Monday, November 16, 2015

Luke

Luke 1:1-4; 4:14-21

#69C Solemnities C Context (3rd Sunday in Ordinary Time C)

Since many have undertaken to compile a narrative of the events
that have been fulfilled among us,
just as those who were eyewitnesses from the beginning
and ministers of the word have handed them down to us,
I too have decided,
after investigating everything accurately anew,
to write it down in an orderly sequence for you,
most excellent Theophilus,
so that you may realize the certainty of the teachings
you have received.

Jesus returned to Galilee in the power of the Spirit,
and news of him spread throughout the whole region.
He taught in their synagogues and was praised by all.

He came to Nazareth, where he had grown up,
and went according to his custom
into the synagogue on the sabbath day.
He stood up to read and was handed a scroll of the prophet Isaiah.
He unrolled the scroll and found the passage where it was written:
The Spirit of the Lord is upon me,
because he has anointed me
to bring glad tidings to the poor.
He has sent me to proclaim liberty to captives
and recovery of sight to the blind,
to let the oppressed go free,
and to proclaim a year acceptable to the Lord.
Rolling up the scroll, he handed it back to the attendant and sat down,
and the eyes of all in the synagogue looked intently at him.
He said to them,
“Today this Scripture passage is fulfilled in your hearing.”
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Commentary on Lk 1:1-4; 4:14-21

The Gospel selection today is actually two different passages from Luke’s Gospel. In this passage we start with the introduction to Luke’s Gospel as he writes of his purpose to Theophilus.

We then pick up the story of Jesus following his baptism and temptation in the desert. These will be dealt with in more detail during the Lenten Season. Luke’s Gospel refers, in a summary way, to Jesus' early ministry in Galilee (the works we have been hearing about in Mark’s Gospel during the week.)

Jesus comes to the Synagogue and reads from Isaiah (Isaiah 61;1-3). The passage refers to the coming of the Messiah and the mission of the Son of God to the poor and marginalized. He then tells those listening; "Today this scripture passage is fulfilled in your hearing." The Gospel tells us that Jesus fulfills Isaiah’s prophetic vision of the coming Messiah.

CCC: Lk 4:16-22 1286; Lk 4:16-21 436; Lk 4:18-19 695, 714; Lk 4:18 544, 2443; Lk 4:19 1168
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Luke 1:5-25

#195 Weekday Years I & II Context (December 19th in Advent)

In the days of Herod, King of Judea,
there was a priest named Zechariah
of the priestly division of Abijah;
his wife was from the daughters of Aaron,
and her name was Elizabeth.
Both were righteous in the eyes of God,
observing all the commandments
and ordinances of the Lord blamelessly.
But they had no child, because Elizabeth was barren
and both were advanced in years.

Once when he was serving as priest
in his division’s turn before God,
according to the practice of the priestly service,
he was chosen by lot
to enter the sanctuary of the Lord to burn incense.
Then, when the whole assembly of the people was praying outside
at the hour of the incense offering,
the angel of the Lord appeared to him,
standing at the right of the altar of incense.
Zechariah was troubled by what he saw, and fear came upon him.

But the angel said to him, “Do not be afraid, Zechariah,
because your prayer has been heard.
Your wife Elizabeth will bear you a son,
and you shall name him John.
And you will have joy and gladness,
and many will rejoice at his birth,
for he will be great in the sight of the Lord.
He will drink neither wine nor strong drink.
He will be filled with the Holy Spirit even from his mother’s womb,
and he will turn many of the children of Israel
to the Lord their God.
He will go before him in the spirit and power of Elijah
to turn the hearts of fathers toward children
and the disobedient to the understanding of the righteous,
to prepare a people fit for the Lord.”

Then Zechariah said to the angel,
“How shall I know this?
For I am an old man, and my wife is advanced in years.”
And the angel said to him in reply,
“I am Gabriel, who stand before God.
I was sent to speak to you and to announce to you this good news.
But now you will be speechless and unable to talk
until the day these things take place,
because you did not believe my words,
which will be fulfilled at their proper time.”
Meanwhile the people were waiting for Zechariah
and were amazed that he stayed so long in the sanctuary.
But when he came out, he was unable to speak to them,
and they realized that he had seen a vision in the sanctuary.
He was gesturing to them but remained mute.

Then, when his days of ministry were completed, he went home.

After this time his wife Elizabeth conceived,
and she went into seclusion for five months, saying,
“So has the Lord done for me at a time when he has seen fit
to take away my disgrace before others.”
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Commentary on Lk 1:5-25

This passage from St. Luke is the story of Zechariah receiving the news that he is to have a son with his wife Elizabeth. It can be contrasted with the story of the unnamed woman who bore Sampson in Judges 13:2-7, 24-25a.

Elizabeth was, like the mother of Sampson, also barren. Both conceptions were announced by angels, although in the case of Zechariah, the angel was one of the three named archangels, Gabriel. Both children were dedicated to God from the womb, but St. John the Baptist, whose tale this is, was given a specific task and labeled from the womb as a great prophet: “He will go before him in the spirit and power of Elijah.

In the final verses, Elizabeth goes into seclusion with praise to God for having given her the gift of her child. This statement reflects the societal view of that period. Women who could not have children were being punished by God and therefore had committed some hidden sin: “…he has seen fit to take away my disgrace before others.

CCC: Lk 1:11 332; Lk 1:15-19 724; Lk 1:15 717; Lk 1:17 523, 696, 716, 718, 2684; Lk 1:23 1070
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Luke 1:5-17

#586 Proper of Saints Context (Solemnity of the Nativity of St. John the Baptist - Vigil, Jun 24 (23))

In the days of Herod, King of Judea,
there was a priest named Zechariah
of the priestly division of Abijah;
his wife was from the daughters of Aaron,
and her name was Elizabeth.
Both were righteous in the eyes of God,
observing all the commandments
and ordinances of the Lord blamelessly.
But they had no child, because Elizabeth was barren
and both were advanced in years.
Once when he was serving
as priest in his division's turn before God,
according to the practice of the priestly service,
he was chosen by lot
to enter the sanctuary of the Lord to burn incense.
Then, when the whole assembly of the people was praying outside
at the hour of the incense offering,
the angel of the Lord appeared to him,
standing at the right of the altar of incense.
Zechariah was troubled by what he saw, and fear came upon him.
But the angel said to him, "Do not be afraid, Zechariah,
because your prayer has been heard.
Your wife Elizabeth will bear you a son,
and you shall name him John.
And you will have joy and gladness,
and many will rejoice at his birth,
for he will be great in the sight of the Lord.
John will drink neither wine nor strong drink.
He will be filled with the Holy Spirit even from his mother's womb,
and he will turn many of the children of Israel
to the Lord their God.
He will go before him in the spirit and power of Elijah
to turn their hearts toward their children
and the disobedient to the understanding of the righteous,
to prepare a people fit for the Lord."
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Commentary on Lk 1:5-17

The Gospel from St. Luke today gives us the story of Zechariah receiving the news that he is to have a son with his wife Elizabeth. It is clear that this story bears much in common with the story we heard in Judges about the conception of Sampson. Elizabeth was also barren; both conceptions were announced by angels, although in the case of Zechariah, the angel was one of the three named archangels, Gabriel. Both children were dedicated to God from the womb but St. John the Baptist, whose tale this is, was given a specific task and labeled from the womb as a great prophet; “He will go before him in the spirit and power of Elijah.

CCC: Lk 1:11 332; Lk 1:15-19 724; Lk 1:15 717; Lk 1:17 523, 696, 716, 718, 2684
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Luke 1:26-38

#11B Solemnities B Context (4th Sunday of Advent B)

#196 Weekday I & II Context (Thursday of the 3rd Week of Advent)

#545 Proper of Saints Context (Annunciation of the Lord Mar 31)

#627 Proper of Saints Context (Queenship of the Blessed Virgin Mary Aug 22)

#653 Proper of Saints Context (Our Lady of the Rosary Oct 7)

#689 Proper of Saints Context (Solemnity of the Immaculate Conception, Dec 8)

#690A Proper of Saints Context (Our Lady of Guadalupe, Dec 12)

#712 Commons Context (Common of the Blessed Virgin Mary, 4.)

#815 Ritual Mass Context (VIII. For the Consecration of Virgins and Religious Profession, 9.)

#2A BVM Context (The Blessed Virgin Mary and the Annunciation of the Lord, Advent 2)

#20O-I BVM Context (Holy Mary, the New Eve, Ordinary Time, 20)

#21O-I BVM Context (The Holy Name of the Blessed Virgin Mary, Ordinary Time 21)

#22O-I BVM Context ( Holy Mary, Handmaid of the Lord, Ordinary Time 22)

#23O-1 BVM Context (The Blessed Virgin Mary, Temple of the Lord 23)

#27O-1 BVM Context (The Blessed Virgin Mary, Image and Mother of the Church, III)

#29O-1 BVM Context (The Blessed Virgin Mary, Queen of All Creation)

#36O-2 BVM Context (The Blessed Virgin Mary, Mother of Fairest Love)

#45O-3 BVM Context (The Blessed Virgin Mary, Queen of Peace)

In the sixth month, the angel Gabriel was sent from God
to a town of Galilee called Nazareth,
to a virgin betrothed to a man named Joseph,
of the house of David,
and the virgin’s name was Mary.
And coming to her, he said,
“Hail, full of grace! The Lord is with you.”
But she was greatly troubled at what was said
and pondered what sort of greeting this might be.
Then the angel said to her,
“Do not be afraid, Mary,
for you have found favor with God.
Behold, you will conceive in your womb and bear a son,
and you shall name him Jesus.
He will be great and will be called Son of the Most High,
and the Lord God will give him the throne of David his father,
and he will rule over the house of Jacob forever,
and of his Kingdom there will be no end.”
But Mary said to the angel,
“How can this be,
since I have no relations with a man?”
And the angel said to her in reply,
“The Holy Spirit will come upon you,
and the power of the Most High will overshadow you.
Therefore the child to be born
will be called holy, the Son of God.
And behold, Elizabeth, your relative,
has also conceived a son in her old age,
and this is the sixth month for her who was called barren;
for nothing will be impossible for God.”
Mary said, “Behold, I am the handmaid of the Lord.
May it be done to me according to your word.”
Then the angel departed from her.
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Commentary on Lk 1:26-38

This passage, from St. Luke’s Gospel, is the story of Mary being informed by the Archangel Gabriel that she has been chosen for the great privilege of bearing the Savior of the World. St. Mary graciously accepts this honor, although with very human fear, indicating that her free will is at play. This response makes her obedience to God’s will more powerful. It is proposed that, with this acceptance, Mary entered into a vow of perpetual virginity because of the demands of Isaiah 7:14 : “Therefore the Lord himself will give you this sign: the virgin shall be with child, and bear a son, and shall name him Immanuel."

In St. Luke’s story of the Annunciation, the Archangel Gabriel comes to Mary and tells her she will bear a son and names him Jesus (the eternal implication of this statement is made clear in the greeting which presupposes knowledge of Mary’s entire existence). Mary confirms the title “Virgin” given by the author as she questions Gabriel saying: “How can this be, since I have no relations with a man?” Even though she does not understand, Mary accepts her role and is told that the Holy Spirit will be the agent of the life within her. She then utters those amazing words: "Behold, I am the handmaid of the Lord. May it be done to me according to your word."

This announcement is parallel to Zechariah’s news about John the Baptist (Luke 1:5-23), which is also delivered by the Angel Gabriel. This passage clearly identifies Jesus as Son of David and Son of God, thus linking it with the messianic predictions from the Old Testament.

CCC: Lk 1:26-38 497, 706, 723, 2571; Lk 1:26-27 488; Lk 1:26 332; Lk 1:28-37 494; Lk 1:28 490, 491; Lk 1:31 430, 2812; Lk 1:32-33 709; Lk 1:32 559; Lk 1:34 484, 497, 505; Lk 1:35 437, 484, 486, 697; Lk 1:37-38 494; Lk 1:37 148, 269, 273, 276; Lk 1:38 64, 148, 510, 2617, 2677, 2827, 2856
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Luke 1:39-56

#572 Proper of Saints Context (Feast of the Visitation of the Blessed Virgin Mary, May 31)

#622 Proper of Saints Context (Solemnity of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary, Aug 15)

#3A BVM Context (The Visitation of the Blessed Virgin Mary, Advent 3)

#44O-3 BVM Context (The Blessed Virgin Mary, Health of the Sick)

Mary set out
and traveled to the hill country in haste
to a town of Judah,
where she entered the house of Zechariah
and greeted Elizabeth.
When Elizabeth heard Mary's greeting,
the infant leaped in her womb,
and Elizabeth, filled with the Holy Spirit,
cried out in a loud voice and said,
"Most blessed are you among women,
and blessed is the fruit of your womb.
And how does this happen to me,
that the mother of my Lord should come to me?
For at the moment the sound of your greeting reached my ears,
the infant in my womb leaped for joy.
Blessed are you who believed
that what was spoken to you by the Lord
would be fulfilled."

And Mary said:
"My soul proclaims the greatness of the Lord;
my spirit rejoices in God my Savior,
for he has looked with favor on his lowly servant.
From this day all generations will call me blessed:
the Almighty has done great things for me,
and holy is his Name.
He has mercy on those who fear him
in every generation.
He has shown the strength of his arm,
he has scattered the proud in their conceit.
He has cast down the mighty from their thrones,
and has lifted up the lowly.
He has filled the hungry with good things,
and the rich he has sent away empty.
He has come to the help of his servant Israel
for he has remembered his promise of mercy,
the promise he made to our fathers,
to Abraham and his children for ever."
Mary remained with her about three months
and then returned to her home.
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Commentary on Lk 1:39-56

The Gospel selection from St. Luke gives us the story of Mary’s journey from Nazareth, over the mountains to Hebron, south of Jerusalem, to visit her cousin St. Elizabeth, who was also with child. St. Elizabeth’s greeting gives us substance for the “Hail Mary,” and Mary’s response is the great Canticle of Mary, which exemplifies her faith and faithfulness appropriate for the Mother of Jesus, who is the Christ.

Mary’s meeting with Elizabeth follows the annunciation by Gabriel that she would carry the Son of God, which proclaims the coming of the Lord, and the faith of Mary before the nativity event. We note that Elizabeth is first to identify Jesus as Lord as she says:” …how does this happen to me, that the mother of my Lord should come to me?” She not only professes the identity of the infant, but foreshadows Mary’s leadership standing, elevating the stature of her much younger cousin with reverence. Elizabeth continues her praise of Mary by establishing that her (Mary’s) faith had allowed her to accept even the incredible role God had offered her.

In response we hear Mary’s humility as she gives us the Magnificat: “My soul proclaims the greatness of the Lord; my spirit rejoices in God my savior...” This opening phrase establishes that the Blessed Mother gives herself to God eternally (her eternal self -soul) and completely (the very core of her being -spirit). What follows in her great song is an abject expression of faith in the Father’s omnipotence, and her own humility and awe in the face of his request of her to carry God’s only Son.

CCC: Lk 1:41 523, 717, 2676; Lk 1:43 448, 495, 2677; Lk 1:45 148, 2676; Lk 1:46-55 722, 2619, 2675; Lk 1:46-49 2097; Lk 1:48 148, 971, 2676, 2676; Lk 1:49 273, 2599, 2807, 2827; Lk 1:50 2465; Lk 1:54-55 706; Lk 1:55 422
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Luke 1:39-55

#947 Mass for Various Needs Context (III. In Various Public Circumstances, 26. In Thanksgiving to God, 4.)

#39O-3 BVM Context (Holy Mary, Queen and Mother of Mercy, II)

Mary set out
and traveled to the hill country in haste
to a town of Judah,
where she entered the house of Zechariah
and greeted Elizabeth.
When Elizabeth heard Mary's greeting,
the infant leaped in her womb,
and Elizabeth, filled with the Holy Spirit,
cried out in a loud voice and said,
"Most blessed are you among women,
and blessed is the fruit of your womb.
And how does this happen to me,
that the mother of my Lord should come to me?
For at the moment the sound of your greeting reached my ears,
the infant in my womb leaped for joy.
Blessed are you who believed
that what was spoken to you by the Lord
would be fulfilled."

And Mary said:
"My soul proclaims the greatness of the Lord;
my spirit rejoices in God my Savior,
for he has looked with favor on his lowly servant.
From this day all generations will call me blessed:
the Almighty has done great things for me,
and holy is his Name.
He has mercy on those who fear him
in every generation.
He has shown the strength of his arm,
he has scattered the proud in their conceit.
He has cast down the mighty from their thrones,
and has lifted up the lowly.
He has filled the hungry with good things,
and the rich he has sent away empty.
He has come to the help of his servant Israel
for he has remembered his promise of mercy,
the promise he made to our fathers,
to Abraham and his children for ever."

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Commentary on Lk 1:39-55

The Gospel selection from St. Luke gives us the story of Mary’s journey from Nazareth, over the mountains to Hebron, south of Jerusalem, to visit her cousin St. Elizabeth who was also with child.  St. Elizabeth’s greeting gives us substance for the “Hail Mary” and Mary’s response is the great Canticle of Mary which exemplifies her faith and faithfulness, appropriate for the Mother of Jesus who is the Christ.

Mary’s meeting with Elizabeth follows the annunciation by Gabriel that she would carry the Son of God which proclaims the coming of the Lord and the faith of Mary before the nativity event. We note that Elizabeth is first to identify Jesus as Lord as she says” …how does this happen to me, that the mother of my Lord should come to me?” She not only professes the identity of the infant but foreshadows Mary’s leadership standing, elevating the stature of her much younger cousin with reverence. Elizabeth continues her praise of Mary by establishing that her (Mary’s) faith had allowed her to accept even the incredible role God had offered her.

In response we hear Mary’s humility as she gives us the Magnificat “My soul proclaims the greatness of the Lord; my spirit rejoices in God my savior...” This opening phrase establishes that the Blessed Mother gives herself to God eternally (her eternal self -Soul) and completely (the very core of her being -Spirit). What follows in her great song is an abject expression of faith in the Father’s omnipotence and her own humility and awe in the face of his request of her – to carry God’s only Son.

CCC: Lk 1:41 523, 717, 2676; Lk 1:43 448, 495, 2677; Lk 1:45 148, 2676; Lk 1:46-55 722, 2619, 2675; Lk 1:46-49 2097; Lk 1:48 148, 971, 2676, 2676; Lk 1:49 273, 2599, 2807, 2827; Lk 1:50 2465; Lk 1:54-55 706; Lk 1:55 422
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Luke 1:39-47

#690A Proper of Saint Context (Our Lady of Guadalupe Dec 12)

#712 Commons Context (Common of the Blessed Virgin Mary)

#1002 Votive Mass Context (The Blessed Virgin Mary, II The Most Holy Name of Mary)

#19O-I BVM Context (Holy Mary, Mother of the Lord, Ordinary Time, 19)

#34O-2 BVM Context (The Blessed Virgin Mary, Cause of Our Joy)

Mary set out
and traveled to the hill country in haste
to a town of Judah,
where she entered the house of Zechariah
and greeted Elizabeth.
When Elizabeth heard Mary’s greeting,
the infant leaped in her womb,
and Elizabeth, filled with the Holy Spirit,
cried out in a loud voice and said,
“Most blessed are you among women,
and blessed is the fruit of your womb.
And how does this happen to me,
that the mother of my Lord should come to me?
For at the moment the sound of your greeting reached my ears,
the infant in my womb leaped for joy.
Blessed are you who believed
that what was spoken to you by the Lord
would be fulfilled.”

And Mary said:

“My soul proclaims the greatness of the Lord;
my spirit rejoices in God my savior.”
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Commentary on Lk 1:39-47

The story of Mary’s meeting with Elizabeth following the annunciation by Gabriel that she would carry the Son of God proclaims the coming of the Lord and the faith of Mary before the nativity event. We note that Elizabeth is first to identify Jesus as Lord as she says:” …how does this happen to me, that the mother of my Lord should come to me?” She not only professes the identity of the infant but foreshadows Mary’s leadership standing, elevating the stature of her much younger cousin with reverence. Elizabeth continues her praise of Mary by establishing that her (Mary’s) faith had allowed her to accept the incredible role God had offered her.

In response, we hear Mary’s humility as she begins with the opening verse of the Magnificat: “My soul proclaims the greatness of the Lord; my spirit rejoices in God my savior.”

CCC: Lk 1:41 523, 717, 2676; Lk 1:43 448, 495, 2677; Lk 1:45 148, 2676; Lk 1:46-55 722, 2619, 2675; Lk 1:46-49 2097
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Luke 1:39-45

#12C Solemnities C Context (4th Sunday of Advent C)

#197 Weekday ! & II Context (December 21 of Advent)

Mary set out in those days
and traveled to the hill country in haste
to a town of Judah,
where she entered the house of Zechariah
and greeted Elizabeth.
When Elizabeth heard Mary’s greeting,
the infant leaped in her womb,
and Elizabeth, filled with the Holy Spirit,
cried out in a loud voice and said,
“Most blessed are you among women,
and blessed is the fruit of your womb.
And how does this happen to me,
that the mother of my Lord should come to me?
For at the moment the sound of your greeting reached my ears,
the infant in my womb leaped for joy.
Blessed are you who believed
that what was spoken to you by the Lord
would be fulfilled.”
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Commentary on Lk 1:39-45

St. Luke’s nativity story continues with Mary’s journey to visit Elizabeth. In this passage, we see the first meeting between John the Baptist (the child in Elizabeth’s womb) and Jesus (now growing in Mary’s womb). Here also is one of the foundational scripture passages for the “Hail Mary” prayer: “Most blessed are you among women, and blessed is the fruit of your womb.” This greeting of Elizabeth’s sets the stage for the beautiful Canticle of Mary which follows immediately.

CCC: Lk 1:41 523, 717, 2676; Lk 1:43 448, 495, 2677; Lk 1:45 148, 2676
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Luke 1:46-56

#198 Weekday I & II Context (December 22 of Advent)

And Mary said:

“My soul proclaims the greatness of the Lord;
my spirit rejoices in God my savior.
for he has looked upon his lowly servant.
From this day all generations will call me blessed:
the Almighty has done great things for me,
and holy is his Name.
He has mercy on those who fear him
in every generation.
He has shown the strength of his arm,
and has scattered the proud in their conceit.
He has cast down the mighty from their thrones
and has lifted up the lowly.
He has filled the hungry with good things,
and the rich he has sent away empty.
He has come to the help of his servant Israel
for he remembered his promise of mercy,
the promise he made to our fathers,
to Abraham and his children for ever.”

