the last day,
because I did not speak on my own,
but the Father who sent me commanded me what to say and speak.
And I know that his commandment is eternal life.
So what I say, I say as the Father told me."
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Jn 12:44-50

Setting the stage for this passage from St. John’s Gospel, we find Jesus in the Temple precincts again, this time after his triumphant entry into Jerusalem. He has been teaching, and while many believed that he was the Messiah, the Pharisees were intimidating many present and most did not acknowledge this belief. Jesus expresses his frustration in this passage as we hear: “Jesus cried out and said, "Whoever believes in me believes not only in me but also in the one who sent me.

Jesus goes on to explain that he and the Father are one, and that, not only was he sent by God, but that all he said was from God. We note also that Jesus says that those who do not believe in him, will not be condemned by the Lord, rather they condemn themselves through their own actions, and will be so judged on the last day.

CCC: Jn 12:46 2466; Jn 12:48 679; Jn 12:49 1039
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John 13:1-15

#39ABC Sundays ABC Context (Evening Mass of the Lord's Supper [Holy Thursday])

#871 Mass for Various Needs Context (I. For the Holy Church, 10. For the Unity of Christians, 5.)

Before the feast of Passover, Jesus knew that his hour had come
to pass from this world to the Father.
He loved his own in the world and he loved them to the end.
The devil had already induced Judas, son of Simon the Iscariot, to hand him over.
So, during supper,
fully aware that the Father had put everything into his power
and that he had come from God and was returning to God,
he rose from supper and took off his outer garments.
He took a towel and tied it around his waist.
Then he poured water into a basin
and began to wash the disciples’ feet
and dry them with the towel around his waist.
He came to Simon Peter, who said to him,
"Master, are you going to wash my feet?"
Jesus answered and said to him,
"What I am doing, you do not understand now,
but you will understand later."
Peter said to him, "You will never wash my feet."
Jesus answered him,
"Unless I wash you, you will have no inheritance with me."
Simon Peter said to him,
"Master, then not only my feet, but my hands and head as well."
Jesus said to him,
"Whoever has bathed has no need except to have his feet washed,
for he is clean all over;
so you are clean, but not all."
For he knew who would betray him;
for this reason, he said, "Not all of you are clean."

So when he had washed their feet
and put his garments back on and reclined at table again,
he said to them, "Do you realize what I have done for you?
You call me 'teacher' and 'master,' and rightly so, for indeed I am.
If I, therefore, the master and teacher, have washed your feet,
you ought to wash one another's feet.
I have given you a model to follow,
so that as I have done for you, you should also do."
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Commentary on Jn 13:1-15

We find in St. John’s Gospel the Lord’s great act of humility as he washes the feet of his disciples, something that would have been done by a slave. The very act itself has an air of finality about it as St. John says: “Jesus knew that his hour had come to pass from this world to the Father." In another sense it also carries with it the image of Baptism as well as the humiliating death the Lord was about to suffer.

While other parts of sacred scripture enjoin the faithful to be humble in service to on another, this action by Jesus most graphically illustrates the ideal. St. Peter, do doubt, expresses the discomfort and sense of embarrassment felt by his brother disciples as he objects to the Lord so debasing himself before them – his students. The Lord explains has lesion verbally in response to St. Peter’s objections and in doing so sets the tone for all future discipleship: “I have given you a model to follow, so that as I have done for you, you should also do."

CCC: Jn 13:1-17 1337; Jn 13:1 557, 609, 616, 622, 730, 1085, 1380, 1524, 1823, 2843; Jn 13:3 423; Jn 13:12-16 1694; Jn 13:12-15 1269; Jn 13:13 447; Jn 13:15 520
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John 13:16-20

#282 Weekday Years I & II Context (Thursday of the 4th Week of Easter)

When Jesus had washed the disciples' feet, he said to them:
"Amen, amen, I say to you, no slave is greater than his master
nor any messenger greater than the one who sent him.
If you understand this, blessed are you if you do it.
I am not speaking of all of you.
I know those whom I have chosen.
But so that the Scripture might be fulfilled,
The one who ate my food has raised his heel against me.
From now on I am telling you before it happens,
so that when it happens you may believe that I AM.
Amen, amen, I say to you, whoever receives the one I send
receives me, and whoever receives me receives the one who sent me."
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Commentary on Jn 13:16-20

This passage from St. John’s Gospel is set in the upper room following the Passover meal that was to be the Last Supper. The author’s account of the washing of the disciple’s feet and the immediate aftermath differs from the Synoptic versions, in that here the Lord announces his foreknowledge of the events to follow. Jesus uses this predictive ability to bring the reader to belief in Christ as the Son of God. (“…I say to you, whoever receives the one I send receives me, and whoever receives me receives the one who sent me.”)

CCC: Jn 13:12-16 1694; Jn 13:12-15 1269; Jn 13:13 447; Jn 13:15 520; Jn 13:20 858
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John 13:21-33, 36-38

#258 Weekday Years I & II Context (Tuesday of Holy Week)

Reclining at table with his disciples, Jesus was deeply troubled and testified,
"Amen, amen, I say to you, one of you will betray me."
The disciples looked at one another, at a loss as to whom he meant.
One of his disciples, the one whom Jesus loved,
was reclining at Jesus' side.
So Simon Peter nodded to him to find out whom he meant.
He leaned back against Jesus' chest and said to him,
"Master, who is it?"
Jesus answered,
"It is the one to whom I hand the morsel after I have dipped it."
So he dipped the morsel and took it and handed it to Judas,
son of Simon the Iscariot.
After Judas took the morsel, Satan entered him.
So Jesus said to him, "What you are going to do, do quickly."
Now none of those reclining at table realized why he said this to him.
Some thought that since Judas kept the money bag, Jesus had told him,
"Buy what we need for the feast,"
or to give something to the poor.
So Judas took the morsel and left at once. And it was night.

When he had left, Jesus said,
"Now is the Son of Man glorified, and God is glorified in him.
If God is glorified in him, God will also glorify him in himself,
and he will glorify him at once.
My children, I will be with you only a little while longer.
You will look for me, and as I told the Jews,
'Where I go you cannot come,' so now I say it to you."

Simon Peter said to him, "Master, where are you going?"
Jesus answered him,
"Where I am going, you cannot follow me now,
though you will follow later."
Peter said to him,
"Master, why can I not follow you now?
I will lay down my life for you."
Jesus answered, "Will you lay down your life for me?
Amen, amen, I say to you, the cock will not crow
before you deny me three times."
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Jn 13:21-33, 36-38

This selection from the narrative of the “Last Supper” continues the story of the final hours of Jesus’ time with the disciples following the washing of their feet. First we hear of Judas’ departure from the table to betray the Lord. We note with interest St. John’s use of imagery as Judas is led by the devil to his actions: “So Judas took the morsel and left at once. And it was night.” Then we are told of Jesus’ discourse with Peter and his prediction of Peter’s denial. Again we see in the description, not just the Lord’s prediction, of his own death. There is also the indication that Peter would follow him in death for God’s greater glory.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

John 13:31-33a, 34-35

#54C Solemnities C Context (5th Sunday of Easter C)

When Judas had left them, Jesus said,
“Now is the Son of Man glorified, and God is glorified in him.
If God is glorified in him,
God will also glorify him in himself,
and God will glorify him at once.
My children, I will be with you only a little while longer.
I give you a new commandment: love one another.
As I have loved you, so you also should love one another.
This is how all will know that you are my disciples,
if you have love for one another.”
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Jn 13:31-33a, 34-35

In the Gospel of St. John, this passage is a key part of what is called the Book of Exultation: “Those who accept him become Sons of God.” We enter the Jesus story in St. John’s Gospel during the Last Supper. Judas has just fled.  Jesus, in Johannine fashion, demonstrates his foreknowledge of what must happen in his Passion and Resurrection: "I will be with you only a little while longer." The Lord next delivers the “New Commandment: love one another." Christ’s love is not only the model, but the motive. By using those words, Jesus places himself with God whose commandments the disciples follow.

CCC: Jn 13:34 782, 1823, 343, 2195, 2822, 2842
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John 14:1-12

#52A Solemnities A Context (5th Sunday of Easter A)

Jesus said to his disciples:
“Do not let your hearts be troubled.
You have faith in God; have faith also in me.
In my Father’s house there are many dwelling places.
If there were not,
would I have told you that I am going to prepare a place for you?
And if I go and prepare a place for you,
I will come back again and take you to myself,
so that where I am you also may be.
Where I am going you know the way.”
Thomas said to him,
“Master, we do not know where you are going;
how can we know the way?”
Jesus said to him, "I am the way and the truth and the life.
No one comes to the Father except through me.
If you know me, then you will also know my Father.
From now on you do know him and have seen him.”
Philip said to him,
“Master, show us the Father, and that will be enough for us.”
Jesus said to him, “Have I been with you for so long a time
and you still do not know me, Philip?
Whoever has seen me has seen the Father.
How can you say, ‘Show us the Father’?
Do you not believe that I am in the Father and the Father is in me?
The words that I speak to you I do not speak on my own.
The Father who dwells in me is doing his works.
Believe me that I am in the Father and the Father is in me,
or else, believe because of the works themselves.
Amen, amen, I say to you,
whoever believes in me will do the works that I do,
and will do greater ones than these,
because I am going to the Father.”
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Jn 14:1-12

This dialogue with the disciples is taking place at the Last Supper. Jesus has already responded to Peter and now Thomas chimes in with; “Master, we do not know where you are going; how can we know the way?” To which Jesus responds with a phrase known to all Christians “I am the way and the truth and the life.” He ends with another phrase that has been used and twisted throughout the history of Christianity; “No one comes to the Father except through me.”

Also in this passage from St. John’s Gospel, part of the “Many Dwellings” discourse, we see the confusion in some of the disciples. St. Philip asks Jesus to show them the Father. This request allows Jesus to remind them that he and the Father are one that they have seen him and they have seen the Father.

He concludes this passage with a clear statement about the power of faith in himself saying that whatever is asked for in his name will be granted. Note especially that Jesus says these prayers (requests) will be granted for the glory of the Father.

CCC: Jn 14:1 151; Jn 14:2-3 2795; Jn 14:2 661; Jn 14:3 1025; Jn 14:6 74, 459, 1698, 2466, 2614; Jn 14:9-10 470; Jn 14:9 516
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

John 14:1-6

#283 Weekday Years I & II Context (Friday of the 4th Week of Easter)

#668^ Proper of Saints Context (The Commemoration of All the Faithful Departed, Nov 2)

#1016 Mass for the Dead Context (17.)

Jesus said to his disciples:
"Do not let your hearts be troubled.
You have faith in God; have faith also in me.
In my Father's house there are many dwelling places.
If there were not,
would I have told you that I am going to prepare a place for you?
And if I go and prepare a place for you,
I will come back again and take you to myself,
so that where I am you also may be.
Where I am going you know the way."
Thomas said to him,
"Master, we do not know where you are going;
how can we know the way?"
Jesus said to him, "I am the way and the truth and the life.
No one comes to the Father except through me."
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on John 14:1-6

This dialogue with the disciples is taking place at the Last Supper. Jesus has already responded to Peter and now Thomas continues to question with: “Master, we do not know where you are going; how can we know the way?” To which Jesus responds with a phrase known to all Christians: “I am the way and the truth and the life.” He ends with another phrase that has been used throughout the history of Christianity, from an evangelical perspective as an invitation, and negatively as a statement of exclusivity: “No one comes to the Father except through me.

CCC: Jn 14:1 151; Jn 14:2-3 2795; Jn 14:2 661; Jn 14:3 1025; Jn 14:6 74, 459, 1698, 2466, 2614
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John 14:6-14

#561 Proper of Saints Context (Sts. Philip and James, May 3)

#988 Votive Mass Context (The Most Holy Name of Jesus, 3.)

Jesus said to Thomas, “I am the way and the truth and the life.
No one comes to the Father except through me.
If you know me, then you will also know my Father.
From now on you do know him and have seen him.”
Philip said to him,
“Master, show us the Father, and that will be enough for us.”
Jesus said to him, “Have I been with you for so long a time
and you still do not know me, Philip?
Whoever has seen me has seen the Father.
How can you say, ‘Show us the Father’?
Do you not believe that I am in the Father and the Father is in me?
The words that I speak to you I do not speak on my own.
The Father who dwells in me is doing his works.
Believe me that I am in the Father and the Father is in me,
or else, believe because of the works themselves.
Amen, amen, I say to you,
whoever believes in me will do the works that I do,
and will do greater ones than these,
because I am going to the Father.
And whatever you ask in my name, I will do,
so that the Father may be glorified in the Son.
If you ask anything of me in my name, I will do it.”
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Jn 14:6-14

In this passage from St. John’s Gospel, part of the “Many Dwellings” discourse, we find a rare glimpse of the confusion the evangelist sees in some of the disciples. Here St. Philip asks Jesus to show them the Father. This request is a platform for Jesus to once again remind them that he (Jesus) and the Father are one, that they have seen him, and they have seen the Father.

He concludes this passage with a clear statement about the power of faith in God's only Begotten Son (Jesus), saying that whatever is asked for in his name will be granted. Note especially that Jesus says these prayers (requests) will be granted for the glory of the Father.

CCC: Jn 14:6 74, 459, 1698, 2466, 2614; Jn 14:9-10 470; Jn 14:9 516; Jn 14:13-14 2614; Jn 14:13 2614, 2633, 2815
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John 14:7-14

#284 Weekday Years I & II Context (Saturday of the 4th Week of Easter)

Jesus said to his disciples:
"If you know me, then you will also know my Father.
From now on you do know him and have seen him."
Philip said to Jesus,
"Master, show us the Father, and that will be enough for us."
Jesus said to him, "Have I been with you for so long a time
and you still do not know me, Philip?
Whoever has seen me has seen the Father.
How can you say, 'Show us the Father'?
Do you not believe that I am in the Father and the Father is in me?
The words that I speak to you I do not speak on my own.
The Father who dwells in me is doing his works.
Believe me that I am in the Father and the Father is in me,
or else, believe because of the works themselves.
Amen, amen, I say to you,
whoever believes in me will do the works that I do,
and will do greater ones than these,
because I am going to the Father.
And whatever you ask in my name, I will do,
so that the Father may be glorified in the Son.
If you ask anything of me in my name, I will do it."
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Jn 14:7-14

In this passage from St. John’s Gospel, part of the “Many Dwellings” discourse, we find Jesus still responding to St. Philip’s request that Jesus show them the Father. This request is a platform for Jesus to once again remind them that he (Jesus) and the Father are one, that they have seen him and they have seen the Father. He concludes this passage with a clear statement about the power of faith in the Son of God, saying that whatever is asked for in his name will be granted. Note especially that Jesus says these prayers (requests) will be granted for the glory of the Father.

CCC: Jn 14:9-10 470; Jn 14:9 516; Jn 14:13-14 2614; Jn 14:13 2614, 2633, 2815
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John 14:15-21, 25-27

#41O-3 BVM Context (The Blessed Virgin Mary, Mother of Consolation)

Jesus said to his disciples:
  "If you love me, you will keep my commandments.
And I will ask the Father,
  and he will give you another Advocate to be with you always,
  the Spirit of truth, whom the world cannot accept,
  because it neither sees nor knows it.
But you know the Spirit, because it remains with you,
  and will be in you.
I will not leave you orphans;
  I will come to you.
In a little while the world will no longer see me,
  but you will see me, because I live and you will live.
On that day you will realize that I am in my Father
  and you are in me and I in you.
Those who have my commandments and observe them
  are the ones who love me.
And those who love me will be loved by my Father,
  and I will love them and reveal myself to them.

"I have told you this while I am with you.
The Advocate, the holy Spirit-
  whom the Father will send in my name-
  will teach you everything
  and remind you of all that I told you.
Peace I leave with you; my peace I give to you.
Not as the world gives do I give peace to you.
Do not let your hearts be troubled or afraid."
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Jn 14:15-21, 25-27

The farewell speech of the Lord continues with the promise of the Holy Spirit – the Paraclete. We note he says “another advocate”; Jesus himself is the first advocate (in St. John’s Gospel the term used synonymously with spokesman, mediator, intercessor, comforter, and consoler). Jesus says this gift is “The Spirit of truth” (from the Quamram or Dead Sea Scrolls- a moral force put into a person by God.). This promise is made because the disciples are becoming worried and are afraid of being left without Jesus’ guidance. In addition to the guidance of the Holy Spirit, he leaves his peace, not just the greeting “Shalom” but an inner peace that conquers fear.

 After he has promised to send the Holy Spirit (the new advocate – the Paraclete). He reinforces that promise with a summation of his great commandment and then completes our understanding of the Holy Trinity with; “The Advocate, the holy Spirit that the Father will send in my name--he will teach you everything and remind you of all that I told you.” The Father and the Son are one and in the Name of the Son the Holy Spirit now remains with us.

"The word translated here is 'bring to your remembrance' also includes the idea of 'suggesting':the Holy Spirit will recall to the apostles' memory what they have already heard Jesus say and he will give them light to enable them to discover the depth and richness of everything  they have seen and heard.  Thus, 'the Apostles handed on to their hearers what he had said and done, but with that fuller understanding which they instructed by the glorious events of Christ (cf. John 2:33) and enlightened by the Spirit of truth now enjoyed' (Vatican II, Dei Verbum, 19)."[15]

CCC: Jn 14:23-26 2615; Jn 14:26 243, 244, 263, 692, 729, 1099, 2466, 2623
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

John 14:15-23, 26-27

#763 Ritual Mass Context (I. For the Conferral of Christian Initiation, 3. Reception of Baptized Christians Into the Full Communion of the Catholic Church, 5.)