Mary remained with Elizabeth about three months
and then returned to her home.
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Commentary on Lk 1:46-56

Following the parallel canticle of Hannah from 1st Samuel, we are given the Magnificat, the beautiful Canticle of Mary. Her song of thanksgiving and humility captures the saintliness that has become synonymous with our image of Mary the Mother of God, the Queen of Heaven, and the Mother of the Church. In her dedication to God’s service she offers herself to Him, as the vessel of the Messiah. She sets the stage for the humble birth of Jesus.

"Three stanzas may be distinguished in the canticle: in the first (verses 46-50) Mary glorifies God for making her the Mother of the Savior, which is why future generations will call her blessed; she shows that the Incarnation is a mysterious expression of God's power and holiness and mercy. In the second (verses 51-53) she teaches us that the Lord has always had a preference for the humble, resisting the proud and boastful. In the third (verses 54-55) she proclaims that God, in keeping with His promise, has always taken care of His chosen people – and now does them the greatest honor of all by becoming a Jew (cf. Romans 1:3)."[49]

CCC: Lk 1:46-55 722, 2619, 2675; Lk 1:46-49 2097; Lk 1:48 148, 971, 2676, 2676; Lk 1:49 273, 2599, 2807, 2827; Lk 1:50 2465; Lk 1:54-55 706; Lk 1:55 422
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Luke 1:46-48, 49-50, 53-54

#8B Solemnities B Context (3rd Sunday of Advent B)

#21O-I BVM Context (The Holy Name of the Blessed Virgin Mary, Ordinary Time 21)
R. (Is 61:10b) My spirit rejoices in my God.

#34O-2 BVM Context (The Blessed Virgin Mary, Cause of Our Joy)
R. (Is 61:10b) My spirit rejoices in my God.

R. (Is 61:10b) My soul rejoices in my God.

My soul proclaims the greatness of the Lord;
my spirit rejoices in God my Savior,
for he has looked upon his lowly servant.
From this day all generations will call me blessed:
R. My soul rejoices in my God.

the Almighty has done great things for me,
and holy is his Name.
He has mercy on those who fear him
in every generation.
R. My soul rejoices in my God.

He has filled the hungry with good things,
and the rich he has sent away empty.
He has come to the help of his servant Israel
for he has remembered his promise of mercy,
R. My soul rejoices in my God.
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Commentary on Lk 1:46-48, 49-50, 53-54

We are given a selection from the Magnificat, the beautiful Canticle of Mary. Her song of thanksgiving and humility captures the saintliness that has become synonymous with our image of Mary the Mother of God, the Queen of Heaven, and the Mother of the Church. In her dedication of the service she offers to God as vessel of the Messiah she sets the stage for the humble birth of Jesus.

CCC: Lk 1:46-55 722, 2619, 2675; Lk 1:46-49 2097; Lk 1:48 148, 971, 2676, 2676; Lk 1:49 273, 2599, 2807, 2827; Lk 1:50 2465; Lk 1:54-55 706
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Luke l:46-48a, 48b-49,50-51,52-53, 54-55

#28O-1 BVM Context (The Immaculate Heart of the Blessed Virgin Mary)

#37O-2 BVM Context (The Blessed Virgin Mary, Mother of Divine Hope)*
R. Hail, Virgin Mary, hope of God's People.

#39O-3 BVM Context (Holy Mary, Queen and Mother of Mercy, I)
R. (See 50) The Lord has mercy in every generation.

#43O-3 BVM Context (Our Lady of Ransom)
R. The Lord had mercy on his people.

R. (49) The Almighty has done great things for me.

My soul proclaims the greatness of the Lord;
my spirit rejoices in God my savior.
For he has looked upon his handmaid's lowliness;
R. The Almighty has done great things for me.

Behold, from now on will all ages call me blessed.
The Mighty One has done great things for me,
and holy is his name.
R. The Almighty has done great things for me.

The Lord's mercy is from age to age
to those who fear him.
He has shown might with his arm,
dispersed the arrogant of mind and heart.
R. The Almighty has done great things for me.

He has thrown down the rulers from their thrones
but lifted up the lowly.
The hungry he has filled with good things;
the rich he has sent away empty.
R. The Almighty has done great things for me.

The Lord has helped Israel his servant,
remembering his mercy,
according to his promise to our ancestors,
to Abraham and to his descendants for ever.
R. The Almighty has done great things for me.
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Commentary on Lk 1:46-47, 48-49, 50 and 53, 54-55

The responsorial is the Magnificat, the beautiful Canticle of Mary. Her song of thanksgiving and humility captures the saintliness that has become synonymous with our image of Mary the Mother of God, the Queen of Heaven, and the Mother of the Church. In her dedication to service, she offers herself to God as vessel of the Messiah. She sets the stage for the humble birth of Jesus.

CCC: Lk 1:46-55 722, 2619, 2675; Lk 1:46-49 2097; Lk 1:48 148, 971, 2676, 2676; Lk 1:49 273, 2599, 2807, 2827; Lk 1:50 2465; Lk 1:54-55 706; Lk 1:55 422
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Luke 1:46-47, 48-49, 50 and 53, 54-55

#376 Weekday Year I Context (Saturday of the 12th Week in Ordinary Time)

#601 Proper of Saint Context (Our Lady of Mt. Carmel Jul 16)
R. (49) The Almighty has done great things for me, and holy is his Name.
or: R. O Blessed Virgin Mary, you carried the Son of the eternal Father.

#680 Proper of Saints Context (Presentation of the Blessed Virgin Mary, Nov 21)
R. (49) The Almighty has done great things for me, and holy is his Name.
or: R. O Blessed Virgin Mary, you carried the Son of the eternal Father.

#709 Commons Context (Common of the Blessed Virgin Mary)
R. (49) The Almighty has done great things for me, and holy is his Name.
or: R. O Blessed Virgin Mary, you carried the Son of the eternal Father.

#22O-I BVM Context ( Holy Mary, Handmaid of the Lord, Ordinary Time 22)
R. (see 48a) The Lord has looked with favor on his lowly servant.

R. (see 54b) The Lord has remembered his mercy.

"My soul proclaims the greatness of the Lord,
my spirit rejoices in God my Savior."
R. The Lord has remembered his mercy.

"For he has looked with favor on his lowly servant.
From this day all generations will call me blessed:
the Almighty has done great things for me,
and holy is his Name."
R. The Lord has remembered his mercy.

"He has mercy on those who fear him
in every generation.
He has filled the hungry with good things,
and the rich he has sent away empty."
R. The Lord has remembered his mercy.

"He has come to the help of his servant Israel
for he has remembered his promise of mercy,
The promise he made to our fathers,
to Abraham and his children for ever."
R. The Lord has remembered his mercy.
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Commentary on Lk 1:46-47, 48-49, 50 and 53, 54-55

The responsorial is the Magnificat, the beautiful Canticle of Mary. Her song of thanksgiving and humility captures the saintliness that has become synonymous with our image of Mary the Mother of God, the Queen of Heaven, and the Mother of the Church. In her dedication to service, she offers herself to God as vessel of the Messiah. She sets the stage for the humble birth of Jesus.

CCC: Lk 1:46-55 722, 2619, 2675; Lk 1:46-49 2097; Lk 1:48 148, 971, 2676, 2676; Lk 1:49 273, 2599, 2807, 2827; Lk 1:50 2465; Lk 1:54-55 706; Lk 1:55 422
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Luke 1:46-47, 48-49, 50-51, 52-53, 54-55

#653 Proper of Saints Context (Our Lady of the Rosary, Oct 7)

#1002 Votive Mass Context (The Blessed Virgin Mary, II The Most Holy Name of Mary)
R. (49) The Almighty has done great things for me, and holy is his Name.
or: R. O Blessed Virgin Mary, you carried the Son of the eternal Father.

"My soul proclaims the greatness of the Lord,
my spirit rejoices in God my Savior."
R. The Almighty has done great things for me, and holy is his Name.
or:
R. O Blessed Virgin Mary, you carried the Son of the eternal Father.

"For he has looked upon his lowly servant.
From this day all generations will call me blessed:
the Almighty has done great things for me,
and holy is his Name."
R. The Almighty has done great things for me, and holy is his Name.
or:
R. O Blessed Virgin Mary, you carried the Son of the eternal Father.

"He has mercy on those who fear him in every generation.
He has shown the strength of his arm,
he has scattered the proud in their conceit."
R. The Almighty has done great things for me, and holy is his Name.
or:
R. O Blessed Virgin Mary, you carried the Son of the eternal Father.

"He has cast down the mighty from their thrones,
and has lifted up the lowly.
He has filled the hungry with good things,
and the rich he has sent away empty."
R. The Almighty has done great things for me, and holy is his Name.
or:
R. O Blessed Virgin Mary, you carried the Son of the eternal Father.

"He has come to the help of his servant Israel
for he has remembered his promise of mercy,
the promise he made to our fathers,
to Abraham and his children forever."
R. The Almighty has done great things for me, and holy is his Name.
or:
R. O Blessed Virgin Mary, you carried the Son of the eternal Father.
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Commentary on Lk 1:46-47, 48-49, 50-51, 52-53, 54-55

We are given a selection from the Magnificat, the beautiful Canticle of Mary. Her song of thanksgiving and humility captures the saintliness that has become synonymous with our image of Mary the Mother of God, the Queen of Heaven, and the Mother of the Church. In her dedication of the service she offers to God as vessel of the Messiah she sets the stage for the humble birth of Jesus.

CCC: Lk 1:46-55 722, 2619, 2675; Lk 1:46-49 2097; Lk 1:48 148, 971, 2676, 2676; Lk 1:49 273, 2599, 2807, 2827; Lk 1:50 2465; Lk 1:54-55 706; Lk 1:55 422
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Luke 1:57-66, 80

#587 Proper of Saints Context (Nativity of Saint John the Baptist, Mass during the Day, Jun 24)

When the time arrived for Elizabeth to have her child
she gave birth to a son.
Her neighbors and relatives heard
that the Lord had shown his great mercy toward her,
and they rejoiced with her.
When they came on the eighth day to circumcise the child,
they were going to call him Zechariah after his father,
but his mother said in reply,
"No. He will be called John."
But they answered her,
"There is no one among your relatives who has this name."
So they made signs, asking his father what he wished him to be called.
He asked for a tablet and wrote, "John is his name,"
and all were amazed.
Immediately his mouth was opened, his tongue freed,
and he spoke blessing God.
Then fear came upon all their neighbors,
and all these matters were discussed
throughout the hill country of Judea.
All who heard these things took them to heart, saying,
"What, then, will this child be?"
For surely the hand of the Lord was with him.
The child grew and became strong in spirit,
and he was in the desert until the day
of his manifestation to Israel.
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Commentary on Luke 1:57-66, 80

We hear the angel’s announcement to Zechariah (Luke 1:13ff) fulfilled in St. Luke’s account of the birth of St. John the Baptist. The naming of the child “John” broke tradition (according to the tradition of the day, the child should have been named after his father, Zechariah) and by acceding to the Archangel Gabriel’s announcement, we see the child set on a course directed by God and dedicated to him.

CCC: Lk 1:68 422, 717
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Luke 1:57-66

#199 Weekday I & II Context (December 23 of Advent)

When the time arrived for Elizabeth to have her child
she gave birth to a son.
Her neighbors and relatives heard
that the Lord had shown his great mercy toward her,
and they rejoiced with her.
When they came on the eighth day to circumcise the child,
they were going to call him Zechariah after his father,
but his mother said in reply,
“No. He will be called John.”
But they answered her,
“There is no one among your relatives who has this name.”
So they made signs, asking his father what he wished him to be called.
He asked for a tablet and wrote, “John is his name,”
and all were amazed.
Immediately his mouth was opened, his tongue freed,
and he spoke blessing God.
Then fear came upon all their neighbors,
and all these matters were discussed
throughout the hill country of Judea.
All who heard these things took them to heart, saying,
“What, then, will this child be?
For surely the hand of the Lord was with him.”
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Commentary on Lk 1:57-66

Following Mary’s Magnificat, Luke now tells the story of John the Baptist’s birth, circumcision, and naming. The silence imposed on Zechariah by God (Luke 1:20) is broken as he confers the name, John, upon his son. Even the naming of St. John is unusual. It would have been the custom of the time to name the child after the father and for the child’s father to make that announcement as part of the ritual surrounding his circumcision. Zechariah complies with the demands of the Archangel Gabriel (Luke 1:13) and names him John. The question is asked by those who are at hand: “"What, then, will this child be? For surely the hand of the Lord was with him.’

CCC:  Lk 1:68 422, 717
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Luke 1:67-79

#200 Weekday I & II Context (December 24 of Advent)

“Blessed be the Lord, the God of Israel;
for he has come to his people and set them free.
He has raised up for us a mighty Savior,
born of the house of his servant David.
Through his prophets he promised of old
that he would save us from our enemies,
from the hands of all who hate us.
He promised to show mercy to our fathers
and to remember his holy covenant.
This was the oath he swore to our father Abraham:
to set us free from the hand of our enemies,
free to worship him without fear,
holy and righteous in his sight
all the days of our life.
You, my child, shall be called the prophet of the Most High,
for you will go before the Lord to prepare his way,
to give his people knowledge of salvation
by the forgiveness of their sins.
In the tender compassion of our God
the dawn from on high shall break upon us,
to shine on those who dwell in darkness and the shadow of death,
and to guide our feet into the way of peace.”
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Commentary on Lk 1:67-79

St. John the Baptist had been born to Elizabeth. Now the seal the Lord had placed on the mouth of his father, Zechariah, has been lifted as he had named his son in accordance with the wishes of God. We are given the Canticle of Zechariah, the father’s song to his son, praising God and predicting the role his son would fulfill in God’s plan, as herald of the Messiah’s arrival. The whole Church sings this song each morning as part of the Morning Prayer of the Liturgy of the Hours.

The canticle is broken into two themes.  The first praises God for the salvation he sends through the line of King David.  He uses imagery like that found in Isaiah's description of the messianic era (e.g. freedom for the captives, peace and freedom to worship God).  The second theme addresses the mission and vocation of his new-born son, now named John (who will become the Baptist).  In the strophes of that section, a loving father speaks of how John will play an important part in God's revelation, announcing the arrival of the Messiah ("...to give his people knowledge of salvation by the forgiveness of their sins"), and bringing hope to those who are hopeless and peace to the world.

CCC: Lk 1:68 422, 717; Lk 1:73 706; Lk 1:76 523
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Luke 1:69-70, 71-72, 73-75

#322 Weekday Year I Context (Saturday of the 3rd Week in Ordinary Time)

#464 Weekday Year II Context (Thursday of the 27th Week in Ordinary Time)

#473 Weekday Year I Context (Monday of the 29th Week in Ordinary Time)

R. (see 68) Blessed be the Lord the God of Israel; he has come to his people.

He has raised up for us a mighty savior,
born of the house of his servant David.
R. Blessed be the Lord the God of Israel; he has come to his people.

Through his holy prophets he promised of old.
that he would save us from our sins
from the hands of all who hate us.
He promised to show mercy to our fathers
and to remember his holy covenant.
R. Blessed be the Lord the God of Israel; he has come to his people.

This was the oath he swore to our father Abraham:
to set us free from the bonds of our enemies,
free to worship him without fear,
holy and righteous in his sight
all the days of our life.
R. Blessed be the Lord the God of Israel; he has come to his people.
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Commentary on Lk 1:69-70, 71-72, 73-75

These strophes are the opening lines of the great Canticle of Zachariah sung to the newborn St. John the Baptist by his father at the occasion of his naming. He reminds the infant St. John that God is faithful to his promises and proclaims the Savior’s mission of salvation, a promise to Abraham, as a fulfillment of that promise. These introductory verses serve as a profession of faith in God and the Messiah of whom St. John will be the forerunner. Zachariah sings of the promise of salvation first promised to Abraham, now to be fulfilled in Jesus.

CCC: Lk 1:73 706
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Luke 2:1-14


#14ABC Solemnities ABC Context (Nativity of the Lord Midnight ABC)

#712 Commons Context (Common of the Blessed Virgin Mary)

#5C BVM Context (The Blessed Virgin Mary, Mother of the Savior, Christmas 5)

In those days a decree went out from Caesar Augustus
that the whole world should be enrolled.
This was the first enrollment,
when Quirinius was governor of Syria.
So all went to be enrolled, each to his own town.
And Joseph too went up from Galilee from the town of Nazareth
to Judea, to the city of David that is called Bethlehem,
because he was of the house and family of David,
to be enrolled with Mary, his betrothed, who was with child.
While they were there,
the time came for her to have her child,
and she gave birth to her firstborn son.
She wrapped him in swaddling clothes and laid him in a manger,
because there was no room for them in the inn.

Now there were shepherds in that region living in the fields
and keeping the night watch over their flock.
The angel of the Lord appeared to them
and the glory of the Lord shone around them,
and they were struck with great fear.
The angel said to them,
“Do not be afraid;
for behold, I proclaim to you good news of great joy
that will be for all the people.
For today in the city of David
a savior has been born for you who is Christ and Lord.
And this will be a sign for you:
you will find an infant wrapped in swaddling clothes
and lying in a manger.”
And suddenly there was a multitude of the heavenly host with the angel,
praising God and saying:
“Glory to God in the highest
and on earth peace to those on whom his favor rests.”
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Commentary on Lk 2:1-14

The nativity narrative from St. Luke’s Gospel begins by relating the birth of Jesus to civil rulers in place at the time. Attempts to develop an exact date for the Lord’s birth based upon these references has been problematic since there are inconsistencies (see NAB footnote on Luke 2:1-2). Of importance is the understanding at the time that Caesar Augustus was known in secular chronicles as “savior and god.” St. Luke contrasts this civil figure with the true Savior and God, Jesus.

What follows in the story provides a number of prophetic fulfillments. The Lord’s birth in Bethlehem was predicted by Isaiah (Isaiah 44:28-45:1). His humble birth and the virtuous attributes he demonstrated confirmed that his coming was the one predicted by prophets, angels, and heavenly heralds. As the angels proclaim emphatically, the coming of the babe in swaddling clothes brings the offer of God’s peace to the world.

CCC: Lk 2:6-7 525; Lk 2:7 515; Lk 2:8-20 486, 525; Lk 2:8-14 333; Lk 2:10 333; Lk 2:11 437, 448, 695; Lk 2:14 333, 559, 725
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Luke 2:15-20


#15ABC Solemnities ABC Context (Nativity of the Lord at Dawn ABC)

When the angels went away from them to heaven,
the shepherds said to one another,
“Let us go, then, to Bethlehem
to see this thing that has taken place,
which the Lord has made known to us.”
So they went in haste and found Mary and Joseph,
and the infant lying in the manger.
When they saw this,
they made known the message
that had been told them about this child.
All who heard it were amazed
by what had been told them by the shepherds.
And Mary kept all these things,
reflecting on them in her heart.
Then the shepherds returned,
glorifying and praising God
for all they had heard and seen,
just as it had been told to them.
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Commentary on Lk 2:15-20

The message, given to the shepherds by choirs of angels that they in turn brought to Mary was: “For today in the city of David a savior has been born for you who is Messiah and Lord. And this will be a sign for you: you will find an infant wrapped in swaddling clothes and lying in a manger." (Luke 2 11-12) This encounter with the shepherds further reinforces Mary’s faith, the acceptance of her child’s role as explained to her by the Archangel Gabriel when this wonderful and tragic journey began. She keeps and reflects in her heart about her son many times in his short life among us.

CCC: Lk 2:19 2599
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Luke 2:15b-19

#712 Commons Context (Common of the Blessed Virgin Mary)

#4A BVM Context (Holy Mary, Mother of God, Christmas 4)

#24O-I BVM Context (The Blessed Virgin Mary, Seat of Wisdom)

The shepherds said to one another,
“Let us go, then, to Bethlehem
to see this thing that has taken place,
which the Lord has made known to us.”
So they went in haste and found Mary and Joseph,
and the infant lying in the manger.
When they saw this,
they made known the message
that had been told them about this child.
All who heard it were amazed
by what had been told them by the shepherds.
And Mary kept all these things,
reflecting on them in her heart.
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Commentary on Lk 2:15b-19

The message, given to the shepherds by choirs of angels that they in turn brought to Mary was: “For today in the city of David a savior has been born for you who is Messiah and Lord. And this will be a sign for you: you will find an infant wrapped in swaddling clothes and lying in a manger." (Luke 2 11-12) This encounter with the shepherds further reinforces Mary’s faith, the acceptance of her child’s role as explained to her by the Archangel Gabriel when this wonderful and tragic journey began. She keeps and reflects in her heart about her son many times in his short life among us.

CCC: Lk 2:19 2599
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Luke 2:16-21

#18ABC Solemnities ABC Context (Solemnity of Mary Jan 1)

#988 Votive Mass Context (The Most Holy Name of Jesus, 2.)

The shepherds went in haste to Bethlehem and found Mary
and Joseph,
and the infant lying in the manger.
When they saw this,
they made known the message
that had been told them about this child.
All who heard it were amazed
by what had been told them by the shepherds.
And Mary kept all these things,
reflecting on them in her heart.
Then the shepherds returned,
glorifying and praising God
for all they had heard and seen,
just as it had been told to them.
When eight days were completed for his circumcision,
he was named Jesus, the name given him by the angel
before he was conceived in the womb.
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Commentary on Lk 2:16-21

The message, given to the shepherds by choirs of angels,that they in turn brought to Mary, that she kept and reflected about in her heart was: “For today in the city of David a savior has been born for you who is Messiah and Lord. And this will be a sign for you: you will find an infant wrapped in swaddling clothes and lying in a manger." (Luke 2 11-12)

This encounter with the shepherds further reinforces Mary’s faith, the acceptance of her child’s role explained to her by the Archangel Gabriel when this wonderful and tragic journey began.

CCC: Lk 2:19 2599; Lk 2:21 527
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Luke 2:22-40*

#17B Sundays B Context (Feast of the Holy Family of Jesus, Mary and Joseph B)

#524 Proper of Saints Context (Feast of the Presentation of the Lord)

When the days were completed for their purification
according to the law of Moses,
Mary and Joseph took Jesus up to Jerusalem
to present him to the Lord,
just as it is written in the law of the Lord,
Every male that opens the womb shall be consecrated to the Lord,
and to offer the sacrifice of
a pair of turtledoves or two young pigeons,
in accordance with the dictate in the law of the Lord.