Jesus said to his disciples:
"If you love me, you will keep my commandments.
And I will ask the Father,
  and he will give you another Advocate to be with you always,
  the Spirit of truth, which the world cannot accept,
  because it neither sees nor knows it.
But you know it, because it remains with you,
  and will be in you.
I will not leave you orphans; I will come to you.
In a little while the world will no longer see me,
  but you will see me, because I live and you will live.
On that day you will realize that I am in my Father
  and you are in me and I in you.
Whoever has my commandments and observes them
  is the one who loves me.
And whoever loves me will be loved by my Father,
  and I will love him and reveal myself to him."
Judas, not the Iscariot, said to him,
  "Master, then what happened that you will reveal yourself to us
  and not to the world?"
Jesus answered and said to him,
  "Whoever loves me will keep my word,
  and my Father will love him,
  and we will come to him and make our dwelling with him.

"The Advocate, the Holy Spirit
  that the Father will send in my name-
  he will teach you everything
  and remind you of all that I told you.
Peace I leave with you; my peace I give to you.
Not as the world gives do I give it to you.
Do not let your hearts be troubled or afraid."
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Jn 14:15-23, 26-27

The farewell speech of the Lord continues with the promise of the Holy Spirit – the Paraclete. We note he says “another advocate”; Jesus himself is the first advocate (in St. John’s Gospel the term used synonymously with spokesman, mediator, intercessor, comforter, and consoler). Jesus says this gift is “The Spirit of truth” (from the Quamram or Dead Sea Scrolls- a moral force put into a person by God.). This promise is made because the disciples are becoming worried and are afraid of being left without Jesus’ guidance. In addition to the guidance of the Holy Spirit, he leaves his peace, not just the greeting “Shalom” but an inner peace that conquers fear.

 After he has promised to send the Holy Spirit (the new advocate – the Paraclete). He reinforces that promise with a summation of his great commandment and then completes our understanding of the Holy Trinity with; “The Advocate, the holy Spirit that the Father will send in my name--he will teach you everything and remind you of all that I told you.” The Father and the Son are one and in the Name of the Son the Holy Spirit now remains with us.

"The word translated here is 'bring to your remembrance' also includes the idea of 'suggesting':the Holy Spirit will recall to the apostles' memory what they have already heard Jesus say and he will give them light to enable them to discover the depth and richness of everything  they have seen and heard.  Thus, 'the Apostles handed on to their hearers what he had said and done, but with that fuller understanding which they instructed by the glorious events of Christ (cf. John 2:33) and enlightened by the Spirit of truth now enjoyed' (Vatican II, Dei Verbum, 19)."[15]

CCC: Jn 14:23-26 2615; Jn 14:23 260; Jn 14:26 243, 244, 263, 692, 729, 1099, 2466, 2623
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

John 14:15-21

#55A Solemnities A Context (6th Sunday of Easter)

Jesus said to his disciples:
“If you love me, you will keep my commandments.
And I will ask the Father,
and he will give you another Advocate to be with you always,
the Spirit of truth, whom the world cannot accept,
because it neither sees nor knows him.
But you know him, because he remains with you,
and will be in you.
I will not leave you orphans; I will come to you.
In a little while the world will no longer see me,
but you will see me, because I live and you will live.
On that day you will realize that I am in my Father
and you are in me and I in you.
Whoever has my commandments and observes them
is the one who loves me.
And whoever loves me will be loved by my Father,
and I will love him and reveal myself to him.”
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Jn 14:15-21

The farewell speech of the Lord continues with the promise of the Holy Spirit – the Paraclete. We note he says “another advocate”; Jesus himself is the first advocate (in St. John’s Gospel the term used synonymously with spokesman, mediator, intercessor, comforter, and consoler). Jesus says this gift is “The Spirit of truth” (from the Quamram or Dead Sea Scrolls- a moral force put into a person by God.). This promise is made because the disciples are becoming worried and are afraid of being left without Jesus’ guidance. In addition to the guidance of the Holy Spirit, he leaves his peace, not just the greeting “Shalom” but an inner peace that conquers fear.

CCC: Jn 14:16-17 729, 2615; Jn 14:16 692; Jn 14:17 243, 687, 2466, 2671; Jn 14:18 788
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

John 14:15-17

#768 Ritual Mass Context (For the Conferral of Christian Initiation, 4. Confirmation, 9.)

Jesus said to his disciples:
"If you love me, you will keep my commandments.
And I will ask the Father,
  and he will give you another Advocate to be with you always,
  the Spirit of truth, which the world cannot accept,
  because it neither sees nor knows it.
But you know it, because it remains with you,
  and will be in you."
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Jn 14:15-17

The farewell speech of the Lord continues with the promise of the Holy Spirit – the Paraclete. We note he says “another advocate”; Jesus himself is the first advocate (in St. John’s Gospel the term used synonymously with spokesman, mediator, intercessor, comforter, and consoler). Jesus says this gift is “The Spirit of truth” (from the Quamram or Dead Sea Scrolls- a moral force put into a person by God.). This promise is made because the disciples are becoming worried and are afraid of being left without Jesus’ guidance.

CCC: Jn 14:16-17 729, 2615; Jn 14:16 692; Jn 14:17 243, 687, 2466, 2671
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

John 14:15-16; 23b-26

#63C Solemnities C Context (Pentecost Sunday C)

Jesus said to his disciples:
“If you love me, you will keep my commandments.
And I will ask the Father,
and he will give you another Advocate to be with you always.

“Whoever loves me will keep my word,
and my Father will love him,
and we will come to him and make our dwelling with him.
Those who do not love me do not keep my words;
yet the word you hear is not mine
but that of the Father who sent me.

“I have told you this while I am with you.
The Advocate, the Holy Spirit whom the Father will send in my name,
will teach you everything
and remind you of all that I told you.”
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Jn 14:15-16; 23b-26

The farewell speech of the Lord continues with the promise of the Holy Spirit, the Paraclete. We note he says, “another advocate.” Jesus himself is the first advocate (in St. John’s Gospel the term used synonymously with spokesman, mediator, intercessor, comforter, and consoler). Jesus says this gift is: “The Spirit of truth.” (From the Qumran or Dead Sea Scrolls- a moral force put into a person by God.) This promise is made because the disciples are becoming worried, and are afraid of being left without Jesus’ guidance. In addition to the guidance of the Holy Spirit, he leaves his peace, not just the greeting “Shalom,” but an inner peace that conquers fear.

 After Jesus has promised to send the Holy Spirit (the new advocate – the Paraclete), he reinforces that promise with a summation of his great commandment. The Lord then completes our understanding of the Holy Trinity with: “The Advocate, the Holy Spirit that the Father will send in my name--he will teach you everything and remind you of all that I told you.” The Father and the Son are one and, in the Name of the Son, the Holy Spirit now remains with us.

"The word translated here is 'bring to your remembrance' also includes the idea of 'suggesting': the Holy Spirit will recall to the apostles' memory what they have already heard Jesus say and he will give them light to enable them to discover the depth and richness of everything  they have seen and heard.  Thus, 'the Apostles handed on to their hearers what he had said and done, but, with that fuller understanding which they instructed by the glorious events of Christ (cf. John 2:33) and enlightened by the Spirit of truth, now enjoyed' (Vatican II, Dei Verbum, 19)."[15]

CCC: Jn 14:16-17 729, 2615; Jn 14:16 692; Jn 14:17 243, 687, 2466, 2671; Jn 14:18 788; Jn 14:22 647; Jn 14:23-26 2615; Jn 14:23 260; Jn 14:26 243, 244, 263, 692, 729, 1099, 2466, 2623
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

John 14:21-26

#285 Weekday Years I & II Context (Monday of the 5th Week of Easter)

Jesus said to his disciples:
"Whoever has my commandments and observes them
is the one who loves me.
Whoever loves me will be loved by my Father,
and I will love him and reveal myself to him."
Judas, not the Iscariot, said to him,
"Master, then what happened that you will reveal yourself to us
and not to the world?"
Jesus answered and said to him,
"Whoever loves me will keep my word,
and my Father will love him,
and we will come to him and make our dwelling with him.
Whoever does not love me does not keep my words;
yet the word you hear is not mine
but that of the Father who sent me.

"I have told you this while I am with you.
The Advocate, the Holy Spirit
whom the Father will send in my name
he will teach you everything
and remind you of all that I told you."
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Jn 14:21-26

This dialogue between the Lord and his disciples takes place immediately following the first time he promised to send the Holy Spirit (the new advocate – the Paraclete). He now reinforces that promise with a summation of his great commandment and then completes our understanding of the Holy Trinity with; “The Advocate, the holy Spirit that the Father will send in my name--he will teach you everything and remind you of all that I told you.” The Father and the Son are one and in the Name of the Son the Holy Spirit now remains with us.

CCC: Jn 14:22 647; Jn 14:23-26 2615; Jn 14:23 260; Jn 14:26 243, 244, 263, 692, 729, 1099, 2466, 2623
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John 14:23-29

#57C Solemnities C Context (6th Sunday of Easter C)

#842 Mass for Various Needs Context (I. For the Holy Church, 4. For a Council or Synod or For a Spiritual or Pastoral Meeting, Third Option)

#891 Mass for Various Needs Context (II. For Public Needs, 14. Peace and Justice, Third Option)

Jesus said to his disciples:
“Whoever loves me will keep my word,
and my Father will love him,
and we will come to him and make our dwelling with him.
Whoever does not love me does not keep my words;
yet the word you hear is not mine
but that of the Father who sent me.

“I have told you this while I am with you.
The Advocate, the Holy Spirit,
whom the Father will send in my name,
will teach you everything
and remind you of all that I told you.
Peace I leave with you; my peace I give to you.
Not as the world gives do I give it to you.
Do not let your hearts be troubled or afraid.
You heard me tell you,
‘I am going away and I will come back to you.’
If you loved me,
you would rejoice that I am going to the Father;
for the Father is greater than I.
And now I have told you this before it happens,
so that when it happens you may believe.”
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Jn 14:23-29

The farewell speech of the Lord continues with the promise of the Holy Spirit – the Paraclete. This promise is made because the disciples are becoming worried and are afraid of being left without Jesus’ guidance. In addition to the guidance of the Holy Spirit, he leaves his peace, not just the greeting “Shalom” but an inner peace that conquers fear.

This passage concludes with the Lord telling the disciples he is going to be with the Father and they should rejoice with him. He tells them this in advance so their faith may be strengthened when the events come to pass.

CCC: Jn 14:23-26 2615; Jn 14:23 260; Jn 14:26 243, 244, 263, 692, 729, 1099, 2466, 2623
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John 14:23-26

#768 Ritual Mass Context (I. For the Conferral of Christian Initiation, 4. Confirmation, 10.)

Jesus said to his disciples:
“Whoever loves me will keep my word,
and my Father will love him,
and we will come to him and make our dwelling with him.
Whoever does not love me does not keep my words;
yet the word you hear is not mine
but that of the Father who sent me.

“I have told you this while I am with you.
The Advocate, the Holy Spirit,
whom the Father will send in my name,
will teach you everything
and remind you of all that I told you.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Jn 14:23-26

The farewell speech of the Lord continues with the promise of the Holy Spirit – the Paraclete. This promise is made because the disciples are becoming worried and are afraid of being left without Jesus’ guidance. In addition to the guidance of the Holy Spirit, he leaves his peace, not just the greeting “Shalom” but an inner peace that conquers fear.

CCC: Jn 14:23-26 2615; Jn 14:23 260; Jn 14:26 243, 244, 263, 692, 729, 1099, 2466, 2623
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

John 14:27-31a

#286 Weekday Years I & II Context (Tuesday of the 5th Week of Easter)

Jesus said to his disciples:
"Peace I leave with you; my peace I give to you.
Not as the world gives do I give it to you.
Do not let your hearts be troubled or afraid.
You heard me tell you,
'I am going away and I will come back to you.'
If you loved me,
you would rejoice that I am going to the Father;
for the Father is greater than I.
And now I have told you this before it happens,
so that when it happens you may believe.
I will no longer speak much with you,
for the ruler of the world is coming.
He has no power over me,
but the world must know that I love the Father
and that I do just as the Father has commanded me."
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Jn 14:27-31a

In this passage Jesus continues his monologue to the disciples at the Last Supper. They are afraid because of what he has told them and now he calms their fears. “Peace I leave with you, my peace I give to you.” He explains once more that he is returning to the Father so that the world might know his love for God and his faithfulness to the Father’s will.

CCC: Jn 14:30 1851, 2853; Jn 14:31 606
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John 15:1-11

#755 Ritual Mass Context (I. For the Conferral of Christian Initiation, Christian Initiation Apart From the Easter Vigil, 12)

#760 Ritual Mass Context (I. For the Conferral of Christian Initiation, 2. Conferral of Infant Baptism, 11.)

Jesus said to his disciples:
"1 am the true vine, and my Father is the vine grower.
He takes away every branch in me that does not bear fruit,
and every one that does he prunes so that it bears more fruit.
You are already pruned because of the word that I spoke to you.
Remain in me, as I remain in you.
Just as a branch cannot bear fruit on its own
unless it remains on the vine,
so neither can you unless you remain in me.
I am the vine, you are the branches.
Whoever remains in me and I in him will bear much fruit,
because without me you can do nothing.
Anyone who does not remain in me
will be thrown out like a branch and wither;
people will gather them and throw them into a fire
and they will be burned.
If you remain in me and my words remain in you,
ask for whatever you want and it will be done for you.
By this is my Father glorified,
that you bear much fruit and become my disciples.

As the Father loves me, so I also love you.
Remain in my love.
If you keep my commandments, you will remain in my love,
just as I have kept my Father's commandments
and remain in his love.

"I have told you this so that my joy might be in you
and your joy might be complete.
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Commentary on Jn 15:1-11

This selection begins the discourse on the vine and the branches – really a monologue on the union with Jesus. It is still part of Jesus’ farewell speech. The familiar image of the Vineyard and the Vines is used which has imagery in common with Isaiah 5:1-7Matthew 21:33-46 and as a vine at Psalm 80:9-17Jeremiah 2:21Ezekiel 15:217:5-1019:10Hosea 10:1. The identification of the vine as the Son of Man in Psalm 80:15 and Wisdom's description of herself as a vine in Sirach 24:17.

As the discourse on the union of Jesus with his disciples continues. His words become a monologue and go beyond the immediate crisis of Christ’s departure. The Gospel  focuses on the chain of love from the Father, through the Son, to his adopted sons and daughters.

CCC: Jn 15:1-17 1108; Jn 15:1-5 755; Jn 15:1-4 1988; Jn 15:3 517; Jn 15:4-5  787; Jn 15:5 308, 737, 859, 864, 1694, 2074, 2732; Jn 15:7 2615; Jn 15:8 737; Jn 15:9-10 1824; Jn 15:9 1823
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John 15:1-8

#53B Sundays B Context (5th Sunday of Easter B)

#287 Weekday Years I and II Context (Wednesday of the 5th Week of Easter)

#534 Proper of Saints Context (St. Peter Damian, Feb 21)

#542 Proper of Saints Context (St. Cyril of Jerusalem, Mar 17)

#604 Proper of Saints Context (St. Bridget of Sweden, Jul 23)

#611A Proper of Saints Context (St. Peter Julian Eymard, Aug 2)

#657 Proper of Saints Context (St. Teresa of Jesus, Oct 15)

#677 Proper of Saints Context (St. Gertrude, Nov 16)

#742 Commons Context (Common of Holy Men and Women)

#815 Ritual Mass Context (VIII. For the Consecration of Virgins and Religious Profession, 14.)

#831 Mass for Various Needs Context (I. For the Holy Church, 1. For the Church, 4.)

#856 Mass for Various Needs Context (I. For the Holy Church, 7. For Religious, 6.)

#866 Mass for Various Needs Context (I. For the Holy Church, 9. For the Laity, 6.)

#937 Mass for Various Needs Context (III. In Various Public Circumstances, 24. For the Sick, Fourth Option)

#1000 Votive Mass Context (The Most Sacred Heart of Jesus, 5.)

Jesus said to his disciples:
"1 am the true vine, and my Father is the vine grower.
He takes away every branch in me that does not bear fruit,
and every one that does he prunes so that it bears more fruit.
You are already pruned because of the word that I spoke to you.
Remain in me, as I remain in you.
Just as a branch cannot bear fruit on its own
unless it remains on the vine,
so neither can you unless you remain in me.
I am the vine, you are the branches.
Whoever remains in me and I in him will bear much fruit,
because without me you can do nothing.
Anyone who does not remain in me
will be thrown out like a branch and wither;
people will gather them and throw them into a fire
and they will be burned.
If you remain in me and my words remain in you,
ask for whatever you want and it will be done for you.
By this is my Father glorified,
that you bear much fruit and become my disciples."
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Jn 15:1-8

This selection begins the discourse on the vine and the branches – really a monologue on the union with Jesus. It is part of Jesus’ farewell speech. The familiar theme of the Vineyard and the Vines is used which has imagery in common with Isaiah 5:1-7; Matthew 21:33-46 and as a vine at Psalm 80:9-17; Jeremiah 2:21; Ezekiel 15:2; 17:5-10; 19:10; Hosea 10:1, the identification of the vine as the Son of Man in Psalm 80:15 and Wisdom's description of herself as a vine in Sirach 24:17. This monologue becomes a unifying tie that pulls the entire farewell speech together.