Now there was a man in Jerusalem whose name was Simeon.
This man was righteous and devout,
awaiting the consolation of Israel,
and the Holy Spirit was upon him.
It had been revealed to him by the Holy Spirit
that he should not see death
before he had seen the Christ of the Lord.
He came in the Spirit into the temple;
and when the parents brought in the child Jesus
to perform the custom of the law in regard to him,
he took him into his arms and blessed God, saying:

“Now, Master, you may let your servant go
in peace, according to your word,
for my eyes have seen your salvation,
which you prepared in the sight of all the peoples:
a light for revelation to the Gentiles,
and glory for your people Israel.”

The child’s father and mother were amazed at what was said about him;
and Simeon blessed them and said to Mary his mother,
“Behold, this child is destined
for the fall and rise of many in Israel,
and to be a sign that will be contradicted
Band you yourself a sword will pierce
so that the thoughts of many hearts may be revealed.”
There was also a prophetess, Anna,
the daughter of Phanuel, of the tribe of Asher.
She was advanced in years,
having lived seven years with her husband after her marriage,
and then as a widow until she was eighty-four.
She never left the temple,
but worshiped night and day with fasting and prayer.
And coming forward at that very time,
she gave thanks to God and spoke about the child
to all who were awaiting the redemption of Jerusalem.

When they had fulfilled all the prescriptions
of the law of the Lord,
they returned to Galilee, to their own town of Nazareth.
The child grew and became strong, filled with wisdom;
and the favor of God was upon him.
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Commentary on Lk 2:22-40

St. Luke begins the account of the Lord’s presentation recalling that Mary, the Virgin Mother of God, followed Mosaic Law by observing the Rite of Purification, which, by tradition, was required of any member of the community who had come in contact with the “Mystery,” life and death (the birth of a child or the burial of the dead).

At the Temple in Jerusalem, the Holy Family encounters two prophetic figures Simeon and Anna. Both of these figures proclaim that the Messiah has come in the person of the Lord. We also hear from Simeon an image of the Lord’s passion, and how a sword of sorrow will pierce the Holy Mother’s heart.

Simeon, a man who “was righteous and devout, awaiting the consolation of Israel,” was told by the Holy Spirit that he would not pass away until he had seen the Messiah. Upon seeing the Lord, he declares that this promise has been fulfilled, and then turns to Mary, making the prediction about the nature of Christ’s ministry and the nature of the sorrow she will endure.

CCC: Lk 2:22-39 529, 583; Lk 2:25 711; Lk 2:26-27 695; Lk 2:32 713; Lk 2:34 575, 587; Lk 2:35 149, 618; Lk 2:38 711
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Or: Luke 2:22-32

When the days were completed for their purification
according to the law of Moses,
Mary and Joseph took Jesus up to Jerusalem
to present him to the Lord,
just as it is written in the law of the Lord,
Every male that opens the womb shall be consecrated to the Lord,
and to offer the sacrifice of
a pair of turtledoves or two young pigeons,
in accordance with the dictate in the law of the Lord.

Now there was a man in Jerusalem whose name was Simeon.
This man was righteous and devout,
awaiting the consolation of Israel,
and the Holy Spirit was upon him.
It had been revealed to him by the Holy Spirit
that he should not see death
before he had seen the Christ of the Lord.
He came in the Spirit into the temple;
and when the parents brought in the child Jesus
to perform the custom of the law in regard to him,
he took him into his arms and blessed God, saying:

“Now, Master, you may let your servant go
in peace, according to your word,
for my eyes have seen your salvation,
which you prepared in the sight of all the peoples:
a light for revelation to the Gentiles,
and glory for your people Israel.”
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Commentary on Lk 2:22-32

In the shorter version of the Gospel, the focus is more on the revelation of the Christ, as opposed to the impact of this revelation on Mary, the Mother of God. St. Luke’s account of Jesus being presented at the Temple provides a unique insight into the Holy Family. They are faithful observers of the Law of Moses. “Their purification: syntactically, their must refer to Mary and Joseph, even though the Mosaic law never mentions the purification of the husband. Recognizing the problem, some Western scribes have altered the text to read 'his purification,' understanding the presentation of Jesus in the temple as a form of purification; the Vulgate version has a Latin form that could be either 'his' or 'her.' According to the Mosaic law (Leviticus 12:2-8), the woman who gives birth to a boy is unable for forty days to touch anything sacred or to enter the temple area by reason of her legal impurity.”[2] In addition to this description, we see that Jesus was returned to Nazareth to grow in stature. The passage ends with Simeon having seen the Christ now being able to go to his final rest, fulfilled.

CCC: Lk 2:22-39 529, 583; Lk 2:25 711; Lk 2:26-27 695; Lk 2:32 713
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Luke 2:22-35

#202 I & II Context (5th Day in the Octave of Christmas)

When the days were completed for their purification
according to the law of Moses,
the parents of Jesus took him up to Jerusalem
to present him to the Lord,
just as it is written in the law of the Lord,
Every male that opens the womb shall be consecrated to the Lord,
and to offer the sacrifice of
a pair of turtledoves or two young pigeons,
in accordance with the dictate in the law of the Lord.

Now there was a man in Jerusalem whose name was Simeon.
This man was righteous and devout,
awaiting the consolation of Israel,
and the Holy Spirit was upon him.
It had been revealed to him by the Holy Spirit
that he should not see death
before he had seen the Christ of the Lord.
He came in the Spirit into the temple;
and when the parents brought in the child Jesus
to perform the custom of the law in regard to him,
he took him into his arms and blessed God, saying:

“Lord, now let your servant go in peace;
your word has been fulfilled:
my own eyes have seen the salvation
which you prepared in the sight of every people,
a light to reveal you to the nations
and the glory of your people Israel.”

The child’s father and mother were amazed at what was said about him;
and Simeon blessed them and said to Mary his mother,
“Behold, this child is destined
for the fall and rise of many in Israel,
and to be a sign that will be contradicted
(and you yourself a sword will pierce)
so that the thoughts of many hearts may be revealed.”
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Commentary on Lk 2:22-35

St. Luke’s account of Jesus being presented at the Temple provides a unique insight into the Holy Family. They are faithful observers of the Law of Moses.

At the time Jesus is presented at the temple as required by strict Jewish Law, we find Simeon, probably an old man in the last years of his life (“…looking forward to the restoration of God's rule in Israel”). Simeon does two important things here: he affirms the nativity story with his profession of faith that Jesus is the Christ, the Messiah, the one who came for all, so that all might be renewed in Christ and in God the Father, (“…my own eyes have seen the salvation which you prepared in the sight of every people, a light to reveal you to the nations and the glory of your people Israel”).

The second of Simeon’s actions is to predict to Mary the difficulty her Son will encounter in his ministry (“…to be a sign that will be contradicted”), and the pain it will cause Mary herself: “and you yourself a sword will pierce.

CCC: Lk 2:22-39 529, 583; Lk 2:25 711; Lk 2:26-27 695; Lk 2:32 713; Lk 2:34 575, 587; Lk 2:35 149, 618
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Luke 2:22, 39-40

#8C BVM Context (Our Lady of Nazareth I, Christmas 8)

When the days were completed for their purification
according to the law of Moses,
Mary and Joseph took Jesus up to Jerusalem
to present him to the Lord.
When Mary and Joseph had fulfilled all the prescriptions
of the law of the Lord,
they returned to Galilee,
to their own town of Nazareth.
The child, Jesus, grew and became strong, filled with wisdom;
and the favor of God was upon him.
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Commentary on Lk 2:22, 39-40

St. Luke’s account of Jesus being presented at the Temple provides a unique insight into the Holy Family. They are faithful observes of the Law of Moses.

At the time, Jesus is presented at the temple as required by strict Jewish Law. This short description notes that Mary, the Mother of God, and Joseph, Jesus' foster father, returned to Nazareth following his presentation at the temple.  Under the guidance of his parents, Jesus grew up, ready to take up his role as Savior and Messiah.

CCC: Lk 2:22-39 529, 583
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Luke 2:27-35

#712 Commons Context (Common of the Blessed Virgin Mary)

#7C BVM Context (The Blessed Virgin Mary and the Presentation of the Lord, Christmas 7)

Simeon came in the Spirit into the temple;
and when the parents brought in the child Jesus
to perform the custom of the law in regard to him,
he took him into his arms and blessed God, saying:

“Lord, now let your servant go in peace;
your word has been fulfilled:
my own eyes have seen the salvation
which you prepared in the sight of every people,
a light to reveal you to the nations
and the glory of your people Israel.”

The child’s father and mother were amazed at what was said about him;
and Simeon blessed them and said to Mary his mother,
“Behold, this child is destined
for the fall and rise of many in Israel,
and to be a sign that will be contradicted
(and you yourself a sword will pierce)
so that the thoughts of many hearts may be revealed.”
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Lk 2:27-35

At the time Jesus is presented at the temple as required by strict Jewish Law, we find Simeon. He does two important things here – he affirms the nativity story with his profession of faith that Jesus is the Christ, the Messiah, the one who came for all so that all might be renewed in Christ and in God the Father. (“…my own eyes have seen the salvation which you prepared in the sight of every people, a light to reveal you to the nations and the glory of your people Israel.”)

The second of Simeon’s actions is to predict to Mary the difficulty her Son will encounter in his ministry (“…to be a sign that will be contradicted”) and the pain it will cause Mary herself “(and you yourself a sword will pierce)”

CCC: Lk 2:26-27 695;  Lk 2:32 713; Lk 2:34 575, 587; Lk 2:35 149, 618
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Luke 2:33-35

#639 Proper of Saints Context (Our Lady of Sorrows, Sep 15)

Jesus' father and mother were amazed at what was said about him;
and Simeon blessed them and said to Mary his mother,
"Behold, this child is destined
for the fall and rise of many in Israel,
and to be a sign that will be contradicted
and you yourself a sword will pierce
so that the thoughts of many hearts may be revealed."
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Lk 2:33-35

In this passage we hear Simeon’s prediction, a man, we are told earlier, who “was righteous and devout, awaiting the consolation of Israel.” Simeon was told by the Holy Spirit that he would not pass away until he had seen the Messiah. He has declared that this promise has been fulfilled, and then turns to Mary and makes the prediction about the nature of Christ’s ministry, and the nature of the sorrow she will endure, “and you yourself a sword will pierce.” The sword indicates that Mary will have a share in her Son’s sufferings. Hers will be an unspeakable pain which pierces her soul. Our Lord suffered on the cross for our sins, and it is those sins which forge the sword of Mary’s pain.[30]

CCC: Lk 2:32 713; Lk 2:34 575, 587; Lk 2:35 149, 618
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Luke 2:36-40

#203 Year I & II Context (6th Day in the Octave of Christmas)

There was a prophetess, Anna,
the daughter of Phanuel, of the tribe of Asher.
She was advanced in years,
having lived seven years with her husband after her marriage,
and then as a widow until she was eighty-four.
She never left the temple,
but worshiped night and day with fasting and prayer.
And coming forward at that very time,
she gave thanks to God and spoke about the child
to all who were awaiting the redemption of Jerusalem.

When they had fulfilled all the prescriptions
of the law of the Lord,
they returned to Galilee,
to their own town of Nazareth.
The child grew and became strong, filled with wisdom;
and the favor of God was upon him.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Lk 2:36-40

Continuing the story surrounding the presentation of Jesus, in this passage St. Luke describes the prophetess Anna. This role, for widows to prophesy in the temple, was not uncommon. The symbolism depicting Anna has clear linkage back to Old Testament events. It begins with the number seven. Rabbinical literature recognizes seven as the number of prophetesses: Sarah and Miriam in Exodus 15:20, Deborah in  Judges 4:4, Hannah mother of Samuel in 1 Samuel 2:1, Abigail wife of David in 1 Samuel 25:32, Huldah in 2 Kings 22:14, and Esther. These women gave witness to God’s will, at least in their holiness, and spoke in his name. Anna, in this prophetic role (Phanuel translates as “face of God” and Asher as “good luck”), echoes the words of Simeon saying that this young baby (Jesus) is the redemption of Jerusalem. The city, in this instance, represents all of the elect.

The final verses provide a glimpse of Jesus’ necessary hidden life in Nazareth. He grows in faith and stature in preparation for the mission assigned to him.

CCC: Lk 2:38 711
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Luke 2:41-52

#17C Solemnities C Context (The Holy Family of Jesus, Mary and Joseph, C)

#712 Commons Context (Common of the Blessed Virgin Mary)

#8C BVM Context (Our Lady of Nazareth I B, Christmas 8)

#10L BVM Context (Holy Mary, Disciple of the Lord, Lent 10)

Each year Jesus’ parents went to Jerusalem for the feast
of Passover,
and when he was twelve years old,
they went up according to festival custom.
After they had completed its days, as they were returning,
the boy Jesus remained behind in Jerusalem,
but his parents did not know it.
Thinking that he was in the caravan,
they journeyed for a day
and looked for him among their relatives and acquaintances,
but not finding him,
they returned to Jerusalem to look for him.
After three days they found him in the temple,
sitting in the midst of the teachers,
listening to them and asking them questions,
and all who heard him were astounded
at his understanding and his answers.
When his parents saw him,
they were astonished,
and his mother said to him,
“Son, why have you done this to us?
Your father and I have been looking for you with great anxiety.”
And he said to them,
“Why were you looking for me?
Did you not know that I must be in my Father’s house?”
But they did not understand what he said to them.
He went down with them and came to Nazareth,
and was obedient to them;
and his mother kept all these things in her heart.
And Jesus advanced in wisdom and age and favor
before God and man.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Lk 2:41-52

This narrative from St. Luke tells the only story from the Gospels of Jesus growing up as a boy, part of the family with Mary and Joseph. (There are numerous stories found in the apocryphal gospels that attribute miraculous abilities and acts to the young Jesus but these are considered to be of a tradition similar to the boyhood stories of other ancient heroes such as Cyrus and Alexander by those affirming the canon of the Bible). In this account Jesus is discovered after three days (possibly symbolic to the three days in the tomb) at the Temple, engaged in discourse with “teachers,” implying he was in the outer halls of the temple. This would have been completely consistent with Jewish Law.

We note that he is listening and answering questions and is not presuming upon his station to brag or put himself forward. Finding him, we are told that Jesus asked “Did you not know that I must be in my Father’s house?” This statement connotes a familiarity with God the Father, for the first time identifying that relationship over the role fulfilled by St. Joseph, his foster father.

CCC: Lk 2:41-52 534; Lk 2:41 583; Lk 2:46-49 583; Lk 2:48-49 503; Lk 2:49 2599; Lk 2:51-52 531; Lk 2:51 517, 2196, 2599; Lk 2:52 472
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Luke 2:41-51

#573 Proper of Saints Context (Immaculate Heart of Mary, Saturday following the Second Sunday after Pentecost)

Each year Jesus' parents went to Jerusalem for the feast of Passover,
and when he was twelve years old,
they went up according to festival custom.
After they had completed its days, as they were returning,
the boy Jesus remained behind in Jerusalem,
but his parents did not know it.
Thinking that he was in the caravan,
they journeyed for a day
and looked for him among their relatives and acquaintances,
but not finding him,
they returned to Jerusalem to look for him.
After three days they found him in the temple,
sitting in the midst of the teachers,
listening to them and asking them questions,
and all who heard him were astounded
at his understanding and his answers.
When his parents saw him,
they were astonished,
and his mother said to him,
"Son, why have you done this to us?
Your father and I have been looking for you with great anxiety."
And he said to them,
"Why were you looking for me?
Did you not know that I must be in my Father's house?"
But they did not understand what he said to them.
He went down with them and came to Nazareth,
and was obedient to them;
and his mother kept all these things in her heart.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Lk 2:41-51

This passage begins St. Luke's account of the presentation of Jesus in the Temple by his parents, in accordance with Jewish Law. It is significant from a number of perspectives. First the story breaks the scriptural silence regarding the “lost years” of Jesus’ growth from infancy to adulthood. This story says Jesus is twelve. That would be the time when he would have celebrated his bar miswah, after which he would have been considered a man.

St. Luke's description is at odds with the Apocryphal Gospels (such as the Gospel of St. Thomas) that attributed to Jesus many miracles during his early years. This account paints his childhood as fairly normal. The implication, based on Joseph's and Mary’s reaction, is that they, is at this point they do not completely understand their son’s mission.

CCC: Lk 2:41-52 534; Lk 2:41 583; Lk 2:46-49 583; Lk 2:48-49 503; Lk 2:49 2599; Lk 2:51-52 531; Lk 2:51 517, 2196, 2599
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Luke 2:41-51a

#543 Proper of Saints Context (Solemnity of St. Joseph, Husband of the Blessed Virgin Mary, Mar 19)

Each year Jesus’ parents went to Jerusalem for the feast of Passover,
and when he was twelve years old,
they went up according to festival custom.
After they had completed its days, as they were returning,
the boy Jesus remained behind in Jerusalem,
but his parents did not know it.
Thinking that he was in the caravan,
they journeyed for a day
and looked for him among their relatives and acquaintances,
but not finding him,
they returned to Jerusalem to look for him.
After three days they found him in the temple,
sitting in the midst of the teachers,
listening to them and asking them questions,
and all who heard him were astounded
at his understanding and his answers.
When his parents saw him,
they were astonished,
and his mother said to him,
“Son, why have you done this to us?
Your father and I have been looking for you with great anxiety.”
And he said to them,
“Why were you looking for me?
Did you not know that I must be in my Father’s house?”
But they did not understand what he said to them.
He went down with them and came to Nazareth,
and was obedient to them.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Lk 2:41-51a

From the Gospel of St. Luke we have the story of Jesus in the Temple. It is significant from a number of perspectives. First the story breaks scriptural silence regarding the “lost years” of Jesus’ growth from infancy to adulthood. This story says Jesus is twelve; that would be the time when he would have celebrated his bar miswah. He would have been considered a man.

This story is at odds with the Apocryphal Gospels (such as the Gospel of St. Thomas) that attributed many miracles to Jesus during his early years. This story paints his childhood as fairly normal. The implication, based on Joseph and Mary’s reaction to Jesus' actions in the Temple, is that they do not completely understand their son’s mission at this point in his life.

With reference to St. Joseph, this passage is the first time God is identified as the Father of Jesus, not Joseph. It is also the last time in scripture he is mentioned. He does, however receive a great tribute as the Lord Jesus returns home with him and is obedient to him (“He went down with them and came to Nazareth, and was obedient to them”).

CCC: Lk 2:41-52 534; Lk 2:41 583; Lk 2:46-49 583; Lk 2:48-49 503; Lk 2:49 2599; Lk 2:51-52 531; Lk 2:51 517, 2196, 2599
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Luke 2:46-51

#28O-1 Context (The Immaculate Heart of the Blessed Virgin Mary)

After three days they found him in the temple,
sitting in the midst of the teachers,
listening to them and asking them questions,
and all who heard him were astounded
at his understanding and his answers.
When his parents saw him,
they were astonished,
and his mother said to him,
“Son, why have you done this to us?
Your father and I have been looking for you with great anxiety.”
And he said to them,
“Why were you looking for me?
Did you not know that I must be in my Father’s house?”
But they did not understand what he said to them.
He went down with them and came to Nazareth,
and was obedient to them;
and his mother kept all these things in her heart.
And Jesus advanced in wisdom and age and favor
before God and man.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Lk 2:41-52

In this account Jesus is discovered after three days (possibly symbolic to the three days in the tomb) at the Temple, engaged in discourse with “teachers,” implying he was in the outer halls of the temple. This would have been completely consistent with Jewish Law. The implication, based on Joseph and Mary’s reaction to Jesus' actions in the Temple, is that they do not completely understand their son’s mission at this point in his life.

We note that he is listening and answering questions and is not presuming upon his station to brag or put himself forward. Finding him, we are told that Jesus asked “Did you not know that I must be in my Father’s house?” This statement connotes a familiarity with God the Father, for the first time identifying that relationship over the role fulfilled by St. Joseph, his foster father.

Above all, the Blessed Virgin Mary treasures the gift of her son, knowing the greatness in him and beginning to understand the sorrow that had been predicted.

CCC: Lk 2:46-49 583; Lk 2:48-49 503; Lk 2:49 2599; Lk 2:51-52 531; Lk 2:51 517, 2196, 2599; Lk 2:52 472
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Luke 3:1-6

#6C Solemnities C Context (2nd Sunday of Advent C)

In the fifteenth year of the reign of Tiberius Caesar,
when Pontius Pilate was governor of Judea,
and Herod was tetrarch of Galilee,
and his brother Philip tetrarch of the region
of Ituraea and Trachonitis,
and Lysanias was tetrarch of Abilene,
during the high priesthood of Annas and Caiaphas,
the word of God came to John the son of Zechariah in the desert.
John went throughout the whole region of the Jordan,
proclaiming a baptism of repentance for the forgiveness of sins,
as it is written in the book of the words of the prophet Isaiah:
A voice of one crying out in the desert:
“Prepare the way of the Lord,
make straight his paths.
Every valley shall be filled
and every mountain and hill shall be made low.
The winding roads shall be made straight,
and the rough ways made smooth,
and all flesh shall see the salvation of God.”
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Lk 3:1-6

In this selection, the Gospel of St. Luke introduces us to St. John the Baptist. John receives his call ("the word of God came to John") and responds to it, going about the region calling for repentance in the face of the imminent coming of the Messiah. The coming of St. John fulfills the prophesy of Isaiah, who is quoted in the final paragraph of the selection (Isaiah 40:3-5).

CCC: Lk 3:3 535
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Luke 3:7-18

#896 Mass for Various Needs Context (II. For Public Needs, 15. For Reconciliation, Second Option)

John the Baptist said to the crowds who came out to be baptized by him,
"You brood of vipers!
Who warned you to flee from the coming wrath?
Produce good fruits as evidence of your repentance;
and do not begin to say to yourselves,
'We have Abraham as our father.'
for I tell you, God can raise up children to Abraham
from these stones.
Even now the ax lies at the root of the trees.
Therefore every tree that does not produce good fruit
will be cut down and thrown into the fire."

And the crowds asked him,
“What then should we do?”
He said to them in reply,
“Whoever has two cloaks
should share with the person who has none.
And whoever has food should do likewise.”
Even tax collectors came to be baptized and they said to him,
“Teacher, what should we do?”
He answered them,
“Stop collecting more than what is prescribed.”
Soldiers also asked him,
“And what is it that we should do?”
He told them,
“Do not practice extortion,
do not falsely accuse anyone,
and be satisfied with your wages.”