CCC: Jn 15:1-17 1108; Jn 15:1-5 755; Jn 15:1-4 1988; Jn 15:3 517; Jn 15:4-5  787; Jn 15:5 308, 737, 859, 864, 1694, 2074, 2732; Jn 15:7 2615; Jn 15:8 737
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John 15:1-6

#763 Ritual Mass Context (I. For the Conferral of Christian Initiation, 3. Reception of Baptized Christians Into the Full Communion of the Catholic Church, 6.)

Jesus said to his disciples:
"1 am the true vine, and my Father is the vine grower.
He takes away every branch in me that does not bear fruit,
and every one that does he prunes so that it bears more fruit.
You are already pruned because of the word that I spoke to you.
Remain in me, as I remain in you.
Just as a branch cannot bear fruit on its own
unless it remains on the vine,
so neither can you unless you remain in me.
I am the vine, you are the branches.
Whoever remains in me and I in him will bear much fruit,
because without me you can do nothing.
Anyone who does not remain in me
will be thrown out like a branch and wither;
people will gather them and throw them into a fire
and they will be burned.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Jn 15:1-6

This selection begins the discourse on the vine and the branches – really a monologue on the union with Jesus. It is still part of Jesus’ farewell speech. The familiar image of the Vineyard and the Vines is used which has imagery in common with Isaiah 5:1-7Matthew 21:33-46 and as a vine at Psalm 80:9-17Jeremiah 2:21Ezekiel 15:217:5-1019:10Hosea 10:1. The identification of the vine as the Son of Man in Psalm 80:15 and Wisdom's description of herself as a vine in Sirach 24:17. This selection ends with the emphasis that those who are not in union with Christ will suffer the pain of separation from the Father eternally.

CCC: Jn 15:1-17 1108; Jn 15:1-5 755; Jn 15:1-4 1988; Jn 15:3 517; Jn 15:4-5  787; Jn 15:5 308, 737, 859, 864, 1694, 2074, 2732
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John 15:9-17

#56B Solemnities B Context (6th Sunday of Easter B)

#518 Proper of Saint Context (St. Francis De Sales Jan 24)

#537 Proper of Saint Context (St. Casimir Mar 3)

#564 Proper of Saint Context (St. Matthias May 13 [F])

#599 [#601A ] Proper of Saint Context (St. Camillus De Lellis Jul 13 [18])

#676^ Proper of Saints Context (St. Margaret of Scotland, Nov 16)

#690 Proper of Saint Context (St. Damasus I Dec 11)

#724 Commons Context (Common of Pastors)

#742 Commons Context (Common of Holy Men and Women)

#774 Ritual Mass Context (II. For the Conferral of Holy Orders, 10)

#815 Ritual Mass Context (VIII. For the Consecration of Virgins and Religious Profession, 15)

#837 Mass for Various Needs Context (I. For the Holy Church, 3. For the Election of a Pope or a Bishop, First Option)

#847 Mass for Various Needs Context (I. For the Holy Church, 5. For Priests, 6.)

#861 Mass for Various Needs Context (I. For the Holy Church,8. For Vocations to Holy Orders or Religious Life, 8.)

#947 Mass for Various Needs Context (III. In Various Public Circumstances, 26. In Thanksgiving to God, 7)

#1000 Votive Mass Context (The Most Sacred Heart of Jesus, 6.)

Jesus said to his disciples:
"As the Father loves me, so I also love you.
Remain in my love.
If you keep my commandments, you will remain in my love,
just as I have kept my Father's commandments
and remain in his love.

"I have told you this so that my joy might be in you
and your joy might be complete.
This is my commandment: love one another as I love you.
No one has greater love than this,
to lay down one's life for one's friends.
You are my friends if you do what I command you.
I no longer call you slaves,
because a slave does not know what his master is doing.
I have called you friends,
because I have told you everything I have heard from my Father.
It was not you who chose me, but I who chose you
and appointed you to go and bear fruit that will remain,
so that whatever you ask the Father in my name he may give you.
This I command you: love one another."
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Commentary on Jn 15:9-17

The discourse on the union of Jesus with his disciples continues. His words become a monologue and go beyond the immediate crisis of Christ’s departure. In this passage Jesus focuses on the chain of love from the Father, through the Son, to his adopted sons and daughters.

There is much made of the use of the difference in the Greek words for ‘love’ used in this discourse. When Jesus says ‘No one has greater love than this…’ the word agapao (intimate, selfless love) is used, while when he says ‘You are my friends…’ the word phileo (casual ‘friendly’ (brotherly) type of love) is used. St. John uses the two words synonymously so the message is clear – reiterated at the end of the passage – ‘Love one another.'

St. John also distinguishes the disciples' new relationship with God saying, “I no longer call you slaves…I have called you friends.” Jesus designates the disciples “friends of God.” This designation is supported and defined in other places in sacred scripture. It separates the disciples from Moses, Joshua, and David who carried the designation “Servants of the Lord” (see Deuteronomy 34:5Joshua 24:29, and Psalm 89:21). Calling them “friends” of God establishes the same relationship as that enjoyed by Abraham (see James 2:23): “Thus the scripture was fulfilled that says, 'Abraham believed God, and it was credited to him as righteousness,' and he was called 'the friend of God.'"[1] The clear reference was that they, like Abraham, would be patriarchs of the New Covenant.

CCC: Jn 15:9-10 1824; 15:9 1823; 15:12 459, 1823, 1970, 2074; 15:13 363, 609, 614; 15:15 1972, 2347; 15:16-17 2745; 15:16 434, 737, 2615, 2815
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John 15:9-12

#805 Ritual Mass Context (VI. For the Conferral of the Sacrament of Marriage, 8.)

#886 Mass for Various Needs Context (II. For Public Needs, 13. For the Country or a City or For Those Who Serve in Public Office or for the Congress or for the President or for the Progress of Peoples, 12.)

#901 Mass for Various Needs Context (II. For Public Needs, 16. In time of War or Civil Disturbance, Second Option)

#34O-2 BVM Context (The Blessed Virgin Mary, Cause of Our Joy)

Jesus said to his disciples:
“As the Father loves me, so I also love you.
Remain in my love.
If you keep my commandments, you will remain in my love,
just as I have kept my Father’s commandments
and remain in his love.

“I have told you this so that
my joy might be in you and
your joy might be complete.
This is my commandment: love one another as I love you.”
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Jn 15:9-12

Discourse on the union of Jesus with his disciples continues. His words become a monologue and go beyond the immediate crisis of Christ’s departure. In this passage Jesus focuses on the chain of love from the Father, through the Son, to us.

The passage concludes with a commandment. In this statement “…love one another as I love you.” The Lord summarizes all other commandments and expresses his entire will. (CCC 2822).

CCC: Jn 15:9-10 1824; 15:9 1823; 15:12 459, 1823, 1970, 2074
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John 15:9-11

#288 Weekday Years I & II Context (Thursday of the 5th Week of Easter)

Jesus said to his disciples:
“As the Father loves me, so I also love you.
Remain in my love.
If you keep my commandments, you will remain in my love,
just as I have kept my Father’s commandments
and remain in his love.

“I have told you this so that
my joy might be in you and
your joy might be complete.”
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Jn 15:9-11

The discourse on the union of Jesus with his disciples continues. Jesus’ words become a monologue and go beyond the immediate crisis of his departure.  In this passage Jesus focuses on the chain of love from the Father, through the Son, to his followers. In the concluding statement (v.11), Jesus expresses the means by which the peace he offers is accomplished, through the unity of faith and trust in God's only Begotten Son.

CCC: Jn 15:9-10 1824; Jn 15:9 1823
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John 15:12-17

#289 Weekday Years I & II Context (Friday of the 5th Week of Easter)

#956 Mass for Various Needs Context (IV. For Various Needs, 28. For the Promotion of Charity or to Foster Harmony or for Family and Friends, Second Option)

Jesus said to his disciples:
"This is my commandment: love one another as I love you.
No one has greater love than this,
to lay down one's life for one's friends.
You are my friends if you do what I command you.
I no longer call you slaves,
because a slave does not know what his master is doing.
I have called you friends,
because I have told you everything I have heard from my Father.
It was not you who chose me, but I who chose you
and appointed you to go and bear fruit that will remain,
so that whatever you ask the Father in my name he may give you.
This I command you: love one another."
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Jn 15:12-17

This selection is part of the discourse on the union of Jesus with his disciples. His words become a monologue, and go beyond the immediate crisis of his departure. There is much made of the use of the difference in the Greek words for “love” used in this discourse. When Jesus says: “No one has greater love than this…,” the word agapao (intimate, selfless love) is used, while when he says: “You are my friends…,” the word phileo (casual "friendly" (brotherly) type of love) is used. St. John uses the two words synonymously so the message is clear – reiterated at the end of the passage – “love one another.

CCC: Jn 15:12 459, 1823, 1970, 2074; Jn 15:13 363, 609, 614; Jn 15:15 1972, 2347; Jn 15:16-17 2745; Jn 15:16 434, 737, 2615, 2815
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John 15:12-16

#620A^ Proper of Saints Context (St. Maximilian Mary Kolebe, Aug 14)

#805 Ritual Mass Context (VI. For the Conferral of the Sacrament of Marriage, 9)

Jesus said to his disciples:
"This is my commandment: love one another as I love you.
No one has greater love than this,
to lay down one's life for one's friends.
You are my friends if you do what I command you.
I no longer call you slaves,
because a slave does not know what his master is doing.
I have called you friends,
because I have told you everything I have heard from my Father.
I was not you who chose me, but I who chose you
and appointed you to go and bear fruit that will remain,
so that whatever you ask the Father in my name he may give you."
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Jn 15:12-16

This selection is part of the discourse on the union of Jesus with his disciples. His words become a monologue and go beyond the immediate crisis of his departure. There is much made of the use of the difference in the Greek words for “love” used in this discourse. When Jesus says “No one has greater love than this…” the word agapao (intimate, selfless love) is used while when he says “You are my friends…” the word phileo (casual "friendly" (brotherly) type of love) is used. St. John uses the two words synonymously so the message is clear.

CCC: Jn 15:12 459, 1823, 1970, 2074; Jn 15:13 363, 609, 614; Jn 15:15 1972, 2347; Jn 15:16-17 2745; Jn 15:16 434, 737, 2615, 2815
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John 15:18-21, 26-16:4

#881 Mass for Various Needs Context (I. For the Holy Church, 12. For Persecuted Christians, 4.)

Jesus said lo his disciples:
"If the world hates you, realize that it hated me first.
It you belonged to the world, the world would love its own;
but because you do not belong to the world,
and I have chosen you out of the world,
the world hates you.
Remember the word I spoke to you,
'No slave is greater than his master.'
If they persecuted me, they will also persecute you.
If they kept my word, they will also keep yours.
And they will do all these things to you on account of my name,
because they do not know the one who sent me.

"When the Advocate comes whom I will send you from the Father,
the Spirit of truth that proceeds from the Father,
he will testify to me.
And you also testify,
because you have been with me from the beginning.

"I have told you this so that you may not fall away.
They will expel you from the synagogues;
in fact, the hour is coming when everyone who kills you
will think he is offering worship to God.
They will do this because they have not known either the Father or me.
I have told you this so that when their hour comes
you may remember that I told you."
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Jn 15:18-21, 26-16:4

Jesus first gives the disciples a paradox in telling them that while they are part of the world (meaning here, secular society) they are separated from that society through their association with Christ. He then reminds them that because they are his, they too will suffer persecution by those he (and they) come to save.

Jesus then continues the theme of the strength to be given in the “Advocate”, the “Spirit of truth”, the Holy Spirit (see commentary on John 14:15-21). In this instance he predicts to his friends that once they begin to spread the Good News he gives them, they will face serious condemnation from their own faith community.

Jesus tells them they will be martyred by people who believe they are doing God’s will. They do this because the people to not know Jesus or understand that the Father is in him and he is in the Father and he is in his dispels so his disciples are also in the Father. This foreknowledge is intended to strengthen them when their hour comes (“I have told you this so that when their hour comes you may remember that I told you.”)

CCC: Jn 15:19-20 675; Jn 15:20 530, 765; Jn 15:26 244, 248, 263, 692, 719, 729, 1433, 2671
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John 15:18-21, 26-27

#768 Ritual Mass Context (I. For the Conferral of Christian Initiation, 4. Confirmation, 11.)

Jesus said to his disciples:
"If the world hates you, realize that it hated me first.
It you belonged to the world, the world would love its own;
but because you do not belong to the world,
and I have chosen you out of the world,
the world hates you.
Remember the word I spoke to you,
'No slave is greater than his master.'
If they persecuted me, they will also persecute you.
If they kept my word, they will also keep yours.
And they will do all these things to you on account of my name,
because they do not know the one who sent me.

"When the Advocate comes whom I will send you from the Father,
the Spirit of truth that proceeds from the Father,
he will testify to me.
And you also testify,
because you have been with me from the beginning."
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Jn 15:18-21, 26-27

Jesus gives the disciples a paradox in telling them that while they are part of the world (meaning here, secular society) they are separated from that society through their association with Christ. He then reminds them that because they are his, they too will suffer persecution by those he (and they) come to save.

The Lord also tells them of the strength to be given in the “Advocate”, the “Spirit of truth”, the Holy Spirit (see commentary on John 14:15-21). Because of the gift of the Holy Spirit, he predicts to his friends that once they receive it they will begin to spread the Good News he gives them.

CCC: Jn 15:19-20 675; Jn 15:20 530, 765; Jn 15:26 244, 248, 263, 692, 719, 729, 1433, 2671
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John 15:18-21

#290 Weekday Years I & II Context (Saturday of the 5th Week of Easter)

#536 Proper of Saints Context (St. Polycarp, Feb 23)

#551 Proper of Saints Context (St. Martin I, Apr 12)

#620 Proper of Saints Context (Sts. Pontian and Hippolytus, Aug 13)

#718 Commons Context (Common of Martyrs)

#866 Masses for Various Needs Context (I. For the Holy Church, 9. For the Laity, 7.)

Jesus said to his disciples:
"If the world hates you, realize that it hated me first.
If you belonged to the world, the world would love its own;
but because you do not belong to the world,
and I have chosen you out of the world,
the world hates you.
Remember the word I spoke to you,
'No slave is greater than his master.'
If they persecuted me, they will also persecute you.
If they kept my word, they will also keep yours.
And they will do all these things to you on account of my name,
because they do not know the one who sent me."
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Jn 15:18-21

Jesus gives the disciples a paradox in telling them that, while they are part of the world (meaning here, in secular society), they are separated from that society through their association with Christ. He then reminds them that because they are his, they too will suffer persecution by those he (and they) came to save.

CCC: Jn 15:19-20 675; Jn 15:20 530, 765
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

John 15:26—16:4a

#291 Weekday Years I & II Context (Monday of the 6th Week of Easter)

Jesus said to his disciples:
"When the Advocate comes whom I will send you from the Father,
the Spirit of truth who proceeds from the Father,
he will testify to me.
And you also testify,
because you have been with me from the beginning.

"I have told you this so that you may not fall away.
They will expel you from the synagogues;
in fact, the hour is coming when everyone who kills you
will think he is offering worship to God.
They will do this because they have not known either the Father or me.
I have told you this so that when their hour comes
you may remember that I told you."
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Jn 15:26—16:4a

Jesus continues the theme of the strength to be given in the “Advocate,” the “Spirit of truth,” the Holy Spirit (see commentary on John 14:15-21). In this instance, he predicts to his friends that, once they begin to spread the Good News he gives them, they will face serious condemnation from their own faith community.

Jesus tells them they will be martyred by people who believe they are doing God’s will. Their attackers do this because they do not know Jesus, or understand that the Father is in him and he is in the Father, and he is in his disciples, so his disciples are also in the Father. This foreknowledge is intended to strengthen them when their hour comes. (“I have told you this so that when their hour comes you may remember that I told you.”)

CCC: Jn 15:26 244, 248, 263, 692, 719, 729, 1433, 2671
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John 15:26-27; 16:12-15

#63B Solemnities B Context (Pentecost Sunday B)

Jesus said to his disciples:
"When the Advocate comes whom I will send you from the Father,
the Spirit of truth that proceeds from the Father,
he will testify to me.
And you also testify,
because you have been with me from the beginning.

"I have much more to tell you, but you cannot bear it now.
But when he comes, the Spirit of truth,
he will guide you to all truth.
He will not speak on his own,
but he will speak what he hears,
and will declare to you the things that are coming.
He will glorify me,
because he will take from what is mine and declare it to you.
Everything that the Father has is mine;
for this reason I told you that he will take from what is mine
and declare it to you."
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Jn 15:26-27; 16:12-15

Jesus’ farewell speech continues with the theme of the strength to be given in the “Advocate”, the “Spirit of truth”, the Holy Spirit (see commentary on John 14:15-21). His reference to the coming of the Holy Spirit is explained further and the unity of the trinity comes into focus as the Lord tells his friends that this Advocate will give them what is also his (the Lord’s).

CCC: Jn 15:26 244, 248, 263, 692, 719, 729, 1433, 2671; Jn 16:13-15 2615; Jn 16:13 91, 243, 687, 692, 1117, 2466, 2671; Jn 16:14-15 485; Jn 16:14 244, 690
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John 16:5-11

#292 Weekday Years I & II Context (Tuesday of the 6th Week of Easter)

Jesus said to his disciples:
"Now I am going to the one who sent me,
and not one of you asks me, 'Where are you going?'
But because I told you this, grief has filled your hearts.
But I tell you the truth, it is better for you that I go.
For if I do not go, the Advocate will not come to you.
But if I go, I will send him to you.
And when he comes he will convict the world
in regard to sin and righteousness and condemnation:
sin, because they do not believe in me;
righteousness, because I am going to the Father
and you will no longer see me;
condemnation, because the ruler of this world has been condemned."
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Jn 16:5-11

In this selection Jesus reemphasizes that he is returning to the Father and it is only when he does so that the Paraclete will be given to the disciples. Above the active support and guidance promised of the Advocate earlier, we now hear of its role as judge. This movement from “guide” to “judge” demonstrates the completeness of this person of the Trinity.

CCC: Jn 16:11 385
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John 16:5b-7, 12-13a

#768 Ritual Mass Context (I. For the Conferral of Christian Initiation, 4. Confirmation, 12.)

Jesus said to his disciples:
"Now I am going to the one who sent me,
  and not one of you asks me, 'Where are you going?'
But because I told you this, grief has filled your hearts.
But I tell you the truth, it is better for you that I go.
For if I do not go, the Advocate will not come to you.
But if I go, I will send him to you.
"I have much more to tell you, but you cannot bear it now.
But when he comes, the Spirit of truth,
  he will guide you to all truth."
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Jn 16:5b-7, 12-13a

In this selection Jesus reemphasizes that he is returning to the Father and it is only when he does so that the Paraclete will be given to the disciples. The Lord goes on to explain that through the Advocate an understanding of the Good News and the mission upon which they will be sent will be imparted to them by the Holy Spirit.  It is an truth that they cannot bear to hear at that point because they are still grief stricken over the physical loss of Jesus presences.

CCC: Jn 16:13-15 2615; Jn 16:13 91, 243, 687, 692, 1117, 2466, 2671
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John 16:12-15

#166C Solemnities C Context (Solemnity of the Most Holy Trinity C)

#293 Weekday Years I & II Context (Wednesday of the 6th Week of Easter)

Jesus said to his disciples:
"I have much more to tell you, but you cannot bear it now.
But when he comes, the Spirit of truth,
he will guide you to all truth.
He will not speak on his own,
but he will speak what he hears,
and will declare to you the things that are coming.
He will glorify me,
because he will take from what is mine and declare it to you.
Everything that the Father has is mine;
for this reason I told you that he will take from what is mine
and declare it to you."
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Jn 16:12-15

Jesus’ farewell speech continues.  His reference to the coming of the Holy Spirit is explained further, and the unity of the Holy Trinity comes into focus. The Lord tells his friends that this Advocate will give them what is also his (the Lord’s). He tells the disciples that the Holy Spirit will not bring new revelations, but will allow them to understand the things that have already happened. And in that revelatory understanding, Christ will be glorified because he and the Father are one.

CCC: Jn 16:13-15 2615; Jn 16:13 91, 243, 687, 692, 1117, 2466, 2671; Jn 16:14-15 485; Jn 16:14 244, 690
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John 16:16-20

#294 Weekday Years I & II Context (Thursday of the 6th Week of Easter)

Jesus said to his disciples:
“A little while and you will no longer see me,
and again a little while later and you will see me.”
So some of his disciples said to one another,
“What does this mean that he is saying to us,
'A little while and you will not see me,
and again a little while and you will see me,’
and 'Because I am going to the Father’?”
So they said, “What is this 'little while’ of which he speaks?
We do not know what he means.”
Jesus knew that they wanted to ask him, so he said to them,
“Are you discussing with one another what I said,
'A little while and you will not see me,
and again a little while and you will see me’?
Amen, amen, I say to you,
you will weep and mourn, while the world rejoices;
you will grieve, but your grief will become joy.”
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Commentary on Jn 16:16-20

In spite of Jesus’ repeated attempts, the disciples are still uncertain about his departure and how long he will be gone. Since they have already heard what the prophets had predicted about the length of time he would be in the tomb, and had heard the Lord himself give the number of three days, they are concerned here about when he will return to them after the resurrection. The Lord, in characteristic form, does not give them a specific time frame, but instead paints a picture of the events surrounding his return.

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John 16:20-23a

#295 Weekday Years I & II Context (Friday of the 6th Week of Easter)

Jesus said to his disciples:
"Amen, amen, I say to you, you will weep and mourn,
while the world rejoices;
you will grieve, but your grief will become joy.
When a woman is in labor, she is in anguish because her hour has arrived;
but when she has given birth to a child,
she no longer remembers the pain because of her joy
that a child has been born into the world.
So you also are now in anguish.
But I will see you again, and your hearts will rejoice,
and no one will take your joy away from you.
On that day you will not question me about anything.
Amen, amen, I say to you,
whatever you ask the Father in my name he will give you."
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Commentary on Jn 16:20-23

In this passage there is an analogy used by Jesus. It compares the Lord's death and resurrection to the initiation of new life through the human birth process. Jesus uses this comparison to contrast the pain of childbirth with the anguish of grief the disciples will suffer when he leaves them to return to the Father. He concludes by comforting them saying: “whatever you ask the Father in my name he will give you.

CCC: Jn 16:23-27 2615
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John 16:20-22

#947 Mass for Various Needs Context (III. In Various Public Circumstances, 26. In Thanksgiving to God, 8)

Jesus said to his disciples:
"Amen, amen, I say to you, you will weep and mourn,
  while the world rejoices;
  you will grieve, but your grief will become joy.
When a woman is in labor, she is in anguish
  because her hour has arrivep;
  but when she has given birth to a child,
  she no longer remembers the pain because of her joy
  that a child has been born into the world.
So you also are now in anguish.
But I will see you again, and your hearts will rejoice,
  and no one will take your joy away from you."
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Commentary on Jn 16:20-22

In this passage we see an analogy used by Jesus comparing his death and resurrection to the initiation of new life through the human birth process. He uses this comparison to contrast the pain of child birth with the anguish of grief the disciples will suffer when he leaves them to return to the Father. He concludes by comforting them saying "But I will see you again, and your hearts will rejoice, and no one will take your joy away from you."

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John 16:23b-28

#296 Weekday Years I & II Context (Saturday of the 6th Week of Easter)

Jesus said to his disciples:
"Amen, amen, I say to you,
whatever you ask the Father in my name he will give you.
Until now you have not asked anything in my name;
ask and you will receive, so that your joy may be complete.

"I have told you this in figures of speech.
The hour is coming when I will no longer speak to you in figures
but I will tell you clearly about the Father.
On that day you will ask in my name,
and I do not tell you that I will ask the Father for you.
For the Father himself loves you, because you have loved me
and have come to believe that I came from God.
I came from the Father and have come into the world.
Now I am leaving the world and going back to the Father."
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Commentary on Jn 16:23b-28

This selection is taken from Jesus’ farewell speech. In this passage Jesus makes a strong connection between his own identity and the Father’s (“…whatever you ask the Father in my name he will give you”).

From a dogmatic perspective, this section of St. John’s Gospel sets the precedent as to how we are instructed to pray (e.g. to God through the Son, Jesus). He makes it clear that they are to use his name in prayer to the Father and assures them that what they ask for in his name will be given.

CCC: Jn 16:23-27 2615; Jn 16:24 2615, 2815; Jn 16:26 2815; Jn 16:28 661, 2795
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John 16:29-33

#297 Weekday Years I & II Context (Monday of the 7th Week of Easter)

The disciples said to Jesus,
"Now you are talking plainly, and not in any figure of speech.
Now we realize that you know everything
and that you do not need to have anyone question you.
Because of this we believe that you came from God."
Jesus answered them, "Do you believe now?
Behold, the hour is coming and has arrived
when each of you will be scattered to his own home
and you will leave me alone.
But I am not alone, because the Father is with me.
I have told you this so that you might have peace in me.
In the world you will have trouble,
but take courage, I have conquered the world."
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Commentary on Jn 16:29-33

Here, in St. John’s Gospel, we see the disciples already presume the hour the Lord predicted is upon them, and they are already prepared in fullness. Jesus must dissuade them from this notion. He tells them that they will fail in their faith but even in doing so he gives them great solace as he essentially forgives them in advance for deserting him when he is confronted in the garden. Even as they confess that they believe in him, Jesus knows they will flee when he is taken prisoner.

CCC: Jn 16:28 661, 2795; Jn 16:33 1808
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John 17:1-11a

#59A Solemnities A Context (7th Sunday of Easter A)

#298 Weekday Years I & II Context (Tuesday of the 7th Week of Easter)

#871 Mass for Various Needs Context (I. For the Holy Church, 10. For the Unity of Christians, 6.)

Jesus raised his eyes to heaven and said,
“Father, the hour has come.
Give glory to your son, so that your son may glorify you,
just as you gave him authority over all people,
so that your son may give eternal life to all you gave him.
Now this is eternal life,
that they should know you, the only true God,
and the one whom you sent, Jesus Christ.
I glorified you on earth
by accomplishing the work that you gave me to do.
Now glorify me, Father, with you,
with the glory that I had with you before the world began.

“I revealed your name to those whom you gave me out of the world.
They belonged to you, and you gave them to me,
and they have kept your word.
Now they know that everything you gave me is from you,
because the words you gave to me I have given to them,
and they accepted them and truly understood that I came from you,
and they have believed that you sent me.
I pray for them.
I do not pray for the world but for the ones you have given me,
because they are yours, and everything of mine is yours
and everything of yours is mine,
and I have been glorified in them.
And now I will no longer be in the world,
but they are in the world, while I am coming to you.
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Commentary on Jn 17:1-11a

Raising his eyes to heaven, Jesus begins what is known as the “High Priestly Prayer.”  In this first section, the Lord begins a petition for the disciples (those he has at that time and those to come), speaking directly to the Father (not to the disciples, they are just overhearing this prayer). The emphasis is clearly that the disciples have become what the Lord wanted, faithful believers, and he asks the Father to support them. He intercedes for those who were given to him by the Father (“I revealed your name to those whom you gave me out of the world.” the Apostles and their followers). The Lord singles out the faithful for the Father’s special care, asking that they be glorified with him as he departs the world.

CCC: Jn 17 2604, 2746, 2758; Jn 17:1 730, 1085, 2750; Jn 17:2 2750; Jn 17:3 217, 684, 1721, 1996, 2751, Sans; Jn 17:4 1069, 2750; Jn 17:5 2750; Jn 17:6-10 2751; Jn 17:6 589, 2750, 2750, 2812; Jn 17:7 2765; Jn 17:8 2812; Jn 17:9 2750; Jn 17:10 2750; Jn 17:11 2747, 2749, 2750, 2750, 2815, 2849
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John 17:6, 14-19

#774 Ritual Mass Context (II. For the Conferral of Holy Orders, 11.)

Jesus raised his eyes to heaven and prayed, saying:
"Holy Father, I revealed your name
  to those whom you gave me out of the world.
They belonged to you and you gave them to me,
  and they have kept your word.
I gave them your word, and the world hated them,
  because they do not belong to the world
  any more than I belong to the world.
1 do not ask that you take them out of the world
  but that you keep them from the Evil One.
They do not belong to the world
  any more than I belong to the world.
Consecrate them in the truth.
Your word is truth.
As you sent me into the world,
  so I sent them into the world.
And I consecrate myself for them,
  so that they also may be consecrated in truth."
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Commentary on Jn 17:6, 14-19

This passage is a continuation of the “High Priestly Prayer” started earlier in St. John’s Gospel John 17:1-11a. This part of the prayer begins with a plea for unity between the Father and disciples.  Clear reference is given below about how the world will receive these friends he sends into the world (“I gave them your word, and the world hated them” v.14). At the onset of this passage the Lord says "...I revealed your name" (in other translations "...I manifested your name"), possibly meaning that he revealed the Father's love and life - personified in the incarnation of His Only Begotten Son (see also Revelation 14:6-11 and CCC 2812).[16] Jesus next sets the Apostles apart for a holy purpose as he consecrates them; making them holy and giving them a special purpose.  He sends them into the world to carry out his mission, taking the love of the Father to the world and along with it the Word incarnate.

CCC: Jn 17:6-10 2751; Jn 17:6 589, 2750, 2750, 2812; Jn 17:15 2750, 2850; Jn 17:17-20 2821; Jn 17:17-19 2812; Jn 17:17 2466; Jn 17:18 858; Jn 17:19 611, 2747, 2749, 2812
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John 17:11b, 17-23

#831 Mass for Various Needs Context (I. For the Holy Church, 1. For the Church, 5.)

#837 Mass for Various Needs Context (I. For the Holy Church, 3. For the Election of a Pope or a Bishop, Second Option)

#876 Mass for Various Needs Context (I. For the Holy Church, 11. For the Evangelization of Peoples, 5.)

Jesus raised his eyes toward heaven and prayed, saying:
"Holy Father, keep them in your name that you have given me,
so that they may be one just as we are one.
Consecrate them in the truth.
Your word is truth.
As you sent me into the world,
so I sent them into the world.
And I consecrate myself for them,
so that they also may be consecrated in truth.

"I pray not only for them,
but also for those who will believe in me through their word,
so that they may all be one,
as you, Father, are in me and I in you,
that they also may be in us,
that the world may believe that you sent me.
And I have given them the glory you gave me,
so that they may be one, as we are one,
I in them and you in me,
that they may be brought to perfection as one,
that the world may know that you sent me,
and that you loved them even as yon loved me."
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Commentary on Jn 17:11b, 17-23

This passage is a continuation of the “High Priestly Prayer” started earlier in St. John’s Gospel John 17:1-11a. This part of the prayer begins with a plea for unity between the Father and disciples.  Clear reference is given below about how the world will receive these friends he sends into the world (“I gave them your word, and the world hated them” v.14). This is why he asks at the onset "Holy Father, keep them in your name that you have given me, so that they may be one just as we are one.

The second part of this reading (v. 17-23) focuses on the unity of persons in the love of Christ. The Lord prays for all those to be touched by the word of God which he now charges his disciples to carry into the world.  Again the theme of unity between the Father, and the Son, and his followers is emphasized and brought to a conclusion with “…that you loved them even as yon loved me.

CCC: Jn 17:11 2747, 2749, 2750, 2750, 2815, 2849; Jn 17:17-20 2821; Jn 17:17-19 2812; Jn 17:17 2466; Jn 17:18 858; Jn 17:19 611, 2747, 2749, 2812; Jn 17:21-23 260, 877; Jn 17:21 820; Jn 17:22 690; Jn 17:23-26 2750
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John 17:11 b-19

#60B Sundays B Context (7th Sunday of Easter B)

#299 Weekday Years I & II Context (Wednesday of the 7th Week of Easter)

#550 Proper of Saints Context (St. Stanislaus, Apr 11)

#575 Proper of Saints Context (Sts. Marcellinus and Peter, Jun 1)

#640 Proper of Saints Context (Sts. Cornelius and Cyprian, Sep 16)

#718 Commons Context (Common of Martyrs)

#871 Mass for Various Needs Context  (I. For the Holy Church, 10. For the Unity of Christians, 7.)

#881 Mass for Various Needs Context  (I. For the Holy Church, 12. For Persecuted Christians, 5.)

Jesus raised his eyes to heaven and prayed, saying:
"Holy Father, keep them in your name that you have given me,
so that they may be one just as we are one.
When I was with them I protected them in your name that you gave me,
and I guarded them,
and none of them was lost except the son of destruction,
in order that the Scripture might be fulfilled.
But now I am coming to you.
I speak this in the world
so that they may share my joy completely.
I gave them your word,
and the world hated them,
because they do not belong to the world
any more than I belong to the world.
I do not ask that you take them out of the world
but that you keep them from the Evil One.
They do not belong to the world
any more than I belong to the world.
Consecrate them in the truth.
Your word is truth.
As you sent me into the world,
so I sent them into the world.
And I consecrate myself for them,
so that they also may be consecrated in truth."
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Commentary on Jn 17:11 b-19

This passage is a continuation of the “High Priestly Prayer” started earlier in St. John’s Gospel (John 17:1-11a). This part of the prayer begins with a plea for unity between the Father and the disciples (note the reference here to Judas Iscariot as the “son of destruction"). Still speaking directly to God, Jesus again says he is going to the Father, and that the disciples should share his joy at this prospect. He then asks the Father to keep them safe from the poison of sin (similar here to the petition in the Lord’s Prayer) and to consecrate them in truth (defining truth as the Word). In this instance“…but that you keep them from the Evil One,” it appears to refer specifically to the devil as opposed to some generic evil.

Clear reference is given here about how the world will receive these friends he sends into the world (“I gave them your word, and the world hated them”). This is why he asks at the outset: "Holy Father, keep them in your name that you have given me, so that they may be one just as we are one.