Now the people were filled with expectation,
and all were asking in their hearts
whether John might be the Christ.
John answered them all, saying,
“I am baptizing you with water,
but one mightier than I is coming.
I am not worthy to loosen the thongs of his sandals.
He will baptize you with the Holy Spirit and fire.
His winnowing fan is in his hand to clear his threshing floor
and to gather the wheat into his barn,
but the chaff he will burn with unquenchable fire.”
Exhorting them in many other ways,
he preached good news to the people.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Lk 3:7-18

The passage begins with St. John the Baptist taking to task the Jews, who thought because of their heritage as "Children of Abraham" they were predestined to the redemptive salvation promised by God. He tells them that heritage is of no consequence: "...God can raise up children to Abraham from these stones." What is important is that their actions reflect the love of God and of neighbor, in other words, "bear fruit."

St. John the Baptist, in this passage unique to Luke’s Gospel, establishes the universal nature of redemption, speaking first to members of the secular crowd (and their bodyguards). We note he does not try for a highly mystical faith, but rather a pragmatic application of the precepts of that faith (e.g. “Whoever has two cloaks should share with the person who has none. And whoever has food should do likewise.”). This address would have been made to Tax Collectors (publicans), a group despised by polite Jewish society.

The passage continues with the messianic vision of what will come. St. John calls people to symbolically demonstrate their repentance by the pouring of water (“I am baptizing you with water"). The Messiah (the use of “one mightier [strong]” is frequently used in scripture to designate the leader who will overthrow evil: Mark 3:27Luke 11:20-22) comes in the common analogy of the threshing floor. The use of this image envisions the end times, when the good will be separated from the evil (wheat from chaff). The use of the image of fire can be seen both as the eternal punishment for the damned and the temporal purification of those destined for eternal life.

CCC: Lk 3:8 1460; Lk 3:10-14 535; Lk 3:11 2447; Lk 3:16 696
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Luke 3:10-18

#9C Solemnities C Context (3rd Sunday of Advent C)

The crowds asked John the Baptist,
“What should we do?”
He said to them in reply,
“Whoever has two cloaks
should share with the person who has none.
And whoever has food should do likewise.”
Even tax collectors came to be baptized and they said to him,
“Teacher, what should we do?”
He answered them,
“Stop collecting more than what is prescribed.”
Soldiers also asked him,
“And what is it that we should do?”
He told them,
“Do not practice extortion,
do not falsely accuse anyone,
and be satisfied with your wages.”

Now the people were filled with expectation,
and all were asking in their hearts
whether John might be the Christ.
John answered them all, saying,
“I am baptizing you with water,
but one mightier than I is coming.
I am not worthy to loosen the thongs of his sandals.
He will baptize you with the Holy Spirit and fire.
His winnowing fan is in his hand to clear his threshing floor
and to gather the wheat into his barn,
but the chaff he will burn with unquenchable fire.”
Exhorting them in many other ways,
he preached good news to the people.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Lk 3:10-18

St. John the Baptist, in this passage unique to Luke’s Gospel, establishes the universal nature of redemption, speaking first to members of the secular crowd (and their bodyguards). We note he does not try for a highly mystical faith, but rather a pragmatic application of the precepts of that faith (e.g. “Whoever has two cloaks should share with the person who has none. And whoever has food should do likewise.”). This address would have been made to Tax Collectors (publicans), a group despised by polite Jewish society.

The passage continues with the messianic vision of what will come. St. John calls people to symbolically demonstrate their repentance by the pouring of water (“I am baptizing you with water"). The Messiah (the use of “one mightier [strong]” is frequently used in scripture to designate the leader who will overthrow evil: Mark 3:27, Luke 11:20-22) comes in the common analogy of the threshing floor. The use of this image envisions the end times, when the good will be separated from the evil (wheat from chaff). The use of the image of fire can be seen both as the eternal punishment for the damned and the temporal purification of those destined for eternal life.

CCC: Lk 3:10-14 535; Lk 3:11 2447; Lk 3:16 696
------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Luke 3:15-16, 21-22

#21C Solemnities C Context (Baptism of the Lord C)

The people were filled with expectation,
and all were asking in their hearts
whether John might be the Christ.
John answered them all, saying,
“I am baptizing you with water,
but one mightier than I is coming.
I am not worthy to loosen the thongs of his sandals.
He will baptize you with the Holy Spirit and fire.”

After all the people had been baptized
and Jesus also had been baptized and was praying,
heaven was opened and the Holy Spirit descended upon him
in bodily form like a dove.
And a voice came from heaven,
“You are my beloved Son;
with you I am well pleased.”
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Lk 3:15-16, 21-22

St. Luke’s description of the Baptism of the Lord begins with a disclaimer by the Baptist himself. Prophetic literature speaks of the return of Elijah as a forerunner to the Messiah (Malachi 3:19-24) and the description of the Baptist’s demeanor and appearance closely match that of Elijah (see 2 Kings 1:8 vs. Matthew 3:4). In this passage, St. John the Baptist emphatically denies he is the Messiah but identifies “one mightier” who will bear that title.

The story from Luke emphasizes the impact St. John the Baptist had on King Herod. His prediction with its predicted punishments (in v. 17-20) puts St. John in prison. This selection picks up the person of Jesus as God identifies him specifically as his “beloved Son.” This image is consistent with the other Synoptic Gospels (Matthew 3:13-17; Mark 1:7-11).

CCC: Lk 3:16 696; Lk 3:21 608, 2600; Lk 3:22 536
------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Luke 3:23-38*

#209 Weekday I & II Context (January 6 Before Epiphany)

When Jesus began his ministry he was about thirty years of age.
He was the son, as was thought, of Joseph, the son of Heli,
the son of Matthat, the son of Levi, the son of Melchi,
the son of Jannai, the son of Joseph, the son of Mattathias,
the son of Amos, the son of Nahum, the son of Esli,
the son of Naggai, the son of Maath, the son of Mattathias,
the son of Semein, the son of Josech, the son of Joda,
the son of Joanan, the son of Rhesa, the son of Zerubbabel,
the son of Shealtiel, the son of Neri, the son of Melchi,
the son of Addi, the son of Cosam, the son of Elmadam,
the son of Er, the son of Joshua, the son of Eliezer,
the son of Jorim, the son of Matthat, the son of Levi,
the son of Simeon, the son of Judah, the son of Joseph,
the son of Jonam, the son of Eliakim, the son of Melea,
the son of Menna, the son of Mattatha, the son of Nathan,
the son of David, the son of Jesse, the son of Obed,
the son of Boaz, the son of Sala, the son of Nahshon,
the son of Amminadab, the son of Admin, the son of Ami,
the son of Hezron, the son of Perez, the son of Judah,
the son of Jacob, the son of Isaac, the son of Abraham,
the son of Terah, the son of Nahor, the son of Serug,
the son of Reu, the son of Peleg, the son of Eber,
the son of Shelah, the son of Cainan, the son of Arphaxad,
the son of Shem, the son of Noah, the son of Lamech,
the son of Methuselah, the son of Enoch, the son of Jared,
the son of Mahalaleel, the son of Cainan, the son of Enos,
the son of Seth, the son of Adam, the son of God.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Lk 3:23-38

The genealogy of Jesus in St. Luke’s Gospel differs from the account in St. Matthew significantly. “Whereas Matthew 1:2 begins the genealogy of Jesus with Abraham to emphasize Jesus' bonds with the people of Israel, Luke's universalism leads him to trace the descent of Jesus beyond Israel to Adam and beyond that to God (Luke 3:38) to stress again Jesus' divine sonship.”[1]

CCC: Lk 3:23 535
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OR Short Form
Luke 3:23, 31-34, 36, 38

When Jesus began his ministry he was about thirty years of age.
He was the son, as was thought, of Joseph, the son of Heli,
the son of Melea, the son of Menna, the son of Mattatha,
the son of Nathan, the son of David, the son of Jesse,
the son of Obed, the son of Boaz, the son of Sala,
the son of Nahshon, the son of Amminadab, the son of Admin,
the son of Ami, the son of Hezron, the son of Perez,
the son of Judah, the son of Jacob, the son of Isaac,
the son of Abraham, the son of Terah, the son of Nahor,
the son of Cainan, the son of Arphaxad, the son of Shem,
the son of Noah, the son of Lamech, the son of Enos,
the son of Seth, the son of Adam, the son of God.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Lk 3:23, 31-34, 36, 38

In the shorter form of the genealogy of Jesus a number of generations are omitted. Included are the significant touch points in Hebrew history linking Jesus with Abraham, Jacob, Isaac, and Noah. Like the Longer form, the list concludes with Adam.

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Luke 4:1-13

#24C Solemnities C Context (1st Sunday of Lent C)

Filled with the Holy Spirit, Jesus returned from the Jordan
and was led by the Spirit into the desert for forty days,
to be tempted by the devil.
He ate nothing during those days,
and when they were over he was hungry.
The devil said to him,
“If you are the Son of God,
command this stone to become bread.”
Jesus answered him,
“It is written, One does not live on bread alone.”
Then he took him up and showed him
all the kingdoms of the world in a single instant.
The devil said to him,
“I shall give to you all this power and glory;
for it has been handed over to me,
and I may give it to whomever I wish.
All this will be yours, if you worship me.”
Jesus said to him in reply,
“It is written:
You shall worship the Lord, your God,
and him alone shall you serve.”
Then he led him to Jerusalem,
made him stand on the parapet of the temple, and said to him,
“If you are the Son of God,
throw yourself down from here, for it is written:
He will command his angels concerning you, to guard you,
and:
With their hands they will support you,
lest you dash your foot against a stone.”
Jesus said to him in reply,
“It also says,
You shall not put the Lord, your God, to the test.”
When the devil had finished every temptation, he departed from him for a time.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Lk 4:1-13

The story of Jesus being led into the desert to be tempted by the devil is consistent with the other synoptic Gospels of Matthew 4:1-11 and Mark 1:12-13. Jesus is “filled with the Holy Spirit” as he is emerging from the baptismal waters. Forty days is symbolic of the forty years the Israelites wandered in the desert during the Exodus.

The story serves to help us understand that the temptations we face were also faced by Jesus who was totally human, like us in all things but sin. The Lord overcame the temptation of food when he was hungry, and power when he was powerless. We note that the devil used scripture to support these temptations, twisting what was good to evil purpose.

CCC: Lk 4:1 695; Lk 4:5-6 2855; Lk 4:8 2096; Lk 4:9 2119; Lk 4:13 538
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Luke 4:14-22

#215 Weekday I & II Context (Thursday following Epiphany)

Jesus returned to Galilee in the power of the Spirit,
and news of him spread throughout the whole region.
He taught in their synagogues and was praised by all.

He came to Nazareth, where he had grown up,
and went according to his custom
into the synagogue on the sabbath day.
He stood up to read and was handed a scroll of the prophet Isaiah.
He unrolled the scroll and found the passage where it was written:

The Spirit of the Lord is upon me,
because he has anointed me
to bring glad tidings to the poor.
He has sent me to proclaim liberty to captives
and recovery of sight to the blind,
to let the oppressed go free,
and to proclaim a year acceptable to the Lord.

Rolling up the scroll, he handed it back to the attendant and sat down,
and the eyes of all in the synagogue looked intently at him.
He said to them,
“Today this Scripture passage is fulfilled in your hearing.”
And all spoke highly of him
and were amazed at the gracious words that came from his mouth.
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Commentary on Luke 4:14-22

This selection from St. Luke’s Gospel takes place immediately following the Lord’s Baptism by St. John and trial in the desert. Jesus' return to Galilee is also documented in St. Matthew’s Gospel (Matthew 4:12-17). Here the Lord begins his public ministry with a straightforward statement of his identity and mission: “The Spirit of the Lord is upon me, because he has anointed me to bring glad tidings to the poor. He has sent me to proclaim liberty to captives and recovery of sight to the blind, to let the oppressed go free.” This announcement of Isaiah’s prophecy (Isaiah 61:1-2) being fulfilled tells the audience he is the Messiah who came bringing them salvation.

CCC: Lk 4:16-22 1286; Lk 4:16-21 436; Lk 4:18-19 695, 714; Lk 4:18 544, 2443; Lk 4:19 1168
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Luke 4:16-30

#431 Weekday Year I Context (Monday of the 22nd Week in Ordinary Time)

#431 Weekday Year II Context (Monday of the 22nd Week in Ordinary Time)

Jesus came to Nazareth, where he had grown up,
and went according to his custom
into the synagogue on the sabbath day.
He stood up to read and was handed a scroll of the prophet Isaiah.
He unrolled the scroll and found the passage where it was written:

The Spirit of the Lord is upon me,
because he has anointed me
to bring glad tidings to the poor.
He has sent me to proclaim liberty to captives
and recovery of sight to the blind,
to let the oppressed go free,
and to proclaim a year acceptable to the Lord.

Rolling up the scroll,
he handed it back to the attendant and sat down,
and the eyes of all in the synagogue looked intently at him.
He said to them,
“Today this Scripture passage is fulfilled in your hearing.”
And all spoke highly of him
and were amazed at the gracious words that came from his mouth.
They also asked, “Is this not the son of Joseph?”
He said to them, “Surely you will quote me this proverb,
‘Physician, cure yourself,’ and say, ‘Do here in your native place
the things that we heard were done in Capernaum.’”
And he said,
“Amen, I say to you, no prophet is accepted in his own native place.
Indeed, I tell you,
there were many widows in Israel in the days of Elijah
when the sky was closed for three and a half years
and a severe famine spread over the entire land.
It was to none of these that Elijah was sent,
but only to a widow in Zarephath in the land of Sidon.
Again, there were many lepers in Israel
during the time of Elisha the prophet;
yet not one of them was cleansed, but only Naaman the Syrian.”
When the people in the synagogue heard this,
they were all filled with fury.
They rose up, drove him out of the town,
and led him to the brow of the hill
on which their town had been built, to hurl him down headlong.
But he passed through the midst of them and went away.
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Commentary on Lk 4:16-30

In this passage from St. Luke’s Gospel we find the Lord back in his home town of Nazareth. He reads from the Book of the Prophet Isaiah (Isaiah 61:1-2) and then tells those present that he has come to fulfill the oracle he proclaimed (“he has anointed me to bring glad tidings to the poor. He has sent me to proclaim liberty to captives and recovery of sight to the blind”). These were clear references to the miraculous works he had already performed in other parts of the country. The Lord saw that they were expectation that he would perform signs there as well but the lack of faith would prevent him. Those congregated knew him form boyhood and did not believe he was the Messiah or even a prophet.

In response to this unbelief, Jesus brought out two examples from the stories about the Prophets that demonstrated that those unworthy of God’s grace were ignored in favor of more worthy subjects. This caused the wholesale uprising against him and he left them. In the eyes of those former friends and neighbors, Jesus had committed blasphemy, punishable by death. But, because they were uncertain given the power and authority they had witnessed, none dared lay a hand on him. “He passed though the midst of them and went away.

CCC: Lk 4:16-22 1286; Lk 4:16-21 436; Lk 4:18-19 695, 714; Lk 4:18 544, 2443; Lk 4:19 1168
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Luke 4:16-22a

#768 Ritual Mass Context (I. For the Conferral of Christian Initiation, 4. Confirmation, 5.)

Jesus came to Nazareth, where he had grown up,
and went according to his custom
into the synagogue on the sabbath day.
He stood up to read and was handed a scroll of the prophet Isaiah.
He unrolled the scroll and found the passage where it was written:

The Spirit of the Lord is upon me,
because he has anointed me
to bring glad tidings to the poor.
He has sent me to proclaim liberty to captives
and recovery of sight to the blind,
to let the oppressed go free,
and to proclaim a year acceptable to the Lord.

Rolling up the scroll, he handed it back to the attendant and sat down,
and the eyes of all in the synagogue looked intently at him.
He said to them,

“Today this Scripture passage is fulfilled in your hearing.”

And all spoke highly of him
and were amazed at the gracious words that came from his mouth.
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Commentary on Lk 4:16-22a

This selection from St. Luke’s Gospel takes place immediately following the Lord’s Baptism by St. John and trial in the desert. His return to Galilee is also documented in St. Matthew’s Gospel (Matthew 4:12-17). Here the Lord begins his public ministry with a straightforward statement of his identity and mission; “The Spirit of the Lord is upon me, because he has anointed me to bring glad tidings to the poor. He has sent me to proclaim liberty to captives and recovery of sight to the blind, to let the oppressed go free”. This announcement of Isaiah’s prophecy (Isaiah 61:1-2) being fulfilled tells the audience he is the Messiah who came bringing them salvation.

The Lord concludes alluding to the fact that Isaiah's prophecy is fulfilled in his incarnation.  Those who hear this are amazed but later challenge this amazement as their rational thought over comes the truth of his words.

CCC: Lk 4:16-22 1286; Lk 4:16-21 436; Lk 4:18-19 695, 714; Lk 4:18 544, 2443; Lk 4:19 1168
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Luke 4:16-21

#260 Weekday Years I & II Context (Mass of Chrism)

#784 Ritual Mass Context (IV. For the Conferral of Ministries, 1. Institution of Readers, 3.)

Jesus came to Nazareth, where he had grown up,
and went according to his custom
into the synagogue on the sabbath day.
He stood up to read and was handed a scroll of the prophet Isaiah.
He unrolled the scroll and found the passage where it was written:

The Spirit of the Lord is upon me,
because he has anointed me
to bring glad tidings to the poor.
He has sent me to proclaim liberty to captives
and recovery of sight to the blind,
to let the oppressed go free,
and to proclaim a year acceptable to the Lord.

Rolling up the scroll, he handed it back to the attendant and sat down,
and the eyes of all in the synagogue looked intently at him.
He said to them,

“Today this Scripture passage is fulfilled in your hearing.”
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Commentary on Lk 4:16-21

This selection from St. Luke’s Gospel takes place immediately following the Lord’s Baptism by St. John and his trial in the desert. Jesus' return to Galilee is also documented in St. Matthew’s Gospel (Matthew 4:12-17). Here the Lord begins his public ministry with a straightforward statement of his identity and mission: “The Spirit of the Lord is upon me, because he has anointed me to bring glad tidings to the poor. He has sent me to proclaim liberty to captives and recovery of sight to the blind, to let the oppressed go free.” This announcement of Isaiah’s prophecy (Isaiah 61:1-2) being fulfilled tells the audience that he is the Messiah who came bringing them salvation.

CCC: Lk 4:16-22 1286; Lk 4:16-21 436; Lk 4:18-19 695, 714; Lk 4:18 544, 2443; Lk 4:19 1168
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Luke 4:21-30

#72C Solemnities C Context (4th Sunday in Ordinary Time C)

Jesus began speaking in the synagogue, saying:
“Today this Scripture passage is fulfilled in your hearing.”
And all spoke highly of him
and were amazed at the gracious words that came from his mouth.
They also asked, “Isn’t this the son of Joseph?”
He said to them, “Surely you will quote me this proverb,
‘Physician, cure yourself,’ and say,
‘Do here in your native place
the things that we heard were done in Capernaum.’”
And he said, “Amen, I say to you,
no prophet is accepted in his own native place.
Indeed, I tell you,
there were many widows in Israel in the days of Elijah
when the sky was closed for three and a half years
and a severe famine spread over the entire land.
It was to none of these that Elijah was sent,
but only to a widow in Zarephath in the land of Sidon.
Again, there were many lepers in Israel
during the time of Elisha the prophet;
yet not one of them was cleansed, but only Naaman the Syrian.”
When the people in the synagogue heard this,
they were all filled with fury.
They rose up, drove him out of the town,
and led him to the brow of the hill
on which their town had been built,
to hurl him down headlong.
But Jesus passed through the midst of them and went away.
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Commentary on Lk 4:21-30

This Gospel passage places Jesus at his home town speaking in the synagogue. Some of those present, presumably those less familiar with Jesus’ local origins, praised him. Others there were questioning his authority, since they knew him as a child and knew his family. This selection is his response to their questioning his status and authority.

We understand why the people were upset when we consider that, in his analogy explaining why he could accomplish no works from God, he used Elijah going to a widow in Sidon (not Israel) and Elisha curing Naaman (a Syrian not an Israelite). This would have placed Jesus on a par with the great Prophets, blasphemy in the eyes of his old neighbors. Perhaps even more upsetting to the people would have been that their God would not reveal himself to them because of their lack of faith.

CCC: Lk 4:16-22 1286; Lk 4:16-21 436; Lk 4:18-19 695, 714; Lk 4:18 544, 2443; Lk 4:19 1168
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Luke 4:24-30

#237 Weekday Years I & II Context (Monday of the 3rd Week of Lent)

Jesus said to the people in the synagogue at Nazareth:
“Amen, I say to you,
no prophet is accepted in his own native place.
Indeed, I tell you, there were many widows in Israel
in the days of Elijah
when the sky was closed for three and a half years
and a severe famine spread over the entire land.
It was to none of these that Elijah was sent,
but only to a widow in Zarephath in the land of Sidon.
Again, there were many lepers in Israel
during the time of Elisha the prophet;
yet not one of them was cleansed, but only Naaman the Syrian.”
When the people in the synagogue heard this,
they were all filled with fury.
They rose up, drove him out of the town,
and led him to the brow of the hill
on which their town had been built,
to hurl him down headlong.
But he passed through the midst of them and went away.
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Commentary on Lk 4:24-30

This Gospel passage places Jesus at his home town speaking in the synagogue. The people there were questioning his authority, since they knew him as a child and knew his family. These verses give his response to their challenge to his status and authority.

We understand why the people were upset when we consider that, in his analogy explaining why he could accomplish no works from God to satisfy them, he used Elijah going to a widow in Sidon (not in Israel, see 1 Kings 17:9ff), and Elisha curing Naaman (a Syrian not an Israelite, see 2 Kings 5:1ff). This would have placed Jesus on a par with the great Prophets, blasphemy in the eyes of his old neighbors. Perhaps even more upsetting to the people would have been that their God would not reveal himself because of their lack of faith. (Ironically, Jesus, who we know is God, was revealing himself. The people just could not see it.)

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Luke 4:31-37

#432 Weekday Year I Context (Tuesday of the 22nd Week in Ordinary Time)

#432 Weekday Year II Context (Tuesday of the 22nd Week in Ordinary Time)

Jesus went down to Capernaum, a town of Galilee.
He taught them on the sabbath,
and they were astonished at his teaching
because he spoke with authority.
In the synagogue there was a man with the spirit of an unclean demon,
and he cried out in a loud voice,
“What have you to do with us, Jesus of Nazareth?
Have you come to destroy us?
I know who you are–the Holy One of God!”
Jesus rebuked him and said, “Be quiet! Come out of him!”
Then the demon threw the man down in front of them
and came out of him without doing him any harm.
They were all amazed and said to one another,
“What is there about his word?
For with authority and power he commands the unclean spirits,
and they come out.”
And news of him spread everywhere in the surrounding region.
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Commentary on Lk 4:31-37

This passage from St. Luke’s Gospel begins a series of events around Capernaum that expand his public image from prophet to teacher, exorcist, healer and proclaimer of God’s kingdom. Here he expels an evil spirit that asks him if he has come to destroy evil. “How does your concern affect me?: literally, ‘What is this to me and to you?’--a Hebrew expression of either hostility (Judges 11:12; 2 Chronicles 35:21; 1 Kings 17:18) or denial of common interest (Hosea 14:9; 2 Kings 3:13). Cf Mark 1:24; 5:7 used by demons to Jesus.”[7] It is interesting that the Spirit uses the Lords full name, perhaps in an attempt to control him. Instead the Lord commands the evil spirit and it leaves, amazing the crowd and spreading his fame in the region.