CCC: Jn 17:11 2747, 2749, 2750, 2750, 2815, 2849; Jn 17:12 2750, 2750; Jn 17:13 2747, 2749; Jn 17:15 2750, 2850; Jn 17:17-20 2821; Jn 17:17-19 2812; Jn 17:17 2466; Jn 17:18 858; Jn 17:19 611, 2747, 2749, 2812
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John 17:20-26*

#61C Solemnities C Context (7th Sunday of Easter C)

#300 Weekday Years I & II Context (Thursday of the 7th Week of Easter)

#554 Proper of Saints Context (St. Fidelis of Sigmaringen, Apr 24

#570 Proper of Saints Context (St. Philip Neri, May 26)

#589 Proper of Saints Context (St. Irenaeus, Jun 28)

#625 Proper of Saints Context (St. Bernard, Aug 20)

#674 Proper of Saints Context (St. Josaphat, Nov 12)

#742 Commons Context (Common of Holy Men and Women)

#805 Ritual Mass Context (VI. For the Conferral of the Sacrament of Marriage, 10. [Shorter Form Offered])

#815 Ritual Mass Context (VIII. For the Consecration of Virgins and Religious Profession, 16.)

#871 Mass for Various Needs Context (I. For the Holy Church, 10. For the Unity of Christians, 8.)

#1000 Votive Mass Context (The Most Sacred Heart of Jesus, 7.)

#38O-2 BVM Context (Holy Mary, Mother of Unity)

Jesus raised his eyes to heaven and said:
"Holy Father, I pray not only for these,
but also for those who will believe in me through their word,
so that they may all be one,
as you, Father, are in me and I in you,
that they also may be in us,
that the world may believe that you sent me.
And I have given them the glory you gave me,
so that they may be one, as we are one,
I in them and you in me,
that they may be brought to perfection as one,
that the world may know that you sent me,
and that you loved them even as you loved me.
Father, they are your gift to me.
I wish that where I am they also may be with me,
that they may see my glory that you gave me,
because you loved me before the foundation of the world.
Righteous Father, the world also does not know you,
but I know you, and they know that you sent me.
I made known to them your name and I will make it known,
that the love with which you loved me
may be in them and I in them."
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Commentary on Jn 17:20-26

Here is the final part of the “High Priestly Prayer” from the Lord’s final discourse. In this selection we are joined with the disciples as Jesus says: “…but also for those who will believe in me through their word.” Again the theme of unity between the Father, the Son, and his followers is emphasized and brought to a conclusion with: “…that the love with which you loved me may be in them and I in them.

CCC: Jn 17 2604, 2746, 2758; Jn 17:21-23 260, 877; Jn 17:21 820; Jn 17:22 690; Jn 17:23-26 2750; Jn 17:24 2749, 2750, 2750; Jn 17:25 2751; Jn 17:26 589, 729, 2750
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OR
Shorter Form: John 17:20-23

Jesus raised his eyes to heaven and said:
"Holy Father, I pray not only for these,
but also for those who will believe in me through their word,
so that they may all be one,
as you, Father, are in me and I in you,
that they also may be in us,
that the world may believe that you sent me.
And I have given them the glory you gave me,
so that they may be one, as we are one,
I in them and you in me,
that they may be brought to perfection as one,
that the world may know that you sent me,
and that you loved them even as you loved me.

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Commentary on Jn 17:20-23

Here is the final part of the “High Priestly Prayer” from the Lord’s final discourse. This shorter form focuses on the unity of persons in the love of Christ. There is less emphasis on the resurrection and hope of eternal life.

CCC: Jn 17 2604, 2746, 2758; Jn 17:21-23 260, 877; Jn 17:21 820; Jn 17:22 690; Jn 17:23-26 2750
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John 17:24-26

#1016 Mass for the Dead Context (18.)

Jesus raised his eyes to heaven and said:
"Father, those whom you gave me are your gift to me.
I wish that where I am they also may be with me,
that they may see my glory that you gave me,
because you loved me before the foundation of the world.
Righteous Father, the world also does not know you,
but I know you, and they know that you sent me.
I made known to them your name and I will make it known,
that the love with which you loved me
may be in them and I in them."
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Commentary on Jn 17:24-26

Here is the final part of the “High Priestly Prayer” from the Lord’s final discourse. The Lord, speaking to his Heavenly Father, asks for salvation for the people God has given the grace to have faith in him.  He asks that his friends might have a share in the eternal life God gives ("...before the foundation of the world.").  The selection concludes with the ultimate gift Christ bestows; the love of God and the love of Christ, joining those who believe to Father and Son through the bond of love.

CCC: Jn 17:23-26 2750
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John 18:1—19:42

#40ABC Solemnities ABC Context (Good Friday of the Lord's Passion)

Jesus went out with his disciples across the Kidron valley
to where there was a garden,
into which he and his disciples entered.
Judas his betrayer also knew the place,
because Jesus had often met there with his disciples.
So Judas got a band of soldiers and guards
from the chief priests and the Pharisees
and went there with lanterns, torches, and weapons.
Jesus, knowing everything that was going to happen to him,
went out and said to them, "Whom are you looking for?"
They answered him, "Jesus the Nazorean."
He said to them, "I AM."
Judas his betrayer was also with them.
When he said to them, "I AM,"
they turned away and fell to the ground.
So he again asked them,
"Whom are you looking for?"
They said, "Jesus the Nazorean."
Jesus answered,
"I told you that I AM.
So if you are looking for me, let these men go."
This was to fulfill what he had said,
"I have not lost any of those you gave me."
Then Simon Peter, who had a sword, drew it,
struck the high priest's slave, and cut off his right ear.
The slave's name was Malchus.
Jesus said to Peter,
"Put your sword into its scabbard.
Shall I not drink the cup that the Father gave me?"

So the band of soldiers, the tribune, and the Jewish guards seized Jesus,
bound him, and brought him to Annas first.
He was the father-in-law of Caiaphas,
who was high priest that year.
It was Caiaphas who had counseled the Jews
that it was better that one man should die rather than the people.

Simon Peter and another disciple followed Jesus.
Now the other disciple was known to the high priest,
and he entered the courtyard of the high priest with Jesus.
But Peter stood at the gate outside.
So the other disciple, the acquaintance of the high priest,
went out and spoke to the gatekeeper and brought Peter in.
Then the maid who was the gatekeeper said to Peter,
"You are not one of this man's disciples, are you?"
He said, "I am not."
Now the slaves and the guards were standing around a charcoal fire
that they had made, because it was cold,
and were warming themselves.
Peter was also standing there keeping warm.

The high priest questioned Jesus
about his disciples and about his doctrine.
Jesus answered him,
"I have spoken publicly to the world.
I have always taught in a synagogue
or in the temple area where all the Jews gather,
and in secret I have said nothing. Why ask me?
Ask those who heard me what I said to them.
They know what I said."
When he had said this,
one of the temple guards standing there struck Jesus and said,
"Is this the way you answer the high priest?"
Jesus answered him,
"If I have spoken wrongly, testify to the wrong;
but if I have spoken rightly, why do you strike me?"
Then Annas sent him bound to Caiaphas the high priest.

Now Simon Peter was standing there keeping warm.
And they said to him,
"You are not one of his disciples, are you?"
He denied it and said,
"I am not."
One of the slaves of the high priest,
a relative of the one whose ear Peter had cut off, said,
"Didn't I see you in the garden with him?"
Again Peter denied it.
And immediately the cock crowed.

Then they brought Jesus from Caiaphas to the praetorium.
It was morning.
And they themselves did not enter the praetorium,
in order not to be defiled so that they could eat the Passover.
So Pilate came out to them and said,
"What charge do you bring against this man?"
They answered and said to him,
"If he were not a criminal,
we would not have handed him over to you."
At this, Pilate said to them,
"Take him yourselves, and judge him according to your law."
The Jews answered him,
"We do not have the right to execute anyone,"
in order that the word of Jesus might be fulfilled
that he said indicating the kind of death he would die.
So Pilate went back into the praetorium
and summoned Jesus and said to him,
"Are you the King of the Jews?"
Jesus answered,
"Do you say this on your own
or have others told you about me?"
Pilate answered,
"I am not a Jew, am I?
Your own nation and the chief priests handed you over to me.
What have you done?"
Jesus answered,
"My kingdom does not belong to this world.
If my kingdom did belong to this world,
my attendants would be fighting
to keep me from being handed over to the Jews.
But as it is, my kingdom is not here."
So Pilate said to him,
"Then you are a king?"
Jesus answered,
"You say I am a king.
For this I was born and for this I came into the world,
to testify to the truth.
Everyone who belongs to the truth listens to my voice."
Pilate said to him, "What is truth?"

When he had said this,
he again went out to the Jews and said to them,
"I find no guilt in him.
But you have a custom that I release one prisoner to you at Passover.
Do you want me to release to you the King of the Jews?"
They cried out again,
"Not this one but Barabbas!"
Now Barabbas was a revolutionary.

Then Pilate took Jesus and had him scourged.
And the soldiers wove a crown out of thorns and placed it on his head,
and clothed him in a purple cloak,
and they came to him and said,
"Hail, King of the Jews!"
And they struck him repeatedly.
Once more Pilate went out and said to them,
"Look, I am bringing him out to you,
so that you may know that I find no guilt in him."
So Jesus came out,
wearing the crown of thorns and the purple cloak.
And he said to them, "Behold, the man!"
When the chief priests and the guards saw him they cried out,
"Crucify him, crucify him!"

Pilate said to them,
"Take him yourselves and crucify him.
I find no guilt in him."
The Jews answered,
"We have a law, and according to that law he ought to die,
because he made himself the Son of God."
Now when Pilate heard this statement,
he became even more afraid,
and went back into the praetorium and said to Jesus,
"Where are you from?"
Jesus did not answer him.
So Pilate said to him,
"Do you not speak to me?
Do you not know that I have power to release you
and I have power to crucify you?"
Jesus answered him,
"You would have no power over me
if it had not been given to you from above.
For this reason the one who handed me over to you
has the greater sin."
Consequently, Pilate tried to release him; but the Jews cried out,
"If you release him, you are not a Friend of Caesar.
Everyone who makes himself a king opposes Caesar."

When Pilate heard these words he brought Jesus out
and seated him on the judge's bench
in the place called Stone Pavement, in Hebrew, Gabbatha.
It was preparation day for Passover, and it was about noon.
And he said to the Jews,
"Behold, your king!"
They cried out,
"Take him away, take him away! Crucify him!"
Pilate said to them,
"Shall I crucify your king?"
The chief priests answered,
"We have no king but Caesar."
Then he handed him over to them to be crucified.

So they took Jesus, and, carrying the cross himself,
he went out to what is called the Place of the Skull,
in Hebrew, Golgotha.
There they crucified him, and with him two others,
one on either side, with Jesus in the middle.
Pilate also had an inscription written and put on the cross.
It read,
"Jesus the Nazorean, the King of the Jews."
Now many of the Jews read this inscription,
because the place where Jesus was crucified was near the city;
and it was written in Hebrew, Latin, and Greek.
So the chief priests of the Jews said to Pilate,
"Do not write 'The King of the Jews,'
but that he said, 'I am the King of the Jews.'"
Pilate answered,
"What I have written, I have written."

When the soldiers had crucified Jesus,
they took his clothes and divided them into four shares,
a share for each soldier.
They also took his tunic, but the tunic was seamless,
woven in one piece from the top down.
So they said to one another,
"Let's not tear it, but cast lots for it to see whose it will be,"
in order that the passage of Scripture might be fulfilled that says:
They divided my garments among them,
and for my vesture they cast lots.
This is what the soldiers did.
Standing by the cross of Jesus were his mother
and his mother's sister, Mary the wife of Clopas,
and Mary of Magdala.
When Jesus saw his mother and the disciple there whom he loved
he said to his mother, "Woman, behold, your son."
Then he said to the disciple,
"Behold, your mother."
And from that hour the disciple took her into his home.

After this, aware that everything was now finished,
in order that the Scripture might be fulfilled,
Jesus said, "I thirst."
There was a vessel filled with common wine.
So they put a sponge soaked in wine on a sprig of hyssop
and put it up to his mouth.
When Jesus had taken the wine, he said,
"It is finished."
And bowing his head, he handed over the spirit.

Here all kneel and pause for a short time.

Now since it was preparation day,
in order that the bodies might not remain on the cross on the sabbath,
for the sabbath day of that week was a solemn one,
the Jews asked Pilate that their legs be broken
and that they be taken down.
So the soldiers came and broke the legs of the first
and then of the other one who was crucified with Jesus.
But when they came to Jesus and saw that he was already dead,
they did not break his legs,
but one soldier thrust his lance into his side,
and immediately blood and water flowed out.
An eyewitness has testified, and his testimony is true;
he knows that he is speaking the truth,
so that you also may come to believe.
For this happened so that the Scripture passage might be fulfilled:
Not a bone of it will be broken.
And again another passage says:
They will look upon him whom they have pierced.

After this, Joseph of Arimathea,
secretly a disciple of Jesus for fear of the Jews,
asked Pilate if he could remove the body of Jesus.
And Pilate permitted it.
So he came and took his body.
Nicodemus, the one who had first come to him at night,
also came bringing a mixture of myrrh and aloes
weighing about one hundred pounds.
They took the body of Jesus
and bound it with burial cloths along with the spices,
according to the Jewish burial custom.
Now in the place where he had been crucified there was a garden,
and in the garden a new tomb, in which no one had yet been buried.
So they laid Jesus there because of the Jewish preparation day;
for the tomb was close by.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Jn 18:1—19:42

Many of the specific details of the Passion accounts found in Matthew, Mark and Luke are omitted in St. John's account (the agony in the garden and the kiss of Judas, nor does he identify the place as Gethsemane or the Mount of Olives.[3]) Also unlike the synoptic Gospels, St. John suggests Roman participation in the arrest of Jesus.

In St. John’s account we are also told that Jesus went through several interrogations (first by Annas and then by Caiaphas) before being taken to Pilate. The philosophical debate between Jesus and Pilate in John’s Gospel is rich with logic and it is easy to understand why Pilate wanted to release him. In the end (without sending him to Herod) Christ is condemned.

The role of Mary in John’s narrative is significant in that her role represents the Church, the mother of Christians now being given to the care of the Disciple whom Jesus loved. This hand off of the Church was the Lord’s last dying act. Finally we are given the final symbols of the perfect sacrifice; Jesus’ legs are not broken (because according to Jewish Law, the legs of a sacrificial animal are not to be broken) and water (representing baptism) and blood (representing Eucharist) flow from his side. See detail commentary below.

(Detailed commentary on much of the Passion can be found below.)

CCC: Jn 18:4-6 609; Jn 18:11 607; Jn 18:12 575; Jn 18:20 586; Jn 18:31 596; Jn 18:36 549, 600; Jn 18:37 217, 559, 2471; Jn 19:11 600; Jn 19:12 596; Jn 19:15 596; Jn 19:19-22 440; Jn 19:21 596; Jn 19:25-27 726, 2618; Jn 19:25 495; Jn 19:26-27 501, 964, 2605; Jn 19:27 2677, 2679; Jn 19:28 544, 607, 2561, 2605; Jn 19:30 607, 624, 730, 2605; Jn 19:30b 2605; Jn 19:31 641; Jn 19:34 478, 694, 1225; Jn 19:36 608; Jn 19:37 1432; Jn 19:38-39 595; Jn 19:38 575; Jn 19:42 624, 641
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

John 18:33b-37

#161B Solemnities B Context (The Solemnity of Christ the King B)

Pilate said to Jesus,
"Are you the King of the Jews?"
Jesus answered, "Do you say this on your own
or have others told you about me?"
Pilate answered, "I am not a Jew, am I?
Your own nation and the chief priests handed you over to me.
What have you done?"
Jesus answered, "My kingdom does not belong to this world.
If my kingdom did belong to this world,
my attendants would be fighting
to keep me from being handed over to the Jews.
But as it is, my kingdom is not here."
So Pilate said to him, "Then you are a king?"
Jesus answered, "You say I am a king.
For this I was born and for this I came into the world,
to testify to the truth.
Everyone who belongs to the truth listens to my voice."
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Jn 18:33b-37

In St. John’s description of the interrogation of Jesus by Pontius Pilate, we hear Jesus’ reluctant admission of his kinship. He clarifies that he is not a threat to civil authority, something about which Pilate would have been most worried. If Jesus was attempting to usurp authority from Caesar the act was treason. His statement:  “My kingdom does not belong to this world.” changes the character of the Lord’s kingdom from a physical monarchy to one of spiritual rule.

CCC: Jn 18:36 549, 600; Jn 18:37 217, 559, 2471
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

John 19:17-18, 25-39

1016 Mass for the Dead Context (19.)

So they took Jesus, and, carrying the cross himself,
he went out to what is called the Place of the Skull,
in Hebrew, Golgotha.
There they crucified him, and with him two others,
one on either side, with Jesus in the middle.

Standing by the cross of Jesus were his mother
and his mother's sister, Mary the wife of Clopas,
and Mary Magdalene.
When Jesus saw his mother and the disciple whom he loved,
he said to his mother, "Woman, behold, your son."
Then he said to the disciple,
"Behold, your mother."
And from that hour the disciple took her into his home.

After this, aware that everything was now finished,
in order that the Scripture might be fulfilled,
Jesus said, "I thirst."
There was a vessel filled with common wine.
So they put a sponge soaked in wine on a sprig of hyssop
and put it up to his mouth.
When Jesus had taken the wine, he said,
"It is finished."
And bowing his head, he handed over the Spirit.

Now since it was preparation day,
in order that the bodies might not remain on the cross on the sabbath,
for the sabbath day of that week was a solemn one,
the Jews asked Pilate that their legs be broken
and they be taken down.
So the soldiers came and broke the legs of the first
and then of the other one who was crucified with Jesus.
But when they came to Jesus and saw that he was already dead,
they did not break his legs,
but one soldier thrust his lance into his side,
and immediately Blood and water flowed out.

An eyewitness has testified, and his testimony is true;
he knows that he is speaking the truth,
so that you also may come to believe.
For this happened so that the Scripture passage might be fulfilled;
Not a bone of it will he broken.
And again another passage says:
They will look upon him whom they have pierced.

After this, Joseph of Arimathea,
secretly a disciple of Jesus for fear of the Jews,
asked Pilate if he could remove the Body of Jesus.
And Pilate permitted it.
So he came and took his Body.
Nicodemus, the one who had first come to him at night,
also came bringing a mixture of myrrh and aloes
weighing about one hundred pounds.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Jn 19:17-18, 25-39

This selection picks up the Passion Narrative from St. John's Gospel following the Lord's trial and conviction.  Details of his scourging and the events that took place along the Way of the Cross found in the synoptic Gospels are omitted (see Matthew 26:14—27:66; Mark 14:1—15:47; Luke 22:14—23:56). John does not feel it is necessary to tell his audience of the events that confirmed Jesus as the Messiah during the crucifixion (i.e. the guards casting lots for his garment, etc.)

He does, however record Jesus’ last address to his mother. Although the address sounds unnecessarily formal ("Woman, behold, your son.") this would have been considered a polite address in biblical times. The reference, “Woman”, is possibly to Genesis 3:15 which describes the mother of the Messiah as the “woman” whose offspring conquers the devil (CCC 726, 2618)[10]. The Lord, nearing the end of his life commends the care of his mother to the disciple whom he loved. It is presumed this is done because Jesus has no biological brothers of sisters (Also inferred is that his mother's husband, Joseph, has already passed away). In this instance, while it can be assumed that this disciple is St. John, the author, this tender consignment of the care of the Lord’s mother is seen as iconic, that is she is given into the care of all of the disciples whom Jesus loves. Seeing her Son dying upon the cross is one of the seven sorrows the Blessed Mother endured in faith.

The narrative continues describing the Lord's last moments of life on the cross.  The prophecy to which John refers when saying "...in order that the Scripture might be fulfilled" was Psalm 69:22.  While Matthew and Mark speak about this event, only John relates it specifically to the prophetic literature.  After this final act, the Lord "handed over his spirit."

What happens after Jesus' death demonstrates to the Jews the nature of his sacrifice. "Jesus dies on the Preparation day of the Passover - Parasceve- that is, the eve, when the paschal lambs were officially sacrificed in the temple.  By stressing this, the Evangelist implies that Christ's sacrifice took the place of the sacrifices of the Old Law and inaugurated the New Alliance in his blood (cf. Hebrews 9:12)."[11]  Typically, when the executioners wished to speed up the death of one crucified, the legs would be broken. This would force the victim to suffocate quickly.  In the case of Jesus, this was not done. (see Psalm 34:20-21)  Instead we are told the guards pierced his side with a lance and "immediately Blood and water flowed out."

While the outflow of water and blood have a natural explanation, there has been great theological importance placed upon it in numerous sources (St. Ambrose, St. Thomas Aquinas, and St. Augustine).  Water and blood have already been established as signs of salvation (John 3:5 and John 6:53ff).  "With Christ's death and the giving of the Spirit already signified in v. 30, the life-giving work of the Church begins, and hence the Church can be said in a sense to have been born from the wounded side of Christ."[12]

St. John next adds a theological reflection of his own in the form of testamentary from and eye witness.  Using references to prophetic literature, the witness points out that Jesus' body ritually followed Jewish law governing the Passover sacrifice,  which designated that the bones of the sacrificial animal should not be broken (Exodus 12:46; Numbers 9:12). Christ becomes the Christian's Passover Sacrifice and meal. And in the second proof "They will look upon him whom they have pierced" he makes reference to Zechariah 12:10.

The passage concludes with the release of the body of Jesus to Joseph of Aramathia.  Joseph is not identified as a member of the Sanhedrin (Mark 15:43Luke 23:50) but he is identified as a disciple of Jesus which is not mentioned in the Synoptic accounts.  He is joined by Nicodemus (see John 7:50ff).  The body is buried close by which would be logical given the urgency regarding ritual purity.

CCC: Jn 19:25-27 726, 2618; Jn 19:25 495; Jn 19:26-27 501, 964, 2605; Jn 19:27 2677, 2679; Jn 19:28 544, 607, 2561, 2605; Jn 19:30 607, 624, 730, 2605; Jn 19:30b 2605; Jn 19:31 641; Jn 19:34 478, 694, 1225; Jn 19:36 608; Jn 19:37 1432; Jn 19:38-39 595; Jn 19:38 575
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

John 19:25-30

#1022 Mass for the Dead Context (Funerals for Baptized Children, 6.)

Standing by the cross of Jesus were his mother
and his mother's sister, Mary the wife of Clopas,
and Mary Magdalene.
When Jesus saw his mother and the disciple whom he loved,
he said to his mother, "Woman, behold, your son."
Then he said to the disciple,
"Behold, your mother."
And from that hour the disciple took her into his home.

After this, aware that everything was now finished,
in order that the Scripture might be fulfilled,
Jesus said, "I thirst."
There was a vessel filled with common wine.
So they put a sponge soaked in wine on a sprig of hyssop
and put it up to his mouth.
When Jesus had taken the wine, he said,
"It is finished."
And bowing his head, he handed over the Spirit.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Jn 19:25-30

This selection picks up the Passion Narrative from St. John's Gospel following the Lord's trial and conviction. Here the Evangelist records Jesus’ last address to his mother. Although the address sounds unnecessarily formal ("Woman, behold, your son.") this would have been considered a polite address in biblical times. The reference, “Woman”, is possibly to Genesis 3:15 which describes the mother of the Messiah as the “woman” whose offspring conquers the devil (CCC 7262618)[10]. The Lord, nearing the end of his life commends the care of his mother to the disciple whom he loved. It is presumed this is done because Jesus has no biological brothers of sisters (Also inferred is that his mother's husband, Joseph, has already passed away). In this instance, while it can be assumed that this disciple is St. John, the author, this tender consignment of the care of the Lord’s mother is seen as iconic, that is she is given into the care of all of the disciples whom Jesus loves. Seeing her Son dying upon the cross is one of the seven sorrows the Blessed Mother endured in faith.

The narrative continues describing the Lord's last moments of life on the cross.  The prophecy to which John refers when saying "...in order that the Scripture might be fulfilled" was Psalm 69:22.  While Matthew and Mark speak about this event, only John relates it specifically to the prophetic literature.  After this final act, the Lord "handed over his spirit."

CCC: Jn 19:25-27 726, 2618; Jn 19:25 495; Jn 19:26-27 501, 964, 2605; Jn 19:27 2677, 2679; Jn 19:28 544, 607, 2561, 2605; Jn 19:30 607, 624, 730, 2605; Jn 19:30b 2605
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


#31O-2 BVM Context (The Blessed Virgin Mary, Fountain of Salvation, I)

Standing by the cross of Jesus were his mother
and his mother's sister, Mary the wife of Clopas,
and Mary Magdalene.
When Jesus saw his mother and the disciple whom he loved,
he said to his mother, "Woman, behold, your son."
Then he said to the disciple,
"Behold, your mother."
And from that hour the disciple took her into his home.

After this, aware that everything was now finished,
in order that the Scripture might be fulfilled,
Jesus said, "I thirst."
There was a vessel filled with common wine.
So they put a sponge soaked in wine on a sprig of hyssop
and put it up to his mouth.
When Jesus had taken the wine, he said,
"It is finished."
And bowing his head, he handed over the spirit.

Now since it was preparation day,
in order that the bodies might not remain on the cross on the sabbath,
for the sabbath day of that week was a solemn one,
the Jews asked Pilate that their legs be broken
and they be taken down.
So the soldiers came and broke the legs of the first
and then of the other one who was crucified with Jesus.
But when they came to Jesus and saw that he was already dead,
they did not break his legs,
but one soldier thrust his lance into his side,
and immediately Blood and water flowed out.
An eyewitness has testified, and his testimony is true;
he knows that he is speaking the truth,
so that you also may come to believe.
For this happened so that the Scripture passage might be fulfilled:
Not a bone of it will be broken.
And again another passage says:
They will look upon him whom they have pierced.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Jn 19:25-37

Here is Jesus’ last address to his mother. Although the address sounds unnecessarily formal ("Woman, behold, your son.") this would have been considered a polite address in biblical times. The reference, “Woman,” is possibly to Genesis 3:15 which describes the mother of the Messiah as the “woman” whose offspring conquers the devil (CCC 7262618).[10] The Lord, nearing the end of his life, commends the care of his mother to the disciple whom he loved. It is presumed this is done because Jesus has no brothers or sisters, and his adoptive father, Joseph, has already died.

 In this instance, while it can be assumed that the disciple referred to is St. John, the author of the Gospel, the tender consignment of the care of the Lord’s mother is seen as iconic. That is, she is given into the care of all of the disciples, whom Jesus loves. Seeing her Son dying upon the cross is one of the seven sorrows the Blessed Mother endured in faith.

The narrative continues describing the Lord's last moments of life on the cross.  The prophecy to which John refers when saying "...in order that the Scripture might be fulfilled" was Psalm 69:22.  While Matthew and Mark speak about this event, only John relates it specifically to the prophetic literature.  After this final act, the Lord "handed over his spirit."

What happens after Jesus' death demonstrates to the Jews the nature of his sacrifice. "Jesus dies on the Preparation day of the Passover - Parasceve- that is, the eve, when the paschal lambs were officially sacrificed in the temple.  By stressing this, the Evangelist implies that Christ's sacrifice took the place of the sacrifices of the Old Law and inaugurated the New Alliance in his blood (cf. Hebrews 9:12)."[11]  Typically, when the executioners wished to speed up the death of one crucified, the legs would be broken. This would force the victim to suffocate quickly.  In the case of Jesus, this was not done. (see Psalm 34:20-21)  Instead we are told the guards pierced his side with a lance and "immediately Blood and water flowed out."

While the outflow of water and blood have a natural explanation, there has been great theological importance placed upon it in numerous sources (St. Ambrose, St. Thomas Aquinas, and St. Augustine).  Water and blood have already been established as signs of salvation (John 3:5 and John 6:53ff).  "With Christ's death and the giving of the Spirit already signified in v. 30, the life-giving work of the Church begins, and hence the Church can be said in a sense to have been born from the wounded side of Christ."[12]

St. John next adds a theological reflection of his own in the form of testamentary from and eye witness.  Using references to prophetic literature, the witness points out that Jesus' body ritually followed Jewish law governing the Passover sacrifice,  which designated that the bones of the sacrificial animal should not be broken (Exodus 12:46Numbers 9:12). Christ becomes the Christian's Passover Sacrifice and meal. And in the second proof "They will look upon him whom they have pierced" he makes reference to Zechariah 12:10.

CCC: Jn 19:25-27 726, 2618; Jn 19:25 495; Jn 19:26-27 501, 964, 2605; Jn 19:27 2677, 2679; Jn 19:28 544, 607, 2561, 2605; Jn 19:30 607, 624, 730, 2605; Jn 19:30b 2605; Jn 19:31 641; Jn 19:34 478, 694, 1225; Jn 19:36 608; Jn 19:37 1432
 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

John 19:25-27

#639 Proper of Saints Context (Our Lady of Sorrows, Sep 15)

#712 Commons Context (Common of the Blessed Virgin Mary)

#1002 Votive Mass Context (The Blessed Virgin Mary, I. The Blessed Virgin Mary, Mother of the Church)

#11L BVM Context (The Blessed Virgin Mary at the Foot of the Cross I, Lent 11)

#12L BVM Context (The Blessed Virgin Mary at the Foot of the Cross II, Lent 12)

#13L BVM Context (The Commending of the Blessed Virgin Mary, Lent 13)

#14L BVM Context (The Blessed Virgin Mary/ Mother of Reconciliation, Lent 14)

#18E BVM Context (The Blessed Virgin Mary/ Queen of Apostles, Easter 18)

#25O-1 BVM Context (The Blessed Virgin Mary, Image and Mother of the Church, I)

#32O-2 BVM Context (The Blessed Virgin Mary, Mother and Teacher in the Spirit)

#43O-3 BVM Context (Our Lady of Ransom)

Standing by the cross of Jesus were his mother
and his mother's sister, Mary the wife of Clopas,
and Mary Magdalene.
When Jesus saw his mother and the disciple there whom he loved
he said to his mother, "Woman, behold, your son."
Then he said to the disciple,
"Behold, your mother."
And from that hour the disciple took her into his home.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Jn 19:25-27

Here is Jesus’ last address to his mother. Although the address sounds unnecessarily formal ("Woman, behold, your son.") this would have been considered a polite address in biblical times. The reference, “Woman,” is possibly to Genesis 3:15 which describes the mother of the Messiah as the “woman” whose offspring conquers the devil (CCC 726, 2618)[10]. The Lord, nearing the end of his life, commends the care of his mother to the disciple whom he loved. It is presumed this is done because Jesus has no brothers or sisters, and his adoptive father, Joseph, has already died.

 In this instance, while it can be assumed that the disciple referred to is St. John, the author of the Gospel, the tender consignment of the care of the Lord’s mother is seen as iconic. That is, she is given into the care of all of the disciples, whom Jesus loves. Seeing her Son dying upon the cross is one of the seven sorrows the Blessed Mother endured in faith.

CCC: Jn 19:25-27 726, 2618; Jn 19:25 495; Jn 19:26-27 501, 964, 2605; Jn 19:27 2677, 2679
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

John 19:28-37

#975 Votive Mass Context (Mystery of the Holy Cross, 9.)

Jesus, aware that everything was now finished,
in order that the Scripture might be fulfilled, said,
"I thirst."
There was a vessel filled with common wine.
So they put a sponge soaked in wine on a sprig of hyssop
and put it up to his mouth.
When Jesus had taken the wine, he said,
"It is finished."
And bowing his head, he handed over the spirit.

Now since it was preparation day,
in order that the bodies might not remain on the cross on the sabbath,
for the sabbath day of that week was a solemn one,
the Jews asked Pilate that their legs be broken
and they be taken down.
So the soldiers came and broke the legs of the first
and then of the other one who was crucified with Jesus.
But when they came to Jesus and saw that he was already dead,
they did not break his legs,
but one soldier thrust his lance into his side,
and immediately Blood and water flowed out.
An eyewitness has testified, and his testimony is true;
he knows that he is speaking the truth,
so that you also may come to believe.
For this happened so that the Scripture passage might be fulfilled:
Not a bone of it will be broken.
And again another passage says:
They will look upon him whom they have pierced.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Jn 19:28-37

The narrative continues describing the Lord's last moments of life on the cross.  The prophecy to which John refers when saying "...in order that the Scripture might be fulfilled" was Psalm 69:22.  While Matthew and Mark speak about this event, only John relates it specifically to the prophetic literature.  After this final act, the Lord "handed over his spirit."

What happens after Jesus' death demonstrates to the Jews the nature of his sacrifice. "Jesus dies on the Preparation day of the Passover - Parasceve- that is, the eve, when the paschal lambs were officially sacrificed in the temple.  By stressing this, the Evangelist implies that Christ's sacrifice took the place of the sacrifices of the Old Law and inaugurated the New Alliance in his blood (cf. Hebrews 9:12)."[11]  Typically, when the executioners wished to speed up the death of one crucified, the legs would be broken. This would force the victim to suffocate quickly.  In the case of Jesus, this was not done. (see Psalm 34:20-21)  Instead we are told the guards pierced his side with a lance and "immediately Blood and water flowed out."

While the outflow of water and blood have a natural explanation, there has been great theological importance placed upon it in numerous sources (St. Ambrose, St. Thomas Aquinas, and St. Augustine).  Water and blood have already been established as signs of salvation (John 3:5 and John 6:53ff).  "With Christ's death and the giving of the Spirit already signified in v. 30, the life-giving work of the Church begins, and hence the Church can be said in a sense to have been born from the wounded side of Christ."[12]

St. John next adds a theological reflection of his own in the form of testamentary from and eye witness.  Using references to prophetic literature, the witness points out that Jesus' body ritually followed Jewish law governing the Passover sacrifice,  which designated that the bones of the sacrificial animal should not be broken (Exodus 12:46Numbers 9:12). Christ becomes the Christian's Passover Sacrifice and meal. And in the second proof "They will look upon him whom they have pierced" he makes reference to Zechariah 12:10.

CCC: Jn 19:28 544, 607, 2561, 2605; Jn 19:30 607, 624, 730, 2605; Jn 19:30b 2605; Jn 19:31 641; Jn 19:34 478, 694, 1225; Jn 19:36 608; Jn 19:37 1432
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

John 19:31-37

#171B Solemnities B Context (Solemnity of the Most Sacred Heart of Jesus B)

#981 Votive Mass Context (The Most Holy Eucharist, 10.)

#994 Votive Mass Context (Most Precious Blood of Our Lord Jesus Christ, 4.)

#1000 Votive Mass Context (The Most Sacred Heart of Jesus, 8.)