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Luke 4:38-44

#433 Weekday Year I Context (Wednesday of the 22nd Week in Ordinary Time)

#433 Weekday Year II Context (Wednesday of the 22nd Week in Ordinary Time)

After Jesus left the synagogue, he entered the house of Simon.
Simon’s mother-in-law was afflicted with a severe fever,
and they interceded with him about her.
He stood over her, rebuked the fever, and it left her.
She got up immediately and waited on them.

At sunset, all who had people sick with various diseases brought them to him.
He laid his hands on each of them and cured them.
And demons also came out from many, shouting, “You are the Son of God.”
But he rebuked them and did not allow them to speak
because they knew that he was the Christ.

At daybreak, Jesus left and went to a deserted place.
The crowds went looking for him, and when they came to him,
they tried to prevent him from leaving them.
But he said to them, “To the other towns also
I must proclaim the good news of the Kingdom of God,
because for this purpose I have been sent.”
And he was preaching in the synagogues of Judea.
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Commentary on Lk 4:38-44

This Gospel passage continues the healing mission of Christ in Capernaum. He first heals Simon’s mother-in-law (at this point in St. Luke’s Gospel Simon has not yet been called). He then proceeds to heal all who are brought to him. The demons he cast out were aware of Jesus’ identity as the Son of God (as was the demon in Luke 4:31-37).

When Jesus tries to leave the people try to keep him with them. Contrast this response with the people of Nazareth, his home town, earlier. The Lord then proceeds to teach throughout the region, proclaiming the Kingdom of God.

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Luke 5:1-11

#75C Solemnities C Context (5th Sunday in Ordinary Time C)

#434 Weekday Year I Context (Thursday of the 22nd Week in Ordinary Time)

#434 Weekday Year II Context (Thursday of the 22nd Week in Ordinary Time)

#541 Proper of Saints Context (St. Patrick, Mar 17)

#655 Proper of Saints Context (St. John Leonardi, Oct 9)

#724 Commons Context (Common of Pastors)

#779 Ritual Mass Context (III. For Admission to Candidacy for the Diaconate and the Priesthood, 3.)

#861 Mass for Various Needs Context (I. For the Holy Church, 8. For Vocations to Holy Orders or Relegious Life, 4.)

While the crowd was pressing in on Jesus and listening to the word of God,
he was standing by the Lake of Gennesaret.
He saw two boats there alongside the lake;
the fishermen had disembarked and were washing their nets.
Getting into one of the boats, the one belonging to Simon,
he asked him to put out a short distance from the shore.
Then he sat down and taught the crowds from the boat.
After he had finished speaking, he said to Simon,
"Put out into deep water and lower your nets for a catch."
Simon said in reply,
"Master, we have worked hard all night and have caught nothing,
but at your command I will lower the nets."
When they had done this, they caught a great number of fish
and their nets were tearing.
They signaled to their partners in the other boat
to come to help them.
They came and filled both boats
so that they were in danger of sinking.
When Simon Peter saw this, he fell at the knees of Jesus and said,
"Depart from me. Lord, for I am a sinful man."
For astonishment at the catch of fish they had made seized him
and all those with him,
and likewise James and John, the sons of Zebedee,
who were partners of Simon.
Jesus said to Simon, "Do not be afraid;
from now on you will be catching men."
When they brought their boats to the shore,
they left everything and followed him.
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Commentary on Lk 5:1-11

St. Luke’s Gospel presents the call of St. Peter, St. James, and St. John to discipleship. The Lord has demonstrated his authority through his teaching, and then through the miraculous catch of fish. We note the similarity of this incident with the post-resurrection incident recounted in St. John’s Gospel (John 21:1-11).

At Jesus' summons, Simon and the two sons of Zebedee leave all they have and follow the Lord. No mention is made here of Simon’s (Peter’s) brother Andrew who would also have been there, and in fact, as a disciple of John the Baptist, actually introduced the two (John 1:41 ff). We do hear that James and John, Zebedee’s sons were also there as Simon’s partners, and are called at the same time.

Simon Peter’s response to the Lord’s call is one of being sinful and therefore unworthy of the presence of the Lord. In response to Simon’s fearful humility, Jesus invites them all to leave what they have and become fishers of men.

CCC: Lk 5:8 208
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Luke 5:12-16

#216 Weekday I & II Context (Friday following Epiphany)

It happened that there was a man full of leprosy in one of the towns
where Jesus was;
and when he saw Jesus,
he fell prostrate, pleaded with him, and said,
“Lord, if you wish, you can make me clean.”
Jesus stretched out his hand, touched him, and said,
“I do will it. Be made clean.”
And the leprosy left him immediately.
Then he ordered him not to tell anyone, but
“Go, show yourself to the priest and offer for your cleansing
what Moses prescribed; that will be proof for them.”
The report about him spread all the more,
and great crowds assembled to listen to him
and to be cured of their ailments,
but he would withdraw to deserted places to pray.
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Commentary on Lk 5:12-16

In this account of Jesus curing the leper, we see two remarkable details. First, it was clearly stated in Hebrew law that those designated as “unclean” could not approach anyone closer than about ten feet. This leper was clearly much closer. He was so close to Jesus that he “stretched out his hand, touched him.” Not just with a word was this leper made clean. The Lord touched him, which by Hebrew law was taboo. In one action the Lord demonstrates his power over the disease and his authority over the law. The crowds throng him once again because of his holiness and once more, he withdraws to speak with the Father (“…but he would withdraw to deserted places to pray”).

CCC: Lk 5:16 2602
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Luke 5:17-26

#181 Weekdays I & II Context (Monday of the 2nd Week of Advent)

One day as Jesus was teaching,
Pharisees and teachers of the law,
who had come from every village of Galilee and Judea and Jerusalem,
were sitting there,
and the power of the Lord was with him for healing.
And some men brought on a stretcher a man who was paralyzed;
they were trying to bring him in and set him in his presence.
But not finding a way to bring him in because of the crowd,
they went up on the roof
and lowered him on the stretcher through the tiles
into the middle in front of Jesus.
When Jesus saw their faith, he said,
“As for you, your sins are forgiven.”

Then the scribes and Pharisees began to ask themselves,
“Who is this who speaks blasphemies?
Who but God alone can forgive sins?”
Jesus knew their thoughts and said to them in reply,
“What are you thinking in your hearts?
Which is easier, to say, ‘Your sins are forgiven,’
or to say, ‘Rise and walk’?
But that you may know
that the Son of Man has authority on earth to forgive sins”–
he said to the one who was paralyzed,
“I say to you, rise, pick up your stretcher, and go home.”

He stood up immediately before them,
picked up what he had been lying on,
and went home, glorifying God.
Then astonishment seized them all and they glorified God,
and, struck with awe, they said,
“We have seen incredible things today.”
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Commentary on Lk 5:17-26

Here, St. Luke’s Gospel begins describing a series of controversies between Jesus and the Pharisees. In this story, also captured in Mark 2:1-12 and Matthew 9:1-8, the paralytic is lowered through the roof to be near Jesus. (Interestingly, the roof material varies according to the audience of the particular Gospel.) The Lord’s first comments to the paralytic are, “Your sins are forgiven.” This starts the Pharisees talking since, in the Hebrew tradition, only God may forgive sins.

The Lord, in response, demonstrates his authority over sin. In the eyes of the early Hebrew people, physical afflictions were believed to be a punishment visited upon them by God for the sins of the person or their ancestors. By healing the paralytic, Jesus demonstrates his compassion for the poor, his authority to forgive sins, and fulfills the prophetic vision of the Hebrew Prophets (e.g. "Then will the eyes of the blind be opened, the ears of the deaf be cleared. Then the lame shall leap like a stag, and the mute tongue sing for joy," Isaiah 35:5-6).

CCC: Lk 5:17 1116
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Luke 5:27-32

#222 Weekday Years I & II Context (Saturday after Ash Wednesday)

Jesus saw a tax collector named Levi sitting at the customs post.
He said to him, “Follow me.”
And leaving everything behind, he got up and followed him.
Then Levi gave a great banquet for him in his house,
and a large crowd of tax collectors
and others were at table with them.
The Pharisees and their scribes complained to his disciples, saying,
“Why do you eat and drink with tax collectors and sinners?”
Jesus said to them in reply,
“Those who are healthy do not need a physician, but the sick do.
I have not come to call the righteous to repentance but sinners.”
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Commentary on Lk 5:27-32

The story of the call of St. Matthew in Luke’s Gospel immediately follows Jesus’ confrontation with the Pharisees that culminated with the cure of the paralytic lowered through the roof. “A man named Matthew: Mark names this tax collector Levi (Mark 2:14). No such name appears in the four lists of the twelve who were the closest companions of Jesus (Matthew 10:2-4; Mark 3:16-19; Luke 6:14-16; Acts 1:13 [eleven, because of the defection of Judas Iscariot]), whereas all four list a Matthew, designated in Matthew 10:3 as 'the tax collector.'"

The evangelist may have changed the "Levi" of his source to Matthew so that this man, whose call is given special notice, like that of the first four disciples (Matthew 4:18-22), might be included among the twelve. Another reason for the change may be that the disciple Matthew was the source of traditions peculiar to the church for which the evangelist was writing.[4]  It is much more focused on the reaction of the Pharisees than the same story in Matthew (Matthew 9:9). The message, however, is clear. Jesus came so that we (who are all sinners) might understand that God’s love is for sinners as well.

CCC: Lk 5:30 588; Lk 5:32 588
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Luke 5:33-39

#435 Weekday Year I Context (Friday of the 22nd Week in Ordinary Time)

#435 Weekday Year II Context (Friday of the 22nd Week in Ordinary Time)

The scribes and Pharisees said to Jesus,
“The disciples of John the Baptist fast often and offer prayers,
and the disciples of the Pharisees do the same;
but yours eat and drink.”
Jesus answered them, “Can you make the wedding guests fast
while the bridegroom is with them?
But the days will come, and when the bridegroom is taken away from them,
then they will fast in those days.”
And he also told them a parable.
“No one tears a piece from a new cloak to patch an old one.
Otherwise, he will tear the new
and the piece from it will not match the old cloak.
Likewise, no one pours new wine into old wineskins.
Otherwise, the new wine will burst the skins,
and it will be spilled, and the skins will be ruined.
Rather, new wine must be poured into fresh wineskins.
And no one who has been drinking old wine desires new,
for he says, ‘The old is good.’”
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Commentary on Lk 5:33-39

In this exchange between Jesus and the Pharisees we see the liberal use of metaphors to describe a new relationship.  There is a new covenant but it is related to the old. The bridal metaphor clearly establishes a relationship between God and man, different than that expressed in the Hebrew tradition. God and man are in a love relationship as opposed to God being superior to man and man subservient to God.

The Lord uses the metaphors  of the new and old cloth and the new and old wine skins to illustrate that this Gospel message cannot be grafted on to Mosaic Law but it becomes something entirely new. Attempting to hold both views is not possible; it will destroy both. (It is likely that St. Luke actually re-wrote the new vs. old cloth parable also found in St. Mark’s Gospel - Mark 2:19ff.)

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Luke 6:1-5

#436 Weekday Year I Context (Saturday of the 22nd Week in Ordinary Time)

#436 Weekday Year II Context (Saturday of the 22nd Week in Ordinary Time)

While Jesus was going through a field of grain on a sabbath,
his disciples were picking the heads of grain,
rubbing them in their hands, and eating them.
Some Pharisees said,
“Why are you doing what is unlawful on the sabbath?”
Jesus said to them in reply,
“Have you not read what David did
when he and those who were with him were hungry?
How he went into the house of God, took the bread of offering,
which only the priests could lawfully eat,
ate of it, and shared it with his companions?”
Then he said to them, “The Son of Man is lord of the sabbath.”
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Commentary on Lk 6:1-5

The Pharisees attack the disciples because they picked some grain to eat on the sabbath. In Pharisaic Law that act is considered work and is forbidden on the Lord’s Day. The Lord reinterprets their Law, sighting the First Book of Samuel (1 Samuel 21:2-7) and Leviticus (Leviticus 24:8). The implication of his final statement in this passage is clear to us. “The ultimate justification for the disciples' violation of the sabbath rest is that Jesus, the Son of Man, has supreme authority over the law.[8]

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Luke 6:6-11

#437 Weekday Year I Context (Monday of the 23rd Week in Ordinary Time)

#437 Weekday Year I Context (Monday of the 23rd Week in Ordinary Time)

On a certain sabbath Jesus went into the synagogue and taught,
and there was a man there whose right hand was withered.
The scribes and the Pharisees watched him closely
to see if he would cure on the sabbath
so that they might discover a reason to accuse him.
But he realized their intentions
and said to the man with the withered hand,
“Come up and stand before us.”
And he rose and stood there.
Then Jesus said to them,
“I ask you, is it lawful to do good on the sabbath
rather than to do evil,
to save life rather than to destroy it?”
Looking around at them all, he then said to him,
“Stretch out your hand.”
He did so and his hand was restored.
But they became enraged
and discussed together what they might do to Jesus.
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Commentary on Lk 6:6-11

In this passage from St. Luke’s Gospel, Jesus is challenging the strict interpretation of Mosaic Law that says the Sabbath must be a day of complete rest and no work may be done. In front of the most scrupulous of these, the Pharisees, Jesus cures the man with a withered hand, exactly what they were waiting for, but asks them before he does so if they understand the difference between good and evil. The deeper question probably made them more upset than the actual action of curing the man.

CCC: Lk 6:6-9 581
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Luke 6:12-19

#438 Weekday Year I Context (Tuesday of the 23rd Week in Ordinary Time)

#438 Weekday Year II Context (Tuesday of the 23rd Week in Ordinary Time)

#666 Proper of Saints Context (Feast of Sts. Simon and Jude, Oct 28) Note: the selection for this proper is shortened to Luke 6:12-16.

Jesus departed to the mountain to pray,
and he spent the night in prayer to God.
When day came, he called his disciples to himself,
and from them he chose Twelve, whom he also named Apostles:
Simon, whom he named Peter, and his brother Andrew,
James, John, Philip, Bartholomew,
Matthew, Thomas, James the son of Alphaeus,
Simon who was called a Zealot,
and Judas the son of James,
and Judas Iscariot, who became a traitor.

And he came down with them and stood on a stretch of level ground.
A great crowd of his disciples and a large number of the people
from all Judea and Jerusalem
and the coastal region of Tyre and Sidon
came to hear him and to be healed of their diseases;
and even those who were tormented by unclean spirits were cured.
Everyone in the crowd sought to touch him
because power came forth from him and healed them all.
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Commentary on Lk 6:12-19

This passage is the call of the Twelve Apostles from St. Luke’s Gospel. It is noteworthy that Jesus began this process with a prayer of discernment.  He then names the twelve (including Judas Iscariot who was replaced after his suicide).  This important event extends Jesus mission through these chosen ones (selected from the ranks of Jesus’ disciples: see Mark 3:14-15).  This selection marked them with special authority (Matthew 10:1ff) and responsibility to transmit the Gospel to the world. The Lord is conscious of establishing the “New Israel” his selection of the “Twelve” is symbolic of appointing new leaders of the 12 tribes of the Hebrew people who are rejecting him as Messiah.

In addition to giving the names, we are told that once the choice had been made he immediately went on with his teaching and healing ministry with renewed vigor. All “wished to touch him” because of his power to heal mind and body. These concluding verses are a prelude to St. Luke’s “Sermon on the Plain.”

CCC: Lk 6:12-16 1577; Lk 6:12 2600; Lk 6:19 695, 1116, 1504
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Luke 6:17,20-26

#78C Solemnities C Context (6th Sunday in Ordinary Time C)

Jesus came down with the twelve
and stood on a stretch of level ground
with a great crowd of his disciples
and a large number of the people
from all Judea and Jerusalem
and the coastal region of Tyre and Sidon.
And raising his eyes toward his disciples he said:
“Blessed are you who are poor,
for the kingdom of God is yours.
Blessed are you who are now hungry,
for you will be satisfied.
Blessed are you who are now weeping,
for you will laugh.
Blessed are you when people hate you,
and when they exclude and insult you,
and denounce your name as evil
on account of the Son of Man.
Rejoice and leap for joy on that day!
Behold, your reward will be great in heaven.
For their ancestors treated the prophets in the same way.
But woe to you who are rich,
for you have received your consolation.
Woe to you who are filled now,
for you will be hungry.
Woe to you who laugh now,
for you will grieve and weep.
Woe to you when all speak well of you,
for their ancestors treated the false
prophets in this way.”
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Commentary on Lk 6:17, 20-26

This passage is the introductory section of St. Luke’s “Sermon on the Plain”. Addressed primarily to a gentile audience, this discourse differs from St. Matthew’s “Sermon on the Mount” (Matthew 5:1-7:27) in that it addresses economic conditions of the day. It begins, as does St. Matthew’s sermon, with the Beatitudes but follows these with the woe’s which contrasts the blessed with those who ignore the poor and hungry.

CCC: Lk 6:20-22 2444; Lk 6:20 2546; Lk 6:24 2547
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Luke 6:20-26

#439 Weekday Year I Context (Wednesday of the 23rd Week in Ordinary Time)

#439 Weekday Year II Context (Wednesday of the 23rd Week in Ordinary Time)

Raising his eyes toward his disciples Jesus said:

“Blessed are you who are poor,
for the Kingdom of God is yours.
Blessed are you who are now hungry,
for you will be satisfied.
Blessed are you who are now weeping,
for you will laugh.
Blessed are you when people hate you,
and when they exclude and insult you,
and denounce your name as evil
on account of the Son of Man.

Rejoice and leap for joy on that day!
Behold, your reward will be great in heaven.
For their ancestors treated the prophets
in the same way.

But woe to you who are rich,
for you have received your consolation.
But woe to you who are filled now,
for you will be hungry.
Woe to you who laugh now,
for you will grieve and weep.
Woe to you when all speak well of you,
for their ancestors treated the false prophets in this way.”
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Commentary on Lk 6:20-26

This passage is the introductory section of St. Luke’s “Sermon on the Plain”. Addressed primarily to a gentile audience, this discourse differs from St. Matthew’s “Sermon on the Mount” (Matthew 5:1-7:27) in that it addresses economic conditions of the day. It begins, as does St. Matthew’s sermon, with the Beatitudes but follows these with antithetical woe’s which contrasts the blessed with those who ignore the poor and hungry.

CCC: Lk 6:20-22 2444; Lk 6:20 2546; Lk 6:24 2547
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Luke 6:27-38

#81C Solemnities C Context (7th Sunday in Ordinary Time C)

#440 Weekday I Context (Thursday of the 23rd Week in Ordinary Time)

#440 Weekday II Context (Thursday of the 23rd Week in Ordinary Time)

#678 Proper of Saint Context (St. Elizabeth of Hungary, Nov 16)

#695 Proper of Saint Context (St. John Kanty, Dec 23)

#742 Common Context (Common of Holy Men and Women)

#962 Mass for Various Needs Context (IV. For Various Needs, 30. For our Oppressors, Second Option)

Jesus said to his disciples:
"To you who hear I say,
love your enemies, do good to those who hate you,
bless those who curse you, pray for those who mistreat you.
To the person who strikes you on one cheek,
offer the other one as well,
and from the person who takes your cloak,
do not withhold even your tunic.
Give to everyone who asks of you,
and from the one who takes what is yours do not demand it back.
Do to others as you would have them do to you.
For if you love those who love you,
what credit is that to you?
Even sinners love those who love them.
And if you do good to those who do good to you,
what credit is that to you?
Even sinners do the same.
If you lend money to those from whom you expect repayment,
what credit is that to you?
Even sinners lend to sinners,
and get back the same amount.
But rather, love your enemies and do good to them,
and lend expecting nothing back;
then your reward will be great
and you will be children of the Most High,
for he himself is kind to the ungrateful and the wicked.
Be merciful, just as your Father is merciful.
"Stop judging and you will not be judged.
Stop condemning and you will not be condemned.
Forgive and you will be forgiven.
Give and gifts will be given to you;
a good measure, packed together, shaken down, and overflowing,
will be poured into your lap.
For the measure with which you measure
will in return be measured out to you."
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Commentary on Lk 6:27-38

This passage from St. Luke’s Gospel continues the Sermon on the Plain. In this section, Jesus extends the commandment to love one’s neighbor to include one’s enemy, breaking new ground in the interpretation of Mosaic Law. What follows is an extension of each of the laws governing hospitality and continues by extending even the judicial laws that govern dispute resolution. In the conclusion of this section, the Lord exhorts the disciples to embrace forgiveness, saying, “For the measure with which you measure will in return be measured out to you.

CCC: Lk 6:28 1669; Lk 6:31 1789, 1970; Lk 6:36 1458, 2842
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Luke 6:36-38

#230 Weekday Years I & II Context (Monday of the 2nd Week of Lent)

Jesus said to his disciples:
“Be merciful, just as your Father is merciful.

“Stop judging and you will not be judged.
Stop condemning and you will not be condemned.
Forgive and you will be forgiven.
Give and gifts will be given to you;
a good measure, packed together, shaken down, and overflowing,
will be poured into your lap.
For the measure with which you measure
will in return be measured out to you.”
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Commentary on Lk 6:36-38

Jesus takes a quote from the Old Testament and twists it just slightly (in the OT the phrase frequently used is “Be holy, for I, the Lord your God, am holy” e.g. Leviticus 19:2). He goes further to tell the people that they need to stop judging or condemning, but to forgive. He concludes by saying that: “For the measure with which you measure will in return be measured out to you.” In other words, the standard against which they judge others is the standard by which the disciples will be judged by the Heavenly Father.