Since it was preparation day,
in order that the bodies might not remain on the cross on the sabbath,
for the sabbath day of that week was a solemn one,
the Jews asked Pilate that their legs be broken
and they be taken down.
So the soldiers came and broke the legs of the first
and then of the other one who was crucified with Jesus.
But when they came to Jesus and saw that he was already dead,
they did not break his legs,
but one soldier thrust his lance into his side,
and immediately blood and water flowed out.
An eyewitness has testified, and his testimony is true;
he knows that he is speaking the truth,
so that you also may come to believe.
For this happened so that the Scripture passage might be fulfilled:
Not a bone of it will be broken.
And again another passage says:
They will look upon him whom they have pierced.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Jn 19:31-37

This passage from St. John’s Gospel concerning the immediate aftermath of Jesus’ death focuses on the meaning these events have in light of the Messianic vision. The evangelist sees these events as further signs, confirming the identity of Christ as the Messiah. The first important note is the relationship between the death of Christ, the Sabbath, and Passover. The Lord’s death on Friday, the day before the Sabbath required that the Jews ask Pilate to have the bodies of the condemned removed. It was against Hebrew Law to have them exposed on the Sabbath.

Breaking the legs of the two thieves was a painful and brutal expedient means of hastening their deaths so they could be removed. We note the special importance placed upon fact that Jesus was already dead. The actions of the soldiers, first in not breaking his legs and then piercing his side with a lance are seen as fulfilling biblical prophecy concerning the Messiah. We also see the special emphasis placed upon the fact that when the soldiers thrust the lance into Jesus’ side water and blood flowed out. While there is medical support for this physical event, the Evangelist intends it to represent the sacraments of Baptism and Eucharist, both of which would have been understood by the early Christian community.

The fact that this was especially noted as an eye witness account is the Evangelists way of establishing the importance to these events as the fulfillment of prophecy. St John first quotes the Passover ritual laid out in Exodus 12: 46 and Numbers 9:12 which stipulate that the bones of the Passover sacrifice may not be broken. He then goes on making reference to Zechariah 12: 10, quoting “they shall look on him whom they have thrust through”.

CCC: Jn 19:31 641; Jn 19:34 478, 694, 1225; Jn 19:36 608; Jn 19:37 1432
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

John 19:31-35

#760 Ritual Mass Context (I. For the Conferral of Christian Initiation, 2. Conferral of Infant Baptism, 12.)

Since it was preparation day,
in order that the bodies might not remain on the cross on the sabbath,
for the sabbath day of that week was a solemn one,
the Jews asked Pilate that their legs be broken
and they be taken down.
So the soldiers came and broke the legs of the first
and then of the other one who was crucified with Jesus.
But when they came to Jesus and saw that he was already dead,
they did not break his legs,
but one soldier thrust his lance into his side,
and immediately blood and water flowed out.
An eyewitness has testified, and his testimony is true;
he knows that he is speaking the truth,
so that you also may come to believe.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Jn 19:31-35

This passage from St. John’s Gospel concerning the immediate aftermath of Jesus’ death focuses on the meaning these events have in light of the Messianic vision. The evangelist sees these events as further signs, confirming the identity of Christ as the Messiah. The first important note is the relationship between the death of Christ, the Sabbath, and Passover. The Lord’s death on Friday, the day before the Sabbath required that the Jews ask Pilate to have the bodies of the condemned removed. It was against Hebrew Law to have them exposed on the Sabbath.

Breaking the legs of the two thieves was a painful and brutal expedient means of hastening their deaths so they could be removed. We note the special importance placed upon fact that Jesus was already dead. The actions of the soldiers, first in not breaking his legs and then piercing his side with a lance are seen as fulfilling biblical prophecy concerning the Messiah. We also see the special emphasis placed upon the fact that when the soldiers thrust the lance into Jesus’ side water and blood flowed out. While there is medical support for this physical event, the Evangelist intends it to represent the sacraments of Baptism and Eucharist, both of which would have been understood by the early Christian community.

The fact that this was especially noted as an eye witness account is the Evangelists way of establishing the importance to these events as the fulfillment of prophecy. St John first quotes the Passover ritual laid out in Exodus 12: 46 and Numbers 9:12 which stipulate that the bones of the Passover sacrifice may not be broken. He then goes on making reference to Zechariah 12: 10, quoting “they shall look on him whom they have thrust through”.

CCC: Jn 19:31 641; Jn 19:34 478, 694, 1225
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John 20:1-2, 11-18

#603 Proper of Saints Context (St. Mary Magdalene, Jul 22)

On the first day of the week,
Mary Magdalene came to the tomb early in the morning,
while it was still dark,
and saw the stone removed from the tomb.
So she ran and went to Simon Peter
and to the other disciple whom Jesus loved, and told them,
"They have taken the Lord from the tomb,
and we don't know where they put him."

Mary stayed outside the tomb weeping.
And as she wept, she bent over into the tomb
and saw two angels in white sitting there,
one at the head and one at the feet
where the Body of Jesus had been.
And they said to her, "Woman, why are you weeping?"
She said to them, "They have taken my Lord,
and I don't know where they laid him."
When she had said this, she turned around and saw Jesus there,
but did not know it was Jesus.
Jesus said to her, "Woman, why are you weeping?
Whom are you looking for?"
She thought it was the gardener and said to him,
"Sir, if you carried him away,
tell me where you laid him,
and I will take him."
Jesus said to her, "Mary!"
She turned and said to him in Hebrew,
"Rabbouni," which means Teacher.
Jesus said to her,
"Stop holding on to me, for I have not yet ascended to the Father.
But go to my brothers and tell them,
`I am going to my Father and your Father,
to my God and your God."'
Mary Magdalene went and announced to the disciples,
"I have seen the Lord,"
and then reported what he told her.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Jn 20:1-2, 11-18

This passage is St. John’s account of the first meeting between Mary Magdalene and Jesus following the Lord’s crucifixion. In this account, we get a distinct picture that the ascension had not been completed, but the Lord is waiting to deliver his final instructions.

There is debate about when the Lord ascended to the Father. Clearly his last earthly appearance was fifty days following the resurrection. Most scholars believe Jesus ascended immediately following his meeting with Mary, depicted here. His return and actions from this point to the Ascension (Acts 1:1-11) were to accomplish the imparting of the gift of the Holy Spirit, as he had promised.

CCC: Jn 20:1 2174; Jn 20:2 640; Jn 20:11-18 641; Jn 20:13 640; Jn 20:14-15 645, 659; Jn 20:14 645; Jn 20:16 645; Jn 20:17 443, 645, 654, 660, 2795
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

John 20:1-9

#42A Solemnities A Context (The Mass of Easter Day A)

#42B Solemnities B Context (The Mass of Easter Day B)

#42C Solemnities C Context (The Mass of Easter Day C)

On the first day of the week,
Mary of Magdala came to the tomb early in the morning,
while it was still dark,
and saw the stone removed from the tomb.
So she ran and went to Simon Peter
and to the other disciple whom Jesus loved, and told them,
“They have taken the Lord from the tomb,
and we don’t know where they put him.”
So Peter and the other disciple went out and came to the tomb.
They both ran, but the other disciple ran faster than Peter
and arrived at the tomb first;
he bent down and saw the burial cloths there, but did not go in.
When Simon Peter arrived after him,
he went into the tomb and saw the burial cloths there,
and the cloth that had covered his head,
not with the burial cloths but rolled up in a separate place.
Then the other disciple also went in,
the one who had arrived at the tomb first,
and he saw and believed.
For they did not yet understand the Scripture
that he had to rise from the dead.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Jn 20:1-9

In St. John’s account of the discovery of the “Empty Tomb,” we hear how the disciple whom Jesus loved understood what had come to pass before Peter. Found also in Luke (Luke 24:1-12), this story furnishes the testimony that confirms Christ’s resurrection. The story of the discovery of the empty tomb describes St. John (the disciple whom Jesus loved). “From these details concerning the empty tomb one deduces that Jesus' body must have risen in a heavenly manner, that is, in a way which transcended the laws of nature. It was not only a matter of the body being reanimated as happened, for example, in the case of Lazarus, who had to be unbound before he could walk (cf. John 11:44)”[5] It is interesting that St. John arrives first but recognizes St. Peter’s primacy, waiting for him to enter the tomb first. Note also that when St. John entered the tomb, he immediately understood what happened and “believed.”

CCC: Jn 20:1 2174; Jn 20:2 640; Jn 20:5-7 640; Jn 20:6 640; Jn 20:7 515; Jn 20:8 640
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John 20:1a and 2-8

#697 Proper of Saints Context (St. John the Apostle, Dec 27)

On the first day of the week,
Mary Magdalene ran and went to Simon Peter
and to the other disciple whom Jesus loved, and told them,
“They have taken the Lord from the tomb,
and we do not know where they put him.”
So Peter and the other disciple went out and came to the tomb.
They both ran, but the other disciple ran faster than Peter
and arrived at the tomb first;
he bent down and saw the burial cloths there, but did not go in.
When Simon Peter arrived after him,
he went into the tomb and saw the burial cloths there,
and the cloth that had covered his head,
not with the burial cloths but rolled up in a separate place.
Then the other disciple also went in,
the one who had arrived at the tomb first,
and he saw and believed.
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Commentary on Jn 20:1a and 2-8

The Gospel story of the discovery of the empty tomb is described by St. John (the disciple whom Jesus loved). “From these details concerning the empty tomb one deduces that Jesus' body must have risen in a heavenly manner, that is, in a way which transcended the laws of nature. It was not only a matter of the body being reanimated as happened, for example, in the case of Lazarus, who had to be unbound before he could walk (cf. John 11:44)”[5] It is interesting that St. John arrives first but recognizes St. Peter’s primacy, waiting for him to enter the tomb first. Note also that when St. John entered the tomb, he immediately understood what happened and “believed.”

CCC: Jn 20:1 2174; Jn 20:2 640; Jn 20:5-7 640; Jn 20:6 640; Jn 20:7 515; Jn 20:8 640
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John 20:11-18

#262 Weekday Years I & II Context (Tuesday in the Octave of Easter)

Mary Magdalene stayed outside the tomb weeping.
And as she wept, she bent over into the tomb
and saw two angels in white sitting there,
one at the head and one at the feet
where the Body of Jesus had been.
And they said to her, "Woman, why are you weeping?"
She said to them, "They have taken my Lord,
and I don't know where they laid him."
When she had said this, she turned around and saw Jesus there,
but did not know it was Jesus.
Jesus said to her, "Woman, why are you weeping?
Whom are you looking for?"
She thought it was the gardener and said to him,
"Sir, if you carried him away,
tell me where you laid him,
and I will take him."
Jesus said to her, "Mary!"
She turned and said to him in Hebrew, "Rabbouni,"
which means Teacher.
Jesus said to her, "Stop holding on to me,
for I have not yet ascended to the Father.
But go to my brothers and tell them,
'I am going to my Father and your Father,
to my God and your God.'"
Mary went and announced to the disciples,
"I have seen the Lord,"
and then reported what he had told her.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Jn 20:11-18

Today we are given St. John’s account of the first meeting between Mary Magdalene and Jesus following the Lord’s crucifixion. It is likely, given her past relationship with Jesus, that Mary throws herself at the Lord, embracing either his knees or feet.  The Lord’s response, “stop holding,” or in other translations “stop touching me,” (Noli Me Tangere) may indicate that relationships have changed, that Christ must now let go of earthly ties to assume his Godhead.   In this account, we get a distinct picture that the ascension had not been completed, but the Lord is waiting to deliver his final instructions.

There is debate about when the Lord ascended to the Father. Clearly, his last earthly appearance was fifty days following the resurrection. Most scholars believe Jesus ascended immediately following his meeting with Mary depicted here. His return, and his actions from this point to the Ascension (Acts 1:1-11), were to reassure the disciples and to bestow the gift of the Holy Spirit he had promised.

CCC: Jn 20:11-18 641; Jn 20:13 640; Jn 20:14-15 645, 659; Jn 20:14 645; Jn 20:16 645; Jn 20:17 443, 645, 654, 660, 2795
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John 20:19-31

#43A Solemnities A Context (2nd Sunday E A [Divine Mercy Sunday])

#44B Solemnities B Context (2nd Sunday E B [Divine Mercy Sunday])

#45C Solemnities C Context (2nd Sunday E C [Divine Mercy Sunday])

On the evening of that first day of the week,
when the doors were locked, where the disciples were,
for fear of the Jews,
Jesus came and stood in their midst
and said to them, “Peace be with you.”
When he had said this, he showed them his hands and his side.
The disciples rejoiced when they saw the Lord.
Jesus said to them again, “Peace be with you.
As the Father has sent me, so I send you.”
And when he had said this, he breathed on them and said to them,
“Receive the Holy Spirit.
Whose sins you forgive are forgiven them,
and whose sins you retain are retained.”
Thomas, called Didymus, one of the Twelve,
was not with them when Jesus came.
So the other disciples said to him, “We have seen the Lord.”
But he said to them,
“Unless I see the mark of the nails in his hands
and put my finger into the nailmarks
and put my hand into his side, I will not believe.”
Now a week later his disciples were again inside
and Thomas was with them.
Jesus came, although the doors were locked,
and stood in their midst and said, “Peace be with you.”
Then he said to Thomas, “Put your finger here and see my hands,
and bring your hand and put it into my side,
and do not be unbelieving, but believe.”
Thomas answered and said to him, “My Lord and my God!”
Jesus said to him, “Have you come to believe because you have seen me?
Blessed are those who have not seen and have believed.”
Now, Jesus did many other signs in the presence of his disciples
that are not written in this book.
But these are written that you may come to believe
that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God,
and that through this belief you may have life in his name.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Jn 20:19-31

St. John gives us the picture of the disciples (now Apostles) in hiding immediately following the Lord’s crucifixion. Twice Jesus comes to them, once with Thomas absent and then again when he is present. (Note: no reference was made to Thomas' absence in Luke 24;36-49, the only other account of this event.)

There are a number of very important elements of this version of the story. First, the Lord’s greeting: “Peace be with you.” While this may have been a simple Shalom, it is more likely intended to emphasize the rejoicing sense of the meeting. Immediately the Lord sends them on their mission: “As the Father has sent me, so I send you." As part of this action, we are told, the Lord gives the gift of the Holy Spirit to strengthen them. He also gives them authority to act in his name.

The significance of Thomas’ absence is used as an evangelizing moment. Doubting Thomas is confronted in the second visit by the risen Christ and, almost in recompense for his role as disbeliever, he provides the title with which Jesus is understood now as True God as well as True Man: “My Lord and my God.” The Lord then delivers a beatitude for future generations of Christians; "Blessed are those who have not seen and have believed."

CCC: Jn 20:19 575, 643, 645, 659; Jn 20:20 645; Jn 20:21-23 1087, 1120, 1441; Jn 20:21 730, 858; Jn 20:22-23 976, 1485; Jn 20:22 730, 788, 1287; Jn 20:23 1461, 2839; Jn 20:24-27 644; Jn 20:26 645, 659; Jn 20:27 645; Jn 20:28 448; Jn 20:30 514; Jn 20:31 442, 514
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John 20:19-23

#63A Solemnities A Context (Pentecost Sunday A)

#63B Solemnities B Context (Pentecost Sunday B)

#63C Solemnities C Context (Pentecost Sunday C)

#774 Ritual Mass Context (II. For the Conferral of Holy Orders, 12.)

#891 Mass for Various Needs Context (II. For Public Needs, 14. Peace and Justice, Fourth Option)

On the evening of that first day of the week,
when the doors were locked, where the disciples were,
for fear of the Jews,
Jesus came and stood in their midst
and said to them, “Peace be with you.”
When he had said this, he showed them his hands and his side.
The disciples rejoiced when they saw the Lord.
Jesus said to them again, “Peace be with you.
As the Father has sent me, so I send you.”
And when he had said this, he breathed on them and said to them,
“Receive the Holy Spirit.
Whose sins you forgive are forgiven them,
and whose sins you retain are retained.”

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Jn 20:19-23

St. John gives us the picture of the disciples (now Apostles) in hiding immediately following the Lord’s crucifixion. Twice Jesus comes to them, once with Thomas absent, and then again when he is present.

There are a number of very important elements of this version of the story. First, the Lord’s greeting: “Peace be with you.” While this may have been a simple Shalom, it is more likely intended to emphasize the rejoicing sense of the meeting. Immediately the Lord sends them on their mission: “As the Father has sent me, so I send you." As part of this action, we are told the Lord gives the gift of the Holy Spirit to strengthen them, and gives them authority to act in his name.

CCC: Jn 20:19 575, 643, 645, 659; Jn 20:20 645; Jn 20:21-23 1087, 1120, 1441; Jn 20:21 730, 858; Jn 20:22-23 976, 1485; Jn 20:22 730, 788, 1287; Jn 20:23 1461, 2839
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John 20:24-29

#593 Proper of Saints Context (St. Thomas the Apostle, Jul 3)

Thomas, called Didymus, one of the Twelve,
was not with them when Jesus came.
So the other disciples said to him, "We have seen the Lord."
But Thomas said to them,
"Unless I see the mark of the nails in his hands
and put my finger into the nailmarks
and put my hand into his side, I will not believe."
Now a week later his disciples were again inside
and Thomas was with them.

Jesus came, although the doors were locked,
and stood in their midst and said, "Peace be with you."
Then he said to Thomas, "Put your finger here and see my hands,
and bring your hand and put it into my side,
and do not be unbelieving, but believe."
Thomas answered and said to him, "My Lord and my God!"
Jesus said to him, "Have you come to believe because you have seen me?
Blessed are those who have not seen and have believed."
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Commentary on Jn 20:24-29

This story from St. John’s Gospel is set just after Mary Magdalene has brought news to the disciples of the Risen Christ, and his appearance to them in the locked room. He (the Lord) has departed and now Thomas returns to find his friends speaking of Jesus’ return from the dead.