CCC: Lk 6:36 1458, 2842
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Luke 6:39-42

#441 Weekday Year I Context (Friday of the 23rd Week in Ordinary Time)

#441 Weekday Year II Context (Friday of the 23rd Week in Ordinary Time)

Jesus told his disciples a parable:
“Can a blind person guide a blind person?
Will not both fall into a pit?
No disciple is superior to the teacher;
but when fully trained,
every disciple will be like his teacher.
Why do you notice the splinter in your brother’s eye,
but do not perceive the wooden beam in your own?
How can you say to your brother,
‘Brother, let me remove that splinter in your eye,’
when you do not even notice the wooden beam in your own eye?
You hypocrite! Remove the wooden beam from your eye first;
then you will see clearly
to remove the splinter in your brother’s eye.”
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Commentary on Lk 6:39-42

St. Luke continues Jesus’ dialogue from the “Sermon on the Plain” concerning the judgment of others. Taking his disciples aside, he tells them that, in time, they will assume his role in proclaiming the Gospel (“…but when fully trained, every disciple will be like his teacher”). The exhortation that follows is not intended to say that they should not notice the failings of others; that would be inconsistent with Matthew 7:5,6. Rather be “…against passing judgment in a spirit of arrogance, forgetful of one's own faults.”[9]

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Luke 6:39-45

#84C Solemnities C Context (8th Sunday in Ordinary Time C)

Jesus told his disciples a parable,
   "Can a blind person guide a blind person?
Will not both fall into a pit?
No disciple is superior to the teacher;
  but when fully trained,
   every disciple will be like his teacher.
Why do you notice the splinter in your brother's eye,
   but do not perceive the wooden beam in your own?
How can you say to your brother,
   'Brother, let me remove that splinter in your eye,'
   when you do not even notice the wooden beam in your own
       eye?
You hypocrite! Remove the wooden beam from your eye first;
   then you will see clearly
   to remove the splinter in your brother's eye.
 "A good tree does not bear rotten fruit,
   nor does a rotten tree bear good fruit.
 For every tree is known by its own fruit.
 For people do not pick figs from thornbushes,
   nor do they gather grapes from brambles.
 A good person out of the store of goodness in his heart
     produces good,
   but an evil person out of a store of evil produces evil;
   for from the fullness of the heart the mouth speaks."
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Commentary on Lk 6:39-45

St. Luke continues Jesus’ dialogue from the “Sermon on the Plain” concerning the judgment of others. Taking his disciples aside he tells them that in time they will assume his role in proclaiming the Gospel (“…but when fully trained, every disciple will be like his teacher”). The exhortation that follows is not intended to say that they should not notice the failings of others; that would be inconsistent with Matthew 7:5,6. Rather “…against passing judgment in a spirit of arrogance, forgetful of one's own faults.[9]

The passage concludes Jesus’ discourse on judgment of others using the analogy of the fruits born by a tree – good and bad. The intent of this allegory was to expose false prophets – hypocrites who say one thing but do another. "What matters is not whether or not we wear a religious habit; it is whether we try to practice the virtues and surrender our will to God and order our lives as His Majesty ordains, and not want to do our will but his" (St Teresa of Avila, "Interior Castle", II, 6). [10]

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Luke 6:43-49

#442 Weekday Year I Context (Saturday of the 23rd Week in Ordinary Time)

#442 Weekday Year II Context (Saturday of the 23rd Week in Ordinary Time)

Jesus said to his disciples:
“A good tree does not bear rotten fruit,
nor does a rotten tree bear good fruit.
For every tree is known by its own fruit.
For people do not pick figs from thornbushes,
nor do they gather grapes from brambles.
A good person out of the store of goodness in his heart produces good,
but an evil person out of a store of evil produces evil;
for from the fullness of the heart the mouth speaks.
“Why do you call me, ‘Lord, Lord,’ but not do what I command?
I will show you what someone is like who comes to me,
listens to my words, and acts on them.
That one is like a man building a house,
who dug deeply and laid the foundation on rock;
when the flood came, the river burst against that house
but could not shake it because it had been well built.
But the one who listens and does not act
is like a person who built a house on the ground
without a foundation.
When the river burst against it,
it collapsed at once and was completely destroyed.”
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Commentary on Lk 6:43-49

St. Luke’s Gospel brings us the conclusion of Jesus’ discourse on judgment of others, using the analogy of the fruits born by a tree, good and bad. The intent of this allegory was to expose false prophets, hypocrites who say one thing but do another. "What matters is not whether or not we wear a religious habit, it is whether we try to practice the virtues, surrender our will to God, and order our lives as His Majesty ordains, and not want to do our will but his" (St Teresa of Avila, "Interior Castle", II, 6).[10]

The second section of this reading is the conclusion of Jesus’ long discourse. He uses the analogy of the house built upon sand and the house built upon rock to indicate that those who have a deep faith and act out of that faith have a strong foundation and can stand against adversity, while those who give the faith lip service for others to see, but do not have that deep faith, will fall.

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Luke 6:43-45

#547 Proper of Saints Context (St. Isidore, Apr 4)

#579 Proper of Saints Context (St. Ephrem, Jun 9)

#608 Proper of Saints Context (St. Peter Chrysologus, Jul 30)

#730 Commons Context (Common of Doctors of the Church)

Jesus said to his disciples:
"A good tree does not bear rotten fruit,
nor does a rotten tree bear good fruit.
For every tree is known by its own fruit.
For people do not pick figs from thorn bushes,
nor do they gather grapes from brambles.
A good person out of the store of goodness in his heart produces good,
but an evil person out of a store of evil produces evil;
for from the fullness of the heart the mouth speaks."
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Commentary on Lk 6:43-45

St. Luke’s Gospel brings us the conclusion of Jesus’ discourse on judgment of others using the analogy of the fruits born by a tree – good and bad. The intent of this allegory was to expose false prophets – hypocrites who say one thing but do another.  He addresses the issue of false teachers with his analogy of the good and bad fruit. He makes it clear that one can discern if the teacher is authentic or not by the very thing being taught. In this case, those who contradict the Lord are false and should be avoided.

"Jesus is giving us two similes - that of the tree which, if it is good, produces good fruit, and that of the man, who speaks of those things he has in his heart.  'The treasure of the heart is the same as the root of the tree," St. Bede explains.  "A person who has a treasure of the patience and of perfect charity in his heart yields excellent fruit; he loves his neighbor and has all the other qualities Jesus teaches; he loves his enemies, does good to him who hates him, blesses him who curses him, prays for him who calumniates him, does not react against him who attacks him or robs him; he gives to those who ask, does not claim what they have stolen from him, wishes not to judge and does not condemn, corrects patiently and affectionately those who err.  But the person who hase in his heart the treasure of evil does exactly the opposite: he hates his friends, speaks evil of him who loves him and does all the other things condemned by the Lord' (In Lucae Evangelium expositio, 2,6)"[50]

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Luke 7:1-10

#87C Solemnities C Context (9th Sunday in Ordinary Time C)

#443 Weekday Year I Context (Monday of the 24th Week in Ordinary Time)

#443 Weekday Year II Context (Monday of the 24th Week in Ordinary Time)

When Jesus had finished all his words to the people,
he entered Capernaum.
A centurion there had a slave who was ill and about to die,
and he was valuable to him.
When he heard about Jesus, he sent elders of the Jews to him,
asking him to come and save the life of his slave.
They approached Jesus and strongly urged him to come, saying,
“He deserves to have you do this for him,
for he loves our nation and he built the synagogue for us.”
And Jesus went with them,
but when he was only a short distance from the house,
the centurion sent friends to tell him,
“Lord, do not trouble yourself,
for I am not worthy to have you enter under my roof.
Therefore, I did not consider myself worthy to come to you;
but say the word and let my servant be healed.
For I too am a person subject to authority,
with soldiers subject to me.
And I say to one, Go, and he goes;
and to another, Come here, and he comes;
and to my slave, Do this, and he does it.”
When Jesus heard this he was amazed at him
and, turning, said to the crowd following him,
“I tell you, not even in Israel have I found such faith.”
When the messengers returned to the house,
they found the slave in good health.
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Commentary on Lk 7:1-10

The story of the healing of the Centurion’s servant is used to demonstrate that even death is subject to the will of Christ. The Centurion’s speech, through the messenger, expresses this thought and communicates the humility of one who recognizes God’s authority.

The story is found also in Matthew 8:5-13 and John 4:46-53, although differing in some details. A key element of the story is the humility of the Centurion. While in St. Matthew’s Gospel he approached Christ directly, here he sends delegations to implore the help of the Lord for his slave who is “entimos” (very dear) to him. This humility resonates within our modern liturgy as we use the Centurion’s words just before receiving the Eucharist: “Lord I am not worthy that you should enter under my roof; but only say the word and my soul shall be healed.”(Dómine, non sum dígnus, ut íntres sub téctum méum: sed tántum dic vérbo, et sanábitur ánima méa.)

An important feature of this miracle story is the fact that Jesus was not physically present, rather he cured with a word (shared in the story of Jairus’ daughter [Luke 8:40ff] and the Syro-Phoenician Woman [Mark 7:24-30]). The faith of those believing in God’s mercy expressed through Christ was sufficient to impart the healing presence of God.

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Luke 7:11-17

#90C Solemnities C Context (10th Sunday in Ordinary Time C)

#444 Weekday Year I Context (Tuesday of the 24th Week in Ordinary Time)

#444 Weekday Year I Context (Tuesday of the 24th Week in Ordinary Time)

#632 Proper of Saint Context (St. Monica Aug 27)

#668 Proper of Saints Context (The Commemoration of All the Faithful Departed Nov 2)

#1016  Mass for the Dead Context (6.)

Jesus journeyed to a city called Nain,
and his disciples and a large crowd accompanied him.
As he drew near to the gate of the city,
a man who had died was being carried out,
the only son of his mother, and she was a widow.
A large crowd from the city was with her.
When the Lord saw her,
he was moved with pity for her and said to her,
"Do not weep."
He stepped forward and touched the coffin;
at this the bearers halted,
and he said, "Young man, I tell you, arise!"
The dead man sat up and began to speak,
and Jesus gave him to his mother.
Fear seized them all, and they glorified God, exclaiming,
"A great prophet has arisen in our midst,"
and "God has visited his people."
This report about him spread through the whole of Judea
and in all the surrounding region.
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Commentary on Lk 7:11-17

St. Luke’s Gospel continues the description of Jesus' ministry. Just prior to this event, Jesus healed the Centurion’s servant. He now demonstrates his power over sin and death as he raises the widow’s son from the dead. “Jesus' power over death prepares for his reply to John's disciples in Luke 7:22: 'the dead are raised.' This resuscitation, in alluding to the Prophet Elijah's resurrection of the only son of a widow of Zarephath (1 Kings 17:8-24), leads to the reaction of the crowd: 'A great prophet has arisen in our midst'(Luke 7:16).”[6]

CCC: Lk 7:11-17 994; Lk 7:16 1503
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Luke 7:18b-23

#189 Weekday I & II Context (Wednesday of the 3rd Week of Advent)

#795 Ritual Mass Context (V. For the Pastoral Care of the Sick and the Dying, 1. Anointing of the Sick, 11.)

At that time,
John summoned two of his disciples and sent them to the Lord to ask,
“Are you the one who is to come, or should we look for another?”
When the men came to the Lord, they said,
“John the Baptist has sent us to you to ask,
‘Are you the one who is to come, or should we look for another?’”
At that time Jesus cured many of their diseases, sufferings, and evil spirits;
he also granted sight to many who were blind.
And Jesus said to them in reply,
“Go and tell John what you have seen and heard:
the blind regain their sight,
the lame walk,
lepers are cleansed,
the deaf hear, the dead are raised,
the poor have the good news proclaimed to them.
And blessed is the one who takes no offense at me.”
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Commentary on Lk 7:18b-23

St. John the Baptist's sending of his disciples to find Jesus is also found in Matthew 11:2-19. St. Luke’s Gospel does not mention that John the Baptist is in prison at the time he sends his disciples to Jesus. Scholars have been puzzled by St. John’s question, “Are you the one…?” Did he doubt what he knew to be true? Was he surprised by Jesus’ failure to identify himself clearly? Or was he simply becoming discouraged like Jeremiah 15:10ff? The Lord sends him reassurance of his identity as the Messiah, quoting Isaiah 61:1 and Isaiah 35:5-6. These quotes provide a summary of how Jesus is fulfilling the prophecy of the Messiah.

CCC: Lk 7:18-23 547; Lk 7:19 453; Lk 7:22 544
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Luke 7:24-30

#190 Weekday I & II Context (Thursday of the 3rd Week of Advent)

When the messengers of John the Baptist had left,
Jesus began to speak to the crowds about John.
“What did you go out to the desert to see -- a reed swayed by the wind?
Then what did you go out to see?
Someone dressed in fine garments?
Those who dress luxuriously and live sumptuously
are found in royal palaces.
Then what did you go out to see?
A prophet? Yes, I tell you, and more than a prophet.
This is the one about whom Scripture says:

Behold, I am sending my messenger ahead of you,
he will prepare your way before you.

I tell you,
among those born of women, no one is greater than John;
yet the least in the Kingdom of God is greater than he.”
(All the people who listened, including the tax collectors,
who were baptized with the baptism of John,
acknowledged the righteousness of God;
but the Pharisees and scholars of the law,
who were not baptized by him,
rejected the plan of God for themselves.)
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Commentary on Lk 7:24-30

St. Luke records the aftermath of Jesus’ discourse with the disciples of St. John the Baptist. The description uses almost identical language to that in Matthew 11:8-11. Jesus asks the rhetorical question: “What did you go out to the desert to see...?” His question implies that those who now follow him (Jesus) once followed the Baptist. Jesus reaffirms the prophetic status of St. John, confirming that it was of him the Prophet Malachi was speaking as he quoted from Malachi 3:1 [and Exodus 23:20]. As in St. Matthew's Gospel, the Lord tells those that follow him that the Baptist is the greatest person living “born of woman.” Yet, those who are faithful and join the angelic choirs in the Kingdom of God are greater than he, indicating the exalted status of the faithful in God’s eyes.

The passage concludes with a parenthetic reference to those so exalted in faith (having repented their sins in the baptism of St. John), and those condemned, the Pharisees and scholars who felt no need of repentance and therefore rejected baptism.

CCC: Lk 7:26 523, 719
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Luke 7:31-35

#445 Weekday Year I Context (Wednesday of the 24th Week in Ordinary Time)

#445 Weekday Year II Context (Wednesday of the 24th Week in Ordinary Time)

Jesus said to the crowds:
“To what shall I compare the people of this generation?
What are they like?
They are like children who sit in the marketplace and call to one another,

‘We played the flute for you, but you did not dance.
We sang a dirge, but you did not weep.’

For John the Baptist came neither eating food nor drinking wine,
and you said, ‘He is possessed by a demon.’
The Son of Man came eating and drinking and you said,
‘Look, he is a glutton and a drunkard,
a friend of tax collectors and sinners.’
But wisdom is vindicated by all her children.
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Commentary on Lk 7:31-35

St. Luke gives us a difficult parable (also found at Matthew 11:16-19). Jesus had just been criticized for eating with Tax Collectors and “sinners”. His reaction here indicates that those who reject his behavior are themselves behaving like children making fun of others. The unbelieving or critical group he tells us have rejected John the Baptist and are now rejecting the Lord himself, but history would prove their identities ( “…But wisdom is vindicated by all her children.”).

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Luke 7:36-8:3*

#93C Solemnities C Context (11th Sunday in Ordinary Time C)

A Pharisee invited Jesus to dine with him,
and he entered the Pharisee’s house and reclined at table.
Now there was a sinful woman in the city
who learned that he was at table in the house of the Pharisee.
Bringing an alabaster flask of ointment,
she stood behind him at his feet weeping
and began to bathe his feet with her tears.
Then she wiped them with her hair,
kissed them, and anointed them with the ointment.
When the Pharisee who had invited him saw this he said to himself,
“If this man were a prophet,
he would know who and what sort of woman this is who is touching him,
that she is a sinner.”
Jesus said to him in reply,
“Simon, I have something to say to you.”
“Tell me, teacher, ” he said.
“Two people were in debt to a certain creditor;
one owed five hundred days’ wages and the other owed fifty.
Since they were unable to repay the debt, he forgave it for both.
Which of them will love him more?”
Simon said in reply,
“The one, I suppose, whose larger debt was forgiven.”
He said to him, “You have judged rightly.”

Then he turned to the woman and said to Simon,
“Do you see this woman?
When I entered your house, you did not give me water for my feet,
but she has bathed them with her tears
and wiped them with her hair.
You did not give me a kiss,
but she has not ceased kissing my feet since the time I entered.
You did not anoint my head with oil,
but she anointed my feet with ointment.
So I tell you, her many sins have been forgiven
because she has shown great love.
But the one to whom little is forgiven, loves little.”
He said to her, “Your sins are forgiven.”
The others at table said to themselves,
“Who is this who even forgives sins?”
But he said to the woman,
“Your faith has saved you; go in peace.”

Afterward he journeyed from one town and village to another,
preaching and proclaiming the good news of the kingdom of God.
Accompanying him were the Twelve
and some women who had been cured of evil spirits and infirmities,
Mary, called Magdalene, from whom seven demons had gone out,
Joanna, the wife of Herod’s steward Chuza,
Susanna, and many others who provided for them
out of their resources.
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Commentary on Lk 7:36—8:3

In St. Luke’s story about the "Pardoning of the Sinful Woman," we are shown contrasting attitudes and their associated rewards. The Pharisee clearly does not believe he is a sinful person, and looks with disdain on the woman who humbly washes the Lord’s feet with her tears and dries them with her hair. The Lord tells the story of the two debtors to illustrate his point, that the magnitude of sin forgiven stimulates a corresponding level of gratitude and love in return.

In this longer form, the story continues giving us valuable insights into the Lord’s entourage, which includes several women whom the Lord has cured. These include Mary Magdalene, who was with Jesus and his mother through the remainder of the Lord’s ministry on earth. We also see the support (presumably financial) given by the families of these women of faith.

CCC: Lk 7:26 523, 719; Lk 7:36-50 2712; Lk 7:36 575, 588; Lk 7:37-38 2616; Lk 7:48 1441
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Or
Shorter Form: Luke 7:36-50

A Pharisee invited Jesus to dine with him,
and he entered the Pharisee’s house and reclined at table.
Now there was a sinful woman in the city
who learned that he was at table in the house of the Pharisee.
Bringing an alabaster flask of ointment,
she stood behind him at his feet weeping
and began to bathe his feet with her tears.
Then she wiped them with her hair,
kissed them, and anointed them with the ointment.
When the Pharisee who had invited him saw this he said to himself,
“If this man were a prophet,
he would know who and what sort of woman this is who is touching him,
that she is a sinner.”
Jesus said to him in reply,
“Simon, I have something to say to you.”
“Tell me, teacher, ” he said.
“Two people were in debt to a certain creditor;
one owed five hundred day’s wages and the other owed fifty.
Since they were unable to repay the debt, he forgave it for both.
Which of them will love him more?”
Simon said in reply,
“The one, I suppose, whose larger debt was forgiven.”
He said to him, “You have judged rightly.”

Then he turned to the woman and said to Simon,
“Do you see this woman?
When I entered your house, you did not give me water for my feet,
but she has bathed them with her tears
and wiped them with her hair.
You did not give me a kiss,
but she has not ceased kissing my feet since the time I entered.
You did not anoint my head with oil,
but she anointed my feet with ointment.
So I tell you, her many sins have been forgiven
because she has shown great love.
But the one to whom little is forgiven, loves little.”
He said to her, “Your sins are forgiven.”
The others at table said to themselves,
“Who is this who even forgives sins?”
But he said to the woman,
“Your faith has saved you; go in peace.”
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Commentary on Lk 7:36-50

In the shorter form of St. Luke’s story about the "Pardoning of the Sinful Woman," the strong moral point is made about the depth of the love of God and its relation to all peoples, for none are free of sin. The Pharisee clearly does not believe he is a sinful person, and looks with disdain on the woman who humbly washes the Lord’s feet with her tears and dries them with her hair. The Lord tells the story of the two debtors to illustrate his point that the magnitude of sin forgiven stimulates a corresponding level of gratitude and love in return.

CCC: Lk 7:36-50 2712; Lk 7:36 575, 588; Lk 7:37-38 2616; Lk 7:48 1441
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Luke 7:36-50

#446 Weekday Year I Context (Thursday of the 24th Week in Ordinary Time)

#446 Weekday Year II Context (Thursday of the 24th Week in Ordinary Time)

#952 Masses for Various Needs Context (IV. For Various Needs, 24. For the Remission of Sins, 3.)

A certain Pharisee invited Jesus to dine with him,
and he entered the Pharisee’s house and reclined at table.
Now there was a sinful woman in the city
who learned that he was at table in the house of the Pharisee.
Bringing an alabaster flask of ointment,
she stood behind him at his feet weeping
and began to bathe his feet with her tears.
Then she wiped them with her hair,
kissed them, and anointed them with the ointment.
When the Pharisee who had invited him saw this he said to himself,
“If this man were a prophet,
he would know who and what sort of woman this is who is touching him,
that she is a sinner.”
Jesus said to him in reply,
“Simon, I have something to say to you.”
“Tell me, teacher,” he said.
“Two people were in debt to a certain creditor;
one owed five hundred days’ wages and the other owed fifty.
Since they were unable to repay the debt, he forgave it for both.
Which of them will love him more?”
Simon said in reply,
“The one, I suppose, whose larger debt was forgiven.”
He said to him, “You have judged rightly.”
Then he turned to the woman and said to Simon,
“Do you see this woman?
When I entered your house, you did not give me water for my feet,
but she has bathed them with her tears
and wiped them with her hair.
You did not give me a kiss,
but she has not ceased kissing my feet since the time I entered.
You did not anoint my head with oil,
but she anointed my feet with ointment.
So I tell you, her many sins have been forgiven;
hence, she has shown great love.
But the one to whom little is forgiven, loves little.”
He said to her, “Your sins are forgiven.”
The others at table said to themselves,
“Who is this who even forgives sins?”
But he said to the woman,
“Your faith has saved you; go in peace.”
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Commentary on Lk 7:36-50

This passage from St. Luke’s Gospel gives us an excellent example of the relation between forgiveness and love. Jesus uses the radical actions of the sinful woman to demonstrate the extreme pardon the Lord will bestow on those who love him. He contrasts this with the lukewarm acts of love demonstrated by the Pharisee who should expect even less in return.

In the story, the strong moral point is made about the depth of the love of God and its relation to all peoples; for none are free of sin. The Pharisee clearly does not believe he is a sinful person and looks with disdain on the woman who humbly washes the Lord’s feet with her tears and dries them with her hair. The Lord tells the story of the two debtors to illustrate his point that the magnitude of sin forgiven stimulates a corresponding level of gratitude and love in return.

CCC: Lk 7:36 575, 588; Lk 7:37-38 2616; Lk 7:48 1441
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Luke 8:1-3

#447 Weekday Year I Context (Friday of the 24th Week in Ordinary Time)

#447 Weekday Year II Context (Friday of the 24th Week in Ordinary Time)

Jesus journeyed from one town and village to another,
preaching and proclaiming the good news of the Kingdom of God.
Accompanying him were the Twelve
and some women who had been cured of evil spirits and infirmities,
Mary, called Magdalene, from whom seven demons had gone out,
Joanna, the wife of Herod’s steward Chuza,
Susanna, and many others
who provided for them out of their resources.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Lk 8:1-3

“St. Luke presents Jesus as an itinerant preacher traveling in the company of the Twelve and of the Galilean women who are sustaining them out of their means. These Galilean women will later accompany Jesus on his journey to Jerusalem and become witnesses to his death (Luke 23:49) and resurrection (Luke 24:9-11, where Mary Magdalene and Joanna are specifically mentioned; cf also Acts 1:14). The association of women with the ministry of Jesus is most unusual in the light of the attitude of first-century Palestinian Judaism toward women. The more common attitude is expressed in John 4:27, and early rabbinic documents caution against speaking with women in public.”[11]

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Luke 8:4-15

#448 Weekday Year I Context (Saturday of the 24th Week in Ordinary Time)

#448 Weekday Year II Context (Saturday of the 24th Week in Ordinary Time)

When a large crowd gathered, with people from one town after another
journeying to Jesus, he spoke in a parable.
“A sower went out to sow his seed.
And as he sowed, some seed fell on the path and was trampled,
and the birds of the sky ate it up.
Some seed fell on rocky ground, and when it grew,
it withered for lack of moisture.
Some seed fell among thorns,
and the thorns grew with it and choked it.
And some seed fell on good soil, and when it grew,
it produced fruit a hundredfold.”
After saying this, he called out,
“Whoever has ears to hear ought to hear.”

Then his disciples asked him
what the meaning of this parable might be.
He answered,
“Knowledge of the mysteries of the Kingdom of God
has been granted to you;
but to the rest, they are made known through parables
so that they may look but not see, and hear but not understand.

“This is the meaning of the parable.
The seed is the word of God.
Those on the path are the ones who have heard,
but the Devil comes and takes away the word from their hearts
that they may not believe and be saved.
Those on rocky ground are the ones who, when they hear,
receive the word with joy, but they have no root;
they believe only for a time and fall away in time of temptation.
As for the seed that fell among thorns,
they are the ones who have heard, but as they go along,
they are choked by the anxieties and riches and pleasures of life,
and they fail to produce mature fruit.
But as for the seed that fell on rich soil,
they are the ones who, when they have heard the word,
embrace it with a generous and good heart,
and bear fruit through perseverance.”
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Lk 8:4-15

Jesus uses the rich analogy of the seed (of faith given in Baptism) to show the various courses of faith in human endeavor. Because our selection gives not only the parable but the Lord’s explanation of its meaning, the only historical note we will make is that, at that point in history, in that region, when planting a field, the seed was sown first and then the field was plowed. (See more extensive commentary on Matthew 13:1-23)

CCC: Lk 8:6 2731; Lk 8:10 1151; Lk 8:13-15 2847; Lk 8:13 2731; Lk 8:15 368, 2668
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Luke 8:4-10a, 11b-15

#768 Ritual Mass Context (I. For the Conferral of Christian Initiation, 4. Confirmation, 6.)

When a large crowd gathered, with people from one town after another
  journeying to Jesus, he spoke in a parable.
"A sower went out to sow his seed.
And as he sowed, some seed fell on the path and was trampled,
  and the birds of the sky ate it up.
Some seed fell on rocky ground,
  and when it grew, it withered for lack of moisture.
Some seed fell among thorns,
  and the thorns grew with it and choked it.

And some seed fell on good soil, and when it grrw,
  it produced fruit a hundredfold."
After saying this, he called out,
  "Whoever has ears to hear ought to hear."

Then his disciples asked him
  what the meaning of this parable might be.
He answered,
  "The seed is the word of God.
Those on the path are the ones who have heard,
  but the Devil comes and takes away the word from their liearts
  that they may not believe and be saved.
Those on rocky ground are the ones who, when they hear,
  receive the word with joy, but they have no root;
  they believe only for a time and fall away in time of temptation.
As for the seed that fell among thorns,
  they are the ones who have heard,
  but as they go along,
  they are choked by the anxieties and riches and pleasures of life,
  and they fail to produce mature fruit.
But as for the seed that fell on rich soil,
  they are the ones who, when they have heard the word,
  embrace it with a generous and good heart,
  and bear fruit through perseverance."
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Lk 8:4-10a, 11b-15

Jesus uses the rich analogy of the seed (of faith given in Baptism) to show the various courses of faith in human endeavor. Because our selection gives not only the parable but the Lord’s explanation of its meaning the only historical note we will make is that, at that point in history in that region, when planting a field, the seed was sown first and then the field was plowed. (See more extensive commentary on Matthew 13:1-23)

CCC: Lk 8:6 2731; Lk 8:10 1151; Lk 8:13-15 2847; Lk 8:13 2731; Lk 8:15 368, 2668
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Luke 8:16-18

#449 Weekday Year I Context (Monday of the 25th Week in Ordinary Time)

#449 Weekday Year II Context (Monday of the 25th Week in Ordinary Time)

Jesus said to the crowd:
“No one who lights a lamp conceals it with a vessel
or sets it under a bed;
rather, he places it on a lampstand
so that those who enter may see the light.
For there is nothing hidden that will not become visible,
and nothing secret that will not be known and come to light.
Take care, then, how you hear.
To anyone who has, more will be given,
and from the one who has not,
even what he seems to have will be taken away.”
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Commentary on Lk 8:16-18

In this saying of Jesus from St. Luke’s Gospel, the disciples are enjoined once more to share their understanding of God's Kingdom, the Good News they are given, with the world. The metaphor, in this instance, sees the light of their understanding multiplying itself.  The greater the understanding of the light, by the person so enlightened, the more responsibility the one to whom that gift is given has for passing it on. Luke concludes, contrasting the disciples with the unbelievers who will not accept the light.

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Luke 8:19-21

#450 Weekday Year I Context (Tuesday of the 25th Week in Ordinary Time)

#450 Weekday Year II Context (Tuesday of the 25th Week in Ordinary Time)

#17E BVM Context (Our Lady of the Cenacle, Easter 17)

The mother of Jesus and his brothers came to him
but were unable to join him because of the crowd.
He was told, “Your mother and your brothers are standing outside
and they wish to see you.”
He said to them in reply, “My mother and my brothers
are those who hear the word of God and act on it.”
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Commentary on Lk 8:19-21

In this passage from the Gospel of St. Luke, Jesus identifies his family as the family of faith as opposed to just his blood relatives.  There are several connotations of the language used that are treated in the parallel story in Matthew 12:46-50 relating to the broader meaning of the language from the Aramaic, and also the apocryphal documentation regarding St. Joseph’s unnamed widow (prior to his betrothal to St. Mary).   St. Luke’s treatment of this topic is softer than that found in St. Mark’s Gospel (Mark 3:31-35), probably because St. Mary had already been introduced as the model of fidelity to the Lord.

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Luke 9:1-6

#451 Weekday Year I Context (Wednesday of the 25th Week in Ordinary Time)

#451 Weekday Year II Context (Wednesday of the 25th Week in Ordinary Time)

Jesus summoned the Twelve and gave them power and authority
over all demons and to cure diseases,
and he sent them to proclaim the Kingdom of God
and to heal the sick.
He said to them, “Take nothing for the journey,
neither walking stick, nor sack, nor food, nor money,
and let no one take a second tunic.
Whatever house you enter, stay there and leave from there.
And as for those who do not welcome you,
when you leave that town,
shake the dust from your feet in testimony against them.”
Then they set out and went from village to village
proclaiming the Good News and curing diseases everywhere.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Lk 9:1-6

St. Luke’s description of the mission of the twelve is also recounted (with some differences) in Mark 6:7-13 and Matthew 10:1-9,11,14. Because of these differences (e.g. Matthew and Luke forbid a staff and sandals but Mark allows them, and assuming that St. Mark’s Gospel was closest to Jesus words, we can assume that Matthew and Luke were spiritualizing Jesus; instructions to a point. Similarly, “because of the necessity of shaking off foreign dust before entering the Jerusalem Temple and the prohibition against bringing profane money into the sacred precincts (John 2:14), the passage can be interpreted metaphorically: in all your undertakings, act as though you are standing in God’s presence; enter the home of each Christian as you would the Temple of God.”[12]

“Armed with the power and authority that Jesus himself has been displaying in the previous episodes, the Twelve are now sent out to continue the work that Jesus has been performing throughout his Galilean ministry:”[13] They are to rely completely on the Lord, being part of the world but set apart from it.

CCC: Lk 9:2 551
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Luke 9:7-9

#452 Weekday Year I Context (Thursday of the 25th Week in Ordinary Time)

#452 Weekday Year II Context (Thursday of the 25th Week in Ordinary Time)

Herod the tetrarch heard about all that was happening,
and he was greatly perplexed because some were saying,
“John has been raised from the dead”;
others were saying, “Elijah has appeared”;
still others, “One of the ancient prophets has arisen.”
But Herod said, “John I beheaded.
Who then is this about whom I hear such things?”
And he kept trying to see him.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Lk 9:7-9

This passage from St. Luke’s Gospel begins a section that assembles incidents from the life of the Lord. In this introduction, King Herod asks the question, “Who then is this about whom I hear such things?” The proposed identities of Jesus coincide directly with the later report of the disciples to Jesus in Luke 9:18-19. Confusion about Jesus’ identity will be clarified in the subsequent passages as his divinity is revealed.

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Luke 9:11b-17

#169C Solemnities C Context (Solemnity of the Most Holy Body and Blood of Christ C)

#789 Ritual Mass Context (IV. For the Conferral of Ministries, 2. Institution of Acolytes, 2.)

#981 Votive Mass Context (The Most Holy Eucharist, 3)

Jesus spoke to the crowds about the kingdom of God,
and he healed those who needed to be cured.
As the day was drawing to a close,
the Twelve approached him and said,
"Dismiss the crowd
so that they can go to the surrounding villages and farms
and find lodging and provisions;
for we are in a deserted place here."
He said to them, "Give them some food yourselves."
They replied, "Five loaves and two fish are all we have,
unless we ourselves go and buy food for all these people."
Now the men there numbered about five thousand.
Then he said to his disciples,
"Have them sit down in groups of about fifty."
They did so and made them all sit down.
Then taking the five loaves and the two fish,
and looking up to heaven,
he said the blessing over them, broke them,
and gave them to the disciples to set before the crowd.
They all ate and were satisfied.
And when the leftover fragments were picked up,
they filled twelve wicker baskets.
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Commentary on Lk 9:11b-17

The story of “Feeding the Multitude” from St. Luke’s Gospel serves as the image for the Eucharist. The statement: “Then taking the five loaves and the two fish, and looking up to heaven, he said the blessing over them, broke them,” is a clear reference to the institution of the Eucharistic (see Luke 22:19, cf Mark 14:22).

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Luke 9:18-22

#453 Weekday Year I Context (Friday of the 25th Week in Ordinary Time)

#453 Weekday Year II Context (Friday of the 25th Week in Ordinary Time)

Once when Jesus was praying in solitude,
and the disciples were with him,
he asked them, “Who do the crowds say that I am?”
They said in reply, “John the Baptist; others, Elijah;
still others, ‘One of the ancient prophets has arisen.’”
Then he said to them, “But who do you say that I am?”
Peter said in reply, “The Christ of God.”
He rebuked them and directed them not to tell this to anyone.

He said, “The Son of Man must suffer greatly
and be rejected by the elders, the chief priests, and the scribes,
and be killed and on the third day be raised.”
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Commentary on Lk 9:18-22

As is frequently the case in St. Luke’s Gospel, we find the Lord at prayer. When asked by the Lord about the attitude of the people, the disciples answer much like the counselors of Herod did in Luke 9:7-9 with identities of John the Baptist and Elijah. St. Peter answers for the group when asked about Jesus’ identity, pronouncing him the Messiah. (see also commentary on Matthew 16:13-20)

CCC: Lk 9:18-20 2600
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Luke 9:18-24

#96C Solemnities C Context (12th Sunday in Ordinary Time C)

Once when Jesus was praying in solitude,
and the disciples were with him,
he asked them, “Who do the crowds say that I am?”
They said in reply, “John the Baptist;
others, Elijah;
still others, ‘One of the ancient prophets has arisen.’”
Then he said to them, “But who do you say that I am?”
Peter said in reply, “The Christ of God.”
He rebuked them
and directed them not to tell this to anyone.

He said, “The Son of Man must suffer greatly
and be rejected by the elders, the chief priests, and the scribes,
and be killed and on the third day be raised.”

Then he said to all,
“If anyone wishes to come after me, he must deny himself
and take up his cross daily and follow me.
For whoever wishes to save his life will lose it,
but whoever loses his life for my sake will save it.”
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Commentary on Lk 9:18-24

As is frequently the case in St. Luke’s Gospel, we find the Lord at prayer. When they were asked by Jesus about the attitude of the people, the disciples answer, much like the counselors of Herod did when asked in Luke 9:7-9, with identities of John the Baptist and Elijah. St. Peter answers for the group when asked about Jesus’ identity, pronouncing him the Messiah. (See also commentary on Matthew 16:13-20.)

The selection is concluded with the exhortation that Christians are to reject earthly morality and self-serving motives.  They are to embrace the difficulties of their call to holiness and single-mindedly follow Jesus’ example.  To do otherwise abandons the path to salvation.

CCC: Lk 9:18-20 2600; Lk 9:23 1435
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Luke 9:22-25

#220 Weekday Years I & II Context (Thursday after Ash Wednesday)

Jesus said to his disciples:
“The Son of Man must suffer greatly and be rejected
by the elders, the chief priests, and the scribes,
and be killed and on the third day be raised.”
Then he said to all,
“If anyone wishes to come after me, he must deny himself
and take up his cross daily and follow me.
For whoever wishes to save his life will lose it,
but whoever loses his life for my sake will save it.
What profit is there for one to gain the whole world
yet lose or forfeit himself?”
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Commentary on Lk 9:22-25

The Gospel takes up the theme of life and death as Jesus first informs his disciples that he will undergo his passion at the hands of the Jewish hierarchy and be raised. He then provides an invitation to life by contrasting, as Moses did in Deuteronomy 30:15-20, the (spiritual) salvation brought about through faith, and the (eternal) death that awaits the faithless.

CCC; Lk 9:23 1435
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Luke 9:23-26

#527 Proper of Saints Context (St. Agatha, Feb 5)

#529A Proper of Saints Context St. Josephine Bakhita (Feb 8)+

#553 Proper of Saints Context (St. George, Apr 23)

#642A Proper of Saints Context (Sts. Andrew Kim Taegon and Paul Chong Hasang, Sep 20)^

#718 Commons Context (Common of Martyrs)

Jesus said to all,
“If anyone wishes to come after me, he must deny himself
and take up his cross daily and follow me.
For whoever wishes to save his life will lose it,
but whoever loses his life for my sake will save it.
What profit is there for one to gain the whole world
yet lose or forfeit himself?
Whoever is ashamed of me and of my words,
the Son of Man will be ashamed of when he comes in his glory
and in the glory of the Father and of the holy angels."
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Lk 9:23-26

The Gospel takes up the theme of life and death, as Jesus first informs his disciples that he will undergo the “Passion” at the hands of the Jewish hierarchy (v.22) and be raised. He then provides this invitation to life, by contrasting, as Moses did in Deuteronomy 30:15-20, the (spiritual) salvation brought about through faith and the (eternal) death that awaits the faithless.

CCC: Lk 9:23 1435
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Luke 9:28b-36

#27C Solemnities C Context (2nd Sunday of Lent C)

#614 Proper of Saints Context (Feast of the Transfiguration of the Lord C)

Jesus took Peter, John, and James
and went up the mountain to pray.
While he was praying his face changed in appearance
and his clothing became dazzling white.
And behold, two men were conversing with him, Moses and Elijah,
who appeared in glory and spoke of his exodus
that he was going to accomplish in Jerusalem.
Peter and his companions had been overcome by sleep,
but becoming fully awake,
they saw his glory and the two men standing with him.
As they were about to part from him, Peter said to Jesus,
“Master, it is good that we are here;
let us make three tents,
one for you, one for Moses, and one for Elijah.”
But he did not know what he was saying.
While he was still speaking,
a cloud came and cast a shadow over them,
and they became frightened when they entered the cloud.
Then from the cloud came a voice that said,
“This is my chosen Son; listen to him.”
After the voice had spoken, Jesus was found alone.
They fell silent and did not at that time
tell anyone what they had seen.
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Commentary on Lk 9:28b-36

In this passage, St. Luke relates the account of the Transfiguration. Jesus goes up a mountain, to a high place with Peter James and John. ["Open-air cultic sites.  The term "high place" is the usual translation of these worship sites.  Although these sites were often located on hills, they were not all so placed (cf. 1 Kings 11:7, 2 Kings 16:4, 17:9-10; Jeremiah 7:31, 32:35). They could be sited on mountain-tops (Deuteronomy 32:13; Isaiah 58:14; Amos 4:13; Micah 1:3) or even by the sea (Job 9:8).  The high places were dedicated to God or to Canaanite deities, and in the period before the establishment of the Temple at Jerusalem, such worship centers could be considered legitimate (Exodus 20;24; Judges 6:26; 2 Kings 14:4; 1 Chronicles 21:15).  The first mention of them is in 1 Samuel 9:13, likely a reference to Ramah."[54]]  His appearance changed and the disciples observe him conversing about “his exodus” with Moses and Elijah (Jesus’ exodus would be the Passion toward which he was moving).

The disciples' response to this vision was first to “make three tents,” alluding to the Jewish Feast of Tabernacles, placing the Lord at the same level of importance as Moses and Elijah. Before any response was made, a cloud came and cast a shadow over them, and God’s voice came from the cloud announcing: “This is my chosen Son, listen to him.” (Reminiscent of the words heard at his baptism in the Jordan: Matthew 3:17; Mark 1:11; and Luke 3:22.)  Jesus is elevated above Moses and Elijah to a place with God himself.

It is clear from this story, and the other Transfiguration accounts, that what had happened was kept secret until after Jesus' death and resurrection. It was at that time that the true significance of the event was understood by the Christian community, and the experience placed in its proper position chronologically.

CCC: Lk 9:28 2600; Lk 9:30-35 2583; Lk 9:31 554, 1151; Lk 9:33 556; Lk 9:34-35 659, 697; Lk 9:35 516, 554
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Luke 9:43b-45

#454 Weekday Year I Context (Saturday of the 25th Week in Ordinary Time)

#454 Weekday Year II Context (Saturday of the 25th Week in Ordinary Time)

While they were all amazed at his every deed,
Jesus said to his disciples,
“Pay attention to what I am telling you.
The Son of Man is to be handed over to men.”
But they did not understand this saying;
its meaning was hidden from them
so that they should not understand it,
and they were afraid to ask him about this saying.
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Commentary on Lk 9:43b-45

Jesus begins this second announcement of his coming passion using language that would have evoked a sense of the holy as his words (literally: “lay these words within your ears”) would be reminiscent of Exodus 17:14b. “…meaning; Think seriously about what you have seen and heard, for my life is moving determinately to a violent death. handed over: From Isaiah 53: 12 (LXX) the fourth song of the suffering servant.”[14] The fact that the disciples “…should not understand it” was not seen as a defect of belief on their part, but rather as necessary (not yet time) in the plan of revelation.

CCC: Lk 9:45 554
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Luke 9:46-50

#455 Weekday Year I Context (Monday of the 26th Week in Ordinary Time)

#455 Weekday Year II Context (Monday of the 26th Week in Ordinary Time)

An argument arose among the disciples
about which of them was the greatest.
Jesus realized the intention of their hearts and took a child
and placed it by his side and said to them,
“Whoever receives this child in my name receives me,
and whoever receives me receives the one who sent me.
For the one who is least among all of you
is the one who is the greatest.”

Then John said in reply,
“Master, we saw someone casting out demons in your name
and we tried to prevent him
because he does not follow in our company.”
Jesus said to him,
“Do not prevent him, for whoever is not against you is for you.”
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Commentary on Lk 9:46-50

St. Luke depicts a teaching moment for Jesus as he tells his disciples that they must not fall into the all-too-human trap of rivalry for leadership. Rather, he tells them that humble leadership will be the norm. In the second instance, the Lord insists that his disciples accept support from those whom they do not know (see also comments on Mark 9:38-50).

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Luke 9:49-56

#871 Mass for Various Needs Context (I. For the Holy Church, 10. For the Unity of Christians, 2.)

John said to Jesus:
"Master, we saw someone casting out demons in your name
  and we tried to prevent him
  because he does not follow in our company."
Jesus said to him,
  "Do not prevent him, for whoever is not against you is for you.'

When the days for his being taken up were fulfilled,
  he resolutely determined to journey to Jerusalem,
  and he sent messengers ahead of him.
On the way they entered a Samaritan village
  to prepare for his reception there,
  but they would not welcome him
  because the destination of his journey was Jerusalem.

When the disciples James and John saw this they asked,
  "Lord, do you want us to call down fire from heaven
  to consume them?"
Jesus turned and rebuked them,
  and they journeyed to another village.
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Commentary on Lk 9:49-56

This passage from St. Luke’s Gospel, set shortly after the Transfiguration event, begins the narrative of Jesus’ final journey to Jerusalem. The announcement - “When the days for Jesus’ being taken up were fulfilled” provides language almost identical to describing Elijah’s assumption in 2 Kings 2:9-11.

As they travel word comes that the name of Jesus is being used to cast out demons by others, not part of Jesus' immediate disciples.  The twelve are upset by this, but Jesus reminds them of the justice of their common cause.  Clear reference to the later universal call to all peoples to participate in the ministry of Christ.

They travel through a Samarian rejoin in which Jesus was not welcome because of his Jewish identity (see also John 4:9). His rejection by the Samaritans is a forerunner to the rejection he will receive when he reaches his destination. James and John (the “Sons of Thunder”) want to destroy the place but again Jesus, prefiguring the persecution he will face in Jerusalem does not dispute his rejection.