Thomas acquires his nickname ("Doubting Thomas") by doubting what the other disciples tell him, and he persists in doing so until the Lord again comes to the locked upper room. To his credit, following the Lord’s own challenge, St. Thomas applies to Jesus the title “My Lord and my God.” It is the first time this title, reserved for God the Father, is given to the Son, proclaiming his divinity. The passage concludes with Jesus acknowledging the title, but praising those not present who will believe in him without requiring physical proof.

CCC: Jn 20:24-27 644; Jn 20:26 645, 659; Jn 20:27 645; Jn 20:28 448
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John 21:1-19*

#48C Solemnities C Context (3rd Sunday of Easter C)

At that time, Jesus revealed himself again to his disciples at the Sea of Tiberias.
He revealed himself in this way.
Together were Simon Peter, Thomas called Didymus,
Nathanael from Cana in Galilee,
Zebedee’s sons, and two others of his disciples.
Simon Peter said to them, “I am going fishing.”
They said to him, “We also will come with you.”
So they went out and got into the boat,
but that night they caught nothing.
When it was already dawn, Jesus was standing on the shore;
but the disciples did not realize that it was Jesus.
Jesus said to them, “Children, have you caught anything to eat?”
They answered him, “No.”
So he said to them, “Cast the net over the right side of the boat
and you will find something.”
So they cast it, and were not able to pull it in
because of the number of fish.
So the disciple whom Jesus loved said to Peter, “It is the Lord.”
When Simon Peter heard that it was the Lord,
he tucked in his garment, for he was lightly clad,
and jumped into the sea.
The other disciples came in the boat,
for they were not far from shore, only about a hundred yards,
dragging the net with the fish.
When they climbed out on shore,
they saw a charcoal fire with fish on it and bread.
Jesus said to them, “Bring some of the fish you just caught.”
So Simon Peter went over and dragged the net ashore
full of one hundred fifty-three large fish.
Even though there were so many, the net was not torn.
Jesus said to them, “Come, have breakfast.”
And none of the disciples dared to ask him, “Who are you?”
because they realized it was the Lord.
Jesus came over and took the bread and gave it to them,
and in like manner the fish.
This was now the third time Jesus was revealed to his disciples
after being raised from the dead.
When they had finished breakfast, Jesus said to Simon Peter,
“Simon, son of John, do you love me more than these?”
Simon Peter answered him, “Yes, Lord, you know that I love you.”
Jesus said to him, “Feed my lambs.”
He then said to Simon Peter a second time,
“Simon, son of John, do you love me?”
Simon Peter answered him, “Yes, Lord, you know that I love you.”
Jesus said to him, “Tend my sheep.”
Jesus said to him the third time,
“Simon, son of John, do you love me?”
Peter was distressed that Jesus had said to him a third time,
“Do you love me?” and he said to him,
“Lord, you know everything; you know that I love you.”
Jesus said to him, “Feed my sheep.
Amen, amen, I say to you, when you were younger,
you used to dress yourself and go where you wanted;
but when you grow old, you will stretch out your hands,
and someone else will dress you
and lead you where you do not want to go.”
He said this signifying by what kind of death he would glorify God.
And when he had said this, he said to him, “Follow me.”
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Commentary on Jn 21:1-19

The Gospel from St. John gives us the Lord’s third appearance to the disciples. Again, he is not at first recognized. In typical Johannine fashion, the first to recognize the Lord was the disciple whom Jesus loved, presumed to be St. John himself.

Without the Lord being present, they have caught no fish.  Jesus tells them where to cast the net and, indeed, they net a great number of fish (153 probably symbolic of universal mission of the Church - the total species of fish known at the time or the sum of numbers from 1-17). Peter is so excited he jumps in and swims to shore, discovering Jesus with a fish already cooking and bread, a Eucharistic reference. When they are joined by the other disciples, they were so overawed that they could not even speak. Then the Lord broke the bread.

Following the revelation story above, Jesus focuses on Peter, making sure he understands his role in the foundation of the Church. The triple confession of Peter reverses his earlier denials of the Lord on the night of the Passion (John 18: 16, 25, 27). This is also a key passage, identified by the Church as Christ’s post-resurrection assignment of Peter to be the shepherd of the Church, essentially establishing the beginning of Apostolic Succession.

CCC: Jn 21:4 645, 645, 659; Jn 21:7 448, 645; Jn 21:9 645; Jn 21:12 1166; Jn 21:13-15 645; Jn 21:15-17 553, 881, 1429, 1551; Jn 21:18-19 618
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Or
Shorter Form John 21:1-14

At that time, Jesus revealed himself to his disciples at the Sea of Tiberias.
He revealed himself in this way.
Together were Simon Peter, Thomas called Didymus,
Nathanael from Cana in Galilee,
Zebedee’s sons, and two others of his disciples.
Simon Peter said to them, “ am going fishing.”
They said to him, “e also will come with you.”
So they went out and got into the boat,
but that night they caught nothing.
When it was already dawn, Jesus was standing on the shore;
but the disciples did not realize that it was Jesus.
Jesus said to them, “Children, have you caught anything to eat?”
They answered him, “No.”
So he said to them, “Cast the net over the right side of the boat

and you will find something.”
So they cast it, and were not able to pull it in
because of the number of fish.
So the disciple whom Jesus loved said to Peter, “(It is the Lord.”
When Simon Peter heard that it was the Lord,
he tucked in his garment, for he was lightly clad,
and jumped into the sea.
The other disciples came in the boat,
for they were not far from shore, only about a hundred yards,
dragging the net with the fish.
When they climbed out on shore,
they saw a charcoal fire with fish on it and bread.
Jesus said to them, “Bring some of the fish you just caught.”
So Simon Peter went over and dragged the net ashore
full of one hundred fifty-three large fish.
Even though there were so many, the net was not torn.
Jesus said to them, “Come, have breakfast.”
And none of the disciples dared to ask him, “Who are you?”
because they realized it was the Lord.
Jesus came over and took the bread and gave it to them,
and in like manner the fish.
This was now the third time Jesus was revealed to his disciples
after being raised from the dead.
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Commentary on Jn 21:1-14

In this shorter form, the focus is on Christ’s third appearance and his revelation as newly resurrected. The reference: “This was now the third time Jesus was revealed to his disciples after being raised from the dead,” may have a deeper meaning in Hebrew as we know that in order to express the most complete form of a word it was repeated three times (i.e. rather that holy, holier, holiest the word was repeated “holy, holy, holy”). With his third appearance in St. John’s Gospel, Christ revealed himself completely to the disciples. This is coupled in the longer form with St. Peter’s three affirmations of love for the Lord, presumably to atone for his three-fold denial in the courtyard. (John 18: 16, 25, 27)

CCC: Jn 21:4 645, 645, 659; Jn 21:7 448, 645; Jn 21:9 645; Jn 21:12 1166; Jn 21:13-15 645
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John 21:1-14

#265 Weekday Years I & II Context (Friday in the Octave of Easter)

#789 Ritual Mass Context (IV. For the Conferral of Ministries, 2. Institution of Acolytes, 8.)

#981 Votive Mass Context (The Most Holy Eucharist, 11)

Jesus revealed himself again to his disciples at the Sea of Tiberias.
He revealed himself in this way.
Together were Simon Peter, Thomas called Didymus,
Nathanael from Cana in Galilee,
Zebedee's sons, and two others of his disciples.
Simon Peter said to them, "I am going fishing."
They said to him, "We also will come with you."
So they went out and got into the boat,
but that night they caught nothing.
When it was already dawn, Jesus was standing on the shore;
but the disciples did not realize that it was Jesus.
Jesus said to them, "Children, have you caught anything to eat?"
They answered him, "No."
So he said to them, "Cast the net over the right side of the boat
and you will find something."
So they cast it, and were not able to pull it in
because of the number of fish.
So the disciple whom Jesus loved said to Peter, "It is the Lord."
When Simon Peter heard that it was the Lord,
he tucked in his garment, for he was lightly clad,
and jumped into the sea.
The other disciples came in the boat,
for they were not far from shore, only about a hundred yards,
dragging the net with the fish.
When they climbed out on shore,
they saw a charcoal fire with fish on it and bread.
Jesus said to them, "Bring some of the fish you just caught."
So Simon Peter went over and dragged the net ashore
full of one hundred fifty-three large fish.
Even though there were so many, the net was not torn.
Jesus said to them, "Come, have breakfast."
And none of the disciples dared to ask him, "Who are you?"
because they realized it was the Lord.
Jesus came over and took the bread and gave it to them,
and in like manner the fish.
This was now the third time Jesus was revealed to his disciples
after being raised from the dead.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Jn 21:1-14

This passage relates the Lord’s third appearance to the disciples.  Again, he is not at first recognized.  In typical Johannine fashion, the first to recognize the Lord was the disciple whom Jesus loved, presumed to be St. John himself.  It is significant that they are found at Lake Tiberias.  They have done what the Lord asked and returned to Galilee (Matthew 28:10).

Jesus tells them were to cast the net and indeed, they net a great number of fish (153 was probably symbolic of universal mission of the Church, the total species of fish known at the time, or the sum of numbers from 1-17).  Peter is so excited he jumps into the water and swims to shore, discovering Jesus with a fish already cooking and bread, a Eucharistic reference.

When they are joined by the other disciples, they were so overawed that they could not even speak.  Then the Lord broke the bread.

“The Fathers and Doctors of the Church have often dwelt on the mystical meaning of this episode: the boat is the Church, whose unity is symbolized by the net which is not torn; the sea is the world, Peter in the boat stands for supreme authority of the Church, and the number of fish signifies the number of the elect (cf. St. Thomas Aquinas, 'Commentary on St. John, in loc.').”[18]

CCC: Jn 21:4 645, 645, 659; Jn 21:7 448, 645; Jn 21:9 645; Jn 21:12 1166; Jn 21:13-15 645
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John 21:15-19

#301 Weekday Years I & II Context (Friday of the 7th Week of Easter)

#590 Proper of Saints Context (Solemnity of Saints Peter and Paul, Apostles
Vigil [S])

After Jesus had revealed himself to his disciples and eaten breakfast with them,
he said to Simon Peter,
"Simon, son of John, do you love me more than these?"
Simon Peter answered him, "Yes, Lord, you know that I love you."
Jesus said to him, "Feed my lambs."
He then said to Simon Peter a second time,
"Simon, son of John, do you love me?"
Simon Peter answered him, "Yes, Lord, you know that I love you."
He said to him, "Tend my sheep."
He said to him the third time,
"Simon, son of John, do you love me?"
Peter was distressed that he had said to him a third time,
"Do you love me?" and he said to him,
"Lord, you know everything; you know that I love you."
Jesus said to him, "Feed my sheep.
Amen, amen, I say to you, when you were younger,
you used to dress yourself and go where you wanted;
but when you grow old, you will stretch out your hands,
and someone else will dress you
and lead you where you do not want to go."
He said this signifying by what kind of death he would glorify God.
And when he had said this, he said to him, "Follow me."
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Commentary on Jn 21:15-19

This selection describes events following the passion and resurrection. Jesus has already revealed himself to the disciples in the “locked room.” He now addresses himself to St. Peter. St. Peter had denied knowing Jesus three times during the night of the Lord’s arrest. He now recants that betrayal with a threefold response to Jesus' questions.

The First Vatican Council cited these verses in defining that Jesus, after his resurrection, gave St. Peter the jurisdiction of supreme shepherd and ruler over the whole flock. It is interesting to note that this section of St. John’s Gospel is referred to by scripture scholars as “Peter’s rehabilitation.”

CCC: Jn 21:13-15 645; Jn 21:15-17 553, 881, 1429, 1551; Jn 20:19 575, 643, 645, 659
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John 21:15-17

#514 Proper of Saint Context (St. Fabian, Jan 20)

#558 Proper of Saint Context (St. Pius V, Apr 30)

#626 Proper of Saint Context (St. Pius X, Aug 21)

#724 Common Context (Common of Pastors)

#774 Ritual Mass Context (II. For the Conferral of Holy Orders, 13.)

#831 Mass for Various Needs Context (I. For the Holy Church, 1. For the Church, 6.)

#847 Mass for Various Needs Context (I. For the Holy Church, 5. For Priests, 7.)

After Jesus had revealed himself to his disciples and
eaten breakfast with them, he said to Simon Peter,
"Simon, son of John, do you love me more than these?"
Simon Peter answered him, "Yes, Lord, you know that I love you.
Jesus said to him, "Feed my lambs."
He then said to Simon Peter a second time,
"Simon, son of John, do you love me?"
Simon Peter answered him, "Yes, Lord, you know that I love you.
Jesus said to him, "Tend my sheep."
He said to him the third time,
"Simon, son of John, do you love me?"
Peter was distressed that he had said to him a third time,
"Do you love me?" and he said to him,
"Lord, you know everything; you know that 1 love you."
Jesus said to him, "Feed my sheep."
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Commentary on Jn 21:15-17

Following the third revelation to the disciples, as they were fishing at the Sea of Tiberias, Jesus now focuses on Peter, making sure he understands his role in the foundation of the Church. The triple confession of Peter reverses his earlier denial of the Lord the night of the Passion (Matthew 26:69ff; Mark 14:29-31, 66-72; John 13:36-38, 18:15-18, 18:25-27). This is also a key passage, identified by the Church as Christ’s post-resurrection assignment of Peter to be the shepherd of the Church, essentially establishing the beginning of Apostolic Succession.

CCC: Jn 21:13-15 645; Jn 21:15-17 553, 881, 1429, 1551
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John 21:20-25

#302 Weekday Years I & II Context (Saturday of the 7th Week of Easter)

Peter turned and saw the disciple following whom Jesus loved,
the one who had also reclined upon his chest during the supper
and had said, "Master, who is the one who will betray you?"
When Peter saw him, he said to Jesus, "Lord, what about him?"
Jesus said to him, "What if I want him to remain until I come?
What concern is it of yours?
You follow me."
So the word spread among the brothers that that disciple would not die.
But Jesus had not told him that he would not die,
just "What if I want him to remain until I come?
What concern is it of yours?"

It is this disciple who testifies to these things
and has written them, and we know that his testimony is true.
There are also many other things that Jesus did,
but if these were to be described individually,
I do not think the whole world would contain the books
that would be written.
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Commentary on Jn 21:20-25

Here we see the very end of the Gospel of St. John. In it we pick up the dialog between Jesus and Peter. Jesus has just told Peter he will be lead where he does not wish to go indicating that he (Peter) will suffer martyrdom. Peter sees St. John following and asks about his fate, to which the Lord replies “What if I want him to remain until I come?” Peter interprets this as an affirmative statement and tells the others.

This part of the selection caused problems among the early Church when St. John did die before the Lord came again. The Church lost some credibility and followers as a consequence.

CCC: Jn 21:22 878; Jn 21:24 515
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+ Added from the Sacramentary Supplement, provisional number assigned by SOW 
**May be used as an alternate on this day
*** Note: The citation for this reading is incorrect in the published index
^ Citation was omitted from Lectionary Index

[1] St. John synthesizes Isaiah 41:8 and 2 Chronicles 20:7 in which Abraham is called God’s friend.
[2] Jerome Biblical Commentary, Prentice Hall, Inc., © 1968, 63:123, pp.446
[3] See NAB Footnote on John 18:1ff
[4] The Navarre Bible, Gospels and Acts, Scepter Publishers, Princeton, NJ, © 2002, pp. 604
[5] The Navarre Bible, Gospels and Acts, Scepter Publishers, Princeton, NJ, © 2002, pp. 699
[6] The Navarre Bible, Gospels and Acts, Scepter Publishers, Princeton, NJ, © 2002, pp. 592
[7] Commentary written by Fr. Brenden Byrne, S.J.
[8] See NAB Footnote on John 1:43-51
[9] See NAB footnote on John 12:13
[10] Ignatius Catholic Study Bible, © 2010, Ignatius Press, San Francisco, CA. pp. 198
[11] The Navarre Bible, “Gospels and Acts”, Scepter Publishers, Princeton, NJ, © 2002, pp. 695
[12] Jerome Biblical Commentary, Prentice Hall, Inc., © 1968, 63:172, pp. 462
[13] Jerome Biblical Commentary, Prentice Hall, Inc., © 1968, 63:119, pp.445
[14] Catholic Bible Dictionary, © by Scott Hann, 2009, pp. 839
[15] The Navarre Bible, “Gospels and Acts”, Scepter Publishers, Princeton, NJ, © 2002, pp.660
[16] Ignatius Catholic Study Bible, © 2010, Ignatius Press, San Francisco, CA. pp. 194
[17] Jerome Biblical Commentary, Prentice Hall, Inc., © 1968, 63:84, pp. 434
[18] The Navarre Bible, Gospels and Acts, Scepter Publishers, Princeton, NJ, © 2002, pp. 705
[19] See NAB Footnote on John 10:1ff
[20] The Navarre Bible, Gospels and Acts, Scepter Publishers, Princeton, NJ, © 2002, pp.570
[21] Jerome Biblical Commentary, Prentice Hall, Inc., © 1968, 63:131, pp. 449
[22] The Navarre Bible, Gospels and Acts, Scepter Publishers, Princeton, NJ, © 2002, pp.625

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