CCC: Lk 9:51 557
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Luke 9:51-62

#99C Solemnities C Context (13th Sunday in Ordinary Time C)

When the days for Jesus’ being taken up were fulfilled,
he resolutely determined to journey to Jerusalem,
and he sent messengers ahead of him.
On the way they entered a Samaritan village
to prepare for his reception there,
but they would not welcome him
because the destination of his journey was Jerusalem.
When the disciples James and John saw this they asked,
“Lord, do you want us to call down fire from heaven
to consume them?”
Jesus turned and rebuked them, and they journeyed to another village.

As they were proceeding on their journey someone said to him,
“I will follow you wherever you go.”
Jesus answered him,
“Foxes have dens and birds of the sky have nests,
but the Son of Man has nowhere to rest his head.”

And to another he said, “Follow me.”
But he replied, “Lord, let me go first and bury my father.”
But he answered him, “Let the dead bury their dead.
But you, go and proclaim the kingdom of God.”
And another said, “I will follow you, Lord,
but first let me say farewell to my family at home.”
To him Jesus said, “No one who sets a hand to the plow
and looks to what was left behind is fit for the kingdom of God.”
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Commentary on Lk 9:51-62

This passage from St. Luke’s Gospel, set shortly after the Transfiguration event, begins the narrative of Jesus’ final journey to Jerusalem with his disciples. The announcement: “When the days for Jesus’ being taken up were fulfilled” provides language almost identical to the description of Elijah’s assumption in 2 Kings 2:9-11.

As they travel, word comes that the name of Jesus is being used to cast out demons by others, not part of the group of disciples traveling with him.  The twelve are upset by this, but Jesus reminds them of the justice of their common cause, a clear reference to the the Lord's later call to all peoples to participate in the ministry.

They travel through a Samaritan region in which Jesus was not welcome because of his Jewish identity (see also John 4:9). His rejection by the Samaritans is a forerunner to the rejection he will receive when he reaches his destination. James and John (the “Sons of Thunder”) want to destroy the place, but Jesus, prefiguring the persecution he will face in Jerusalem, does not dispute his rejection.

As the journey continues, the author provides us with three sayings of Jesus about the requirement to place the values of Christian discipleship above all other requirements of life. Proclaiming the Kingdom of God must come before even family obligations.

In the first of these sayings, “Foxes have dens…,” Jesus provides an example to all who follow him. He lives in poverty, dedicated to his mission.

The second: “Let the dead bury their dead,” is a play on words. Let the spiritually dead bury the physically dead. Jesus' message is the message of life. This saying was never intended to be taken literally, as filial piety is deeply ingrained in Jewish life.

The third saying: “No one who…looks to what was left behind,” Jesus demands more than Elisha (see 1 Kings 19:19-21). “Plowing for the Kingdom demands sacrifice.[24]

CCC: Lk 9:51 557; Lk 9:58 544
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Luke 9:51-56

#456 Weekday Year I Context (Tuesday of the 26th Week in Ordinary Time)

#456 Weekday Year II Context (Tuesday of the 26th Week in Ordinary Time)

When the days for Jesus to be taken up were fulfilled,
he resolutely determined to journey to Jerusalem,
and he sent messengers ahead of him.
On the way they entered a Samaritan village
to prepare for his reception there,
but they would not welcome him
because the destination of his journey was Jerusalem.
When the disciples James and John saw this they asked,
"Lord, do you want us to call down fire from heaven
to consume them?"
Jesus turned and rebuked them,
and they journeyed to another village.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Lk 9:51-56

This passage from St. Luke’s Gospel marks the beginning of the Lord’s final journey to Jerusalem. Just as his Galilean ministry began with a rejection by the people of his home town, this passage sees him rejected by the Samaritans. Jesus disregards the suggestion by his disciples to call down heavenly retribution. In doing so he disassociates himself from the image of Elijah (see what could be thought to be a parallel story in 2 Kings 1:10, 12). The final journey begins as it will end, with rejection.

CCC: Lk 9:51 557
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Luke 9:57-62

#457 Weekday Year I Context (Wednesday of the 26th Week in Ordinary Time)

#457 Weekday Year II Context (Wednesday of the 26th Week in Ordinary Time)

#566 Proper of Saints Context (St. Bernardine, May 20)

#617 Proper of Saints Context (St. Dominic, Aug 8)

#652 Proper of Saints Context (St. Bruno, Oct 6)

#664 Proper of Saints Context (St. John of Capistrano, Oct 23)

#683 Proper of Saints Context (St. John Columban, Nov 23)

#742 Commons Context (Common of Holy Men and Women)

#815 Ritual Mass Context (VIII. For the Consecration of Virgins and Religious Profession, 10.)

#861 Mass for Various Needs Context (I. For the Holy Church, 8. For Vocations to Holy Orders or Religious Life, 5.)

As Jesus and his disciples were proceeding
on their journey to Jerusalem,
someone said to him,
"I will follow you wherever you go."
Jesus answered him,
"Foxes have dens and birds of the sky have nests,
but the Son of Man has nowhere to rest his head."
And to another he said, "Follow me."
But he replied, "Lord, let me go first and bury my father."
But he answered him, "Let the dead bury their dead.
But you, go and proclaim the Kingdom of God."
And another said, "I will follow you, Lord,
but first let me say farewell to my family at home."
Jesus said, "No one who sets a hand to the plow
and looks to what was left behind is fit for the Kingdom of God."
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Lk 9:57-62

This passage from St. Luke’s Gospel gives us three sayings of Jesus about the requirement to place the values of Christian discipleship above all other requirements of life. Proclaiming the Kingdom of God must come before even family obligations.

In the first, “Foxes have dens…” Jesus does not deceive anyone – he lives in poverty, dedicated to his mission.

The second, “Let the dead bury their dead,” is a play on words: let the spiritually dead bury the physically dead. Jesus message is the message of life. This saying was never intended to be taken literally as filial piety is deeply ingrained in Jewish life.

In the third saying; “No one who…looks to what was left behind,” Jesus demands more than Elisha (see 1 Kings 19:19-21). “Plowing for the Kingdom demands sacrifice.”[31]

CCC: Lk 9:58 544
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Luke 10:1-9

#520 Proper of Saints Context (Sts. Timothy and Titus Jan 26)

#532 Proper of Saints Context (Sts. Cyril and Methodius Feb 14)

#581 Proper of Saints Context (St. Anthony of Padua Jun 13)

#661 Proper of Saints Context (Feast of St. Luke Oct 18)

#687 Proper of Saints Context (St. Nicholas Dec 6)

#724 Commons Context (Common of Pastors)

#774 Ritual Mass Context (II. For the Conferral of Holy Orders, 5.)

#847 Mass for Various Needs Context (I. For the Holy Church, 5. For Priests, 3.)

#851 Mass for Various Needs Context (I. For the Holy Church, 6. For Ministers of the Church,Third Option)

The Lord Jesus appointed seventy-two disciples whom he sent ahead of him in pairs
to every town and place he intended to visit. He said to them,
"The harvest is abundant but the laborers are few; so ask the master of the harvest
to send out laborers for his harvest.
Go on your way;
behold, I am sending you like lambs among wolves. Carry no money bag, no sack, no sandals; and greet no one along the way.
Into whatever house you enter,
first say, 'Peace to this household.'
If a peaceful person lives there,
your peace will rest on him;
but if not, it will return to you.
Stay in the same house and eat and drink what is offered to you,
for the laborer deserves his payment.
Do not move about from one house to another. Whatever town you enter and they welcome you,
eat what is set before you,
cure the sick in it and say to them,
`The Kingdom of God is at hand for you."'
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Lk 10:1-9

It is only in the Gospel of St. Luke that we hear the story of Jesus sending the seventy (two). This event is supported by other non-biblical writings (see Eusebius of Caesarea (c. 265-c. 340) Church History, Book. 1). The instructions given to those sent out are very similar to the instructions given to the Twelve, as was the message they were sent to proclaim.

This selection emphasizes Jesus' early struggle to accomplish what he came to do by himself. We sense the humanness as he says: "The harvest is abundant but the laborers are few." We also find this event and statement in St. Matthew’s Gospel where instead of the 72 he names the 12 (Matthew 10:1-8). While in St. Matthew’s story Jesus sends them first to the Hebrew people, St. Luke makes no such distinction.

This effort by Jesus was modeled on Moses’ leadership structure in which 70 elders were appointed (Numbers 11:24-25). It is also possible that the reference number 70 relates to the number of nations mentioned in Genesis 10. The disciples were sent two by two, a custom that would be replicated later in the post-resurrection missionary activities of the Church (see Acts 8:14; 15:39-40).

In another historical similarity, the disciples were sent without possessions, presumably depending upon the traditionally required hospitality for their support. Similar instructions were given by the Prophet Elisha as he sent his servant in 2 Kings 4:29.

The Lord’s instructions concerning this hospitality “…laborer deserves payment” is also quoted in St. Paul’s first letter to Timothy (1 Timothy 5:18b) and has further support in 1 Corinthians 9:7, 14. Those who labor on behalf of the Gospel and cannot take time to support themselves deserve the support of the community. In a final twist, the Lord’s instruction to “…eat what is set before you” sets aside Mosaic dietary laws (also 1 Corinthians 10:27 and Acts 10:25). It is a clear indication that the scope of their mission is to call all peoples to the Gospel.

CCC: Lk 10:1-2 765; Lk 10:2 2611; Lk 10:7 2122
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Luke 10:1-12, 17-20*

#102C Solemnities C Context (14th Sunday in Ordinary Time C)

At that time the Lord appointed seventy-two others
whom he sent ahead of him in pairs
to every town and place he intended to visit.
He said to them,
“The harvest is abundant but the laborers are few;
so ask the master of the harvest
to send out laborers for his harvest.
Go on your way;
behold, I am sending you like lambs among wolves.
Carry no money bag, no sack, no sandals;
and greet no one along the way.
Into whatever house you enter, first say,
‘Peace to this household.’
If a peaceful person lives there,
your peace will rest on him;
but if not, it will return to you.
Stay in the same house and eat and drink what is offered to you,
for the laborer deserves his payment.
Do not move about from one house to another.
Whatever town you enter and they welcome you,
eat what is set before you,
cure the sick in it and say to them,
‘The kingdom of God is at hand for you.’
Whatever town you enter and they do not receive you,
go out into the streets and say,
‘The dust of your town that clings to our feet,
even that we shake off against you.’
Yet know this: the kingdom of God is at hand.
I tell you,
it will be more tolerable for Sodom on that day than for that town.”

The seventy-two returned rejoicing, and said,
“Lord, even the demons are subject to us because of your name.”
Jesus said, “I have observed Satan fall like lightning from the sky.
Behold, I have given you the power to ‘tread upon serpents’ and scorpions
and upon the full force of the enemy and nothing will harm you. Nevertheless, do not rejoice because the spirits are subject to you,
but rejoice because your names are written in heaven.”
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Lk 10:1-12, 17-20

It is only in Luke’s Gospel that we find the sending of the 72.  This event is supported in other non-biblical accounts of the period (see Eusebius of Caesarea (c. 265-c. 340)  - Church History).  It is noteworthy that the instructions given to these disciples are very similar to those given to the twelve in Luke 22:35.  As the 72 return, the Lord reminds them that the power they have demonstrated over the forces of evil (“…even the demons are subject to us because of your name”) is a consequence of their adoption (“your names are written in heaven”) not some personal merit or natural ability.

This selection emphasizes Jesus' early struggle to accomplish what he came to do by himself. We sense his humanness as he says: "The harvest is abundant but the laborers are few," We also find this event and statement in St. Matthew’s Gospel, where, instead of the 72, he names the 12 (Matthew 10:1-8). While in St. Matthew’s story Jesus sends them first to the Hebrew people, St. Luke makes no such distinction.

This effort by Jesus was modeled on Moses’ leadership structure in which 70 elders were appointed (Numbers 11:24-25). It is also possible that the reference number, 70, relates to the number of nations mentioned in Genesis 10. The disciples were sent two by two, a custom that would be replicated later in the post-resurrection missionary activities of the Church (see Acts 8:1415:39-40).

In another historical similarity, the disciples were sent without possessions, presumably depending upon the traditionally required hospitality for their support. Similar instructions were given by the Prophet Elisha as he sent his servant in 2 Kings 4:29.

The Lord’s instructions concerning hospitality, “…laborer deserves his payment,” is also quoted in St. Paul’s first letter to Timothy (1 Timothy 5:18b), and has further support in 1 Corinthians 9:7, 14. Those who labor on behalf of the Gospel, and cannot take time to support themselves, deserve the support of the community. In a final twist, the Lord’s instruction, to “…eat what is set before you,” sets aside Mosaic dietary laws (also 1 Corinthians 10:27 and Acts 10:25). It is a clear indication that the scope of their mission is to call all peoples to the Gospel.

CCC: Lk 10:1-2 765; Lk 10:2 2611; Lk 10:7 2122; Lk 10:17-20 787
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
OR:
Shorter Form
Luke 10:1-9

At that time the Lord appointed seventy-two others
whom he sent ahead of him in pairs
to every town and place he intended to visit.
He said to them,
“The harvest is abundant but the laborers are few;
so ask the master of the harvest
to send out laborers for his harvest.
Go on your way;
behold, I am sending you like lambs among wolves.
Carry no money bag, no sack, no sandals;
and greet no one along the way.
Into whatever house you enter, first say,
‘Peace to this household.’
If a peaceful person lives there,
your peace will rest on him;
but if not, it will return to you.
Stay in the same house and eat and drink what is offered to you,
for the laborer deserves his payment.
Do not move about from one house to another.
Whatever town you enter and they welcome you,
eat what is set before you,
cure the sick in it and say to them,
‘The kingdom of God is at hand for you.’”
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Lk 10:1-9

It is only in Luke’s Gospel that we find the sending of the 72.  This event is supported in other non-biblical accounts of the period (see Eusebius of Caesarea (c. 265-c. 340)  - Church History).  It is noteworthy that the instructions given to these disciples are very similar to those given to the twelve in Luke 22:35.

This shorter form omits the consequences spelled out for those who reject the messengers.  It also omits the account of the success of these emissaries, bringing to sharper focus the shared mission to proclaim the Gospel of Christ to all (note: Jesus does not, as St. Matthew reports, send them just to the Jewish population.).

CCC: Lk 10:1-2 765; Lk 10:2 2611; Lk 10:7 2122
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Luke 10:1-12

#458 Weekday Year I Context (Thursday of the 26th Week in Ordinary Time)

#458 Weekday Year II Context (Thursday of the 26th Week in Ordinary Time)

Jesus appointed seventy-two other disciples
whom he sent ahead of him in pairs
to every town and place he intended to visit.
He said to them,
“The harvest is abundant but the laborers are few;
so ask the master of the harvest
to send out laborers for his harvest.
Go on your way;
behold, I am sending you like lambs among wolves.
Carry no money bag, no sack, no sandals;
and greet no one along the way.
Into whatever house you enter, first say,
‘Peace to this household.’
If a peaceful person lives there,
your peace will rest on him;
but if not, it will return to you.
Stay in the same house and eat and drink what is offered to you,
for the laborer deserves his payment.
Do not move about from one house to another.
Whatever town you enter and they welcome you,
eat what is set before you,
cure the sick in it and say to them,
‘The Kingdom of God is at hand for you.’
Whatever town you enter and they do not receive you,
go out into the streets and say,
‘The dust of your town that clings to our feet,
even that we shake off against you.’
Yet know this: the Kingdom of God is at hand.
I tell you,
it will be more tolerable for Sodom on that day than for that town.”
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Lk 10:1-12

It is only in the Gospel of St. Luke that we hear the story of Jesus sending the seventy (two). This event is supported by other non-biblical writings (see Eusebius of Caesarea (c. 265-c. 340) Church History, Vol. 1). The instructions given to those sent out are very similar to the instructions given to the Twelve (Matthew 10:5-16; Luke 9:1-6), as was the message they were sent to proclaim.

This selection emphasizes Jesus early struggle to accomplish what he came to do by himself. We sense the humanness as he says; "The harvest is abundant but the laborers are few;" We also find this event and statement in St. Matthew’s Gospel where instead of the 72 he names the 12 (Matthew 10:1-8). While in St. Matthew’s story Jesus sends them, first to the Hebrew people, St. Luke makes no such distinction.

This effort by Jesus was modeled on Moses’ leadership structure in which 70 elders were appointed (Numbers 11:24-25). It is also possible that the reference number 70 relates to the number of nations mentioned in Genesis 10. The disciples were sent two by two a custom that would be replicated later in the post-resurrection missionary activities of the Church (see Acts 8:1415:39-40).

In another historical similarity, the disciples were sent without possessions, presumably depending upon the traditionally required hospitality for their support. Similar instructions were given by the Prophet Elisha as he sent his servant in 2 Kings 4:29.

The Lord’s instructions concerning this hospitality “…laborer deserves payment” is also quoted in St. Paul’s first letter to Timothy (1 Timothy 5:18b) and has further support in 1 Corinthians 9:7, 14. Those who labor on behalf of the Gospel and cannot take time to support themselves deserve the support of the community. In a final twist, the Lord’s instruction to “…eat what is set before you” sets aside Mosaic dietary laws (also 1 Corinthians 10:27 and Acts 10:25). It is a clear indication that the scope of their mission is to call all peoples to the Gospel.

CCC: Lk 10:1-2 765; Lk 10:2 2611; Lk 10:7 2122
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Luke 10:5-6, 8-9

#795 Ritual Mass Context (For the Pastoral Care of the Sick and Dying, Anointing of the Sick, 12.)

Jesus said to his disciples:
"Into whatever house you enter, first say,
  'Peace to this household.'
If a peaceful person lives there,
  your peace will rest on him;
  but if not, it will return to you.
Whatever town you enter and they welcome you,
  eat what is set before you,
  cure the sick in it and say to them,
   'The Kingdom of God is at hand for you.'"
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Lk 10:5-6, 8-9

This selection is taken from the Lord's instruction to the seventy (two) disciples who were sent out to help accomplish Jesus' mission, announcing the Kingdom of God.  It is noteworthy that these disciples are sent to all peoples of all nations, not just the Jewish people.  They are instructed to first offer God's peace, an action that also imparts peace to the one who offers it, regardless of the response they receive.  They are instructed to accept the ritual hospitality offered and to heal the sick of mind and body.  This peace and healing are offered as signs that the proclamation of the Kingdom of God is true and eminent.

CCC: Lk 10:7 2122
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Luke 10:13-16

#459 Weekday Year I Context (Friday of the 26th Week in Ordinary Time)

#459 Weekday Year II Context (Friday of the 26th Week in Ordinary Time)

Jesus said to them,
“Woe to you, Chorazin! Woe to you, Bethsaida!
For if the mighty deeds done in your midst
had been done in Tyre and Sidon,
they would long ago have repented,
sitting in sackcloth and ashes.
But it will be more tolerable for Tyre and Sidon
at the judgment than for you.
And as for you, Capernaum, ‘Will you be exalted to heaven?
You will go down to the netherworld.’
Whoever listens to you listens to me.
Whoever rejects you rejects me.
And whoever rejects me rejects the one who sent me.”
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Lk 10:13-16

This selection is a continuation of the instructions being given to the seventy (two) who are being sent out. The Lord instructs them to issue a call to repentance to those who reject the proclamation of the Kingdom of God. The punishment of these unbelieving communities will be severe, as their rejection of the call to holiness is a rejection of Christ himself ,“and whoever rejects me [Jesus] rejects the one who sent me."

CCC: Lk 10:16 87, 858
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Luke 10:17-24

#460 Weekday Year I Context (Saturday of the 26th Week in Ordinary Time)

#460 Weekday Year II Context (Saturday of the 26th Week in Ordinary Time)

#947 Mass for Various Needs Context (III. In Various Public Circumstances, 26. In Thanksgiving to God, 5.)

The seventy-two disciples returned rejoicing and said to Jesus,
“Lord, even the demons are subject to us because of your name.”
Jesus said, “I have observed Satan fall like lightning from the sky.
Behold, I have given you the power
‘to tread upon serpents’ and scorpions
and upon the full force of the enemy
and nothing will harm you.
Nevertheless, do not rejoice because the spirits are subject to you,
but rejoice because your names are written in heaven.”

At that very moment he rejoiced in the Holy Spirit and said,
“I give you praise, Father, Lord of heaven and earth,
for although you have hidden these things
from the wise and the learned
you have revealed them to the childlike.
Yes, Father, such has been your gracious will.
All things have been handed over to me by my Father.
No one knows who the Son is except the Father,
and who the Father is except the Son
and anyone to whom the Son wishes to reveal him.”

Turning to the disciples in private he said,
“Blessed are the eyes that see what you see.
For I say to you,
many prophets and kings desired to see what you see,
but did not see it,
and to hear what you hear, but did not hear it.”
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Lk 10:17-24

The return of the seventy (two) gives rise to the prayer of Jesus (expanding Mark 6:30), who turns the victory of the disciples into a means to glorify the Father. The Lord gives thanks that God has seen fit to reveal his identity, and pass on his power to these disciples of his. Jesus tells them of the positive effect of their mission saying: “I have observed Satan fall like lightning from the sky.” This is reminiscent of Isaiah 14:12; the evil one is defeated. The thought is concluded: “…do not rejoice because the spirits are subject to you, but rejoice because your names are written in heaven.” This warning is a caution against becoming fixed on external signs, but exhorts the Christian to look to the positive effect on the spirit (cf 1 Corinthians 12).  The Gospel follows this with Jesus’ hymn of praise, also found in Matthew 11:25-27, and concludes the passage by telling the disciples that they are given a privilege beyond prophets and kings (see also Matthew 13:16-17). They are seeing God’s plan fulfilled in Jesus.

CCC: Lk 10:17-20 787; Lk 10:21-23 2603; Lk 10:21 1083
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Luke 10:21-24

#176 Weekday Years I & II Context (Tuesday of the 1st Week of Advent)

#768 Ritual Mass Context (I. For the Conferral of Christian Initiation, 4. Confirmation, 7.)

Jesus rejoiced in the Holy Spirit and said,
“I give you praise, Father, Lord of heaven and earth,
for although you have hidden these things
from the wise and the learned
you have revealed them to the childlike.
Yes, Father, such has been your gracious will.
All things have been handed over to me by my Father.
No one knows who the Son is except the Father,
and who the Father is except the Son
and anyone to whom the Son wishes to reveal him.”

Turning to the disciples in private he said,
“Blessed are the eyes that see what you see.
For I say to you,
many prophets and kings desired to see what you see,
but did not see it,
and to hear what you hear, but did not hear it.”
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Lk 10:21-24

Jesus rejoices in the Holy Spirit because his disciples have understood his role of Messiah in the kingdom. He restates his relationship as Son of God: “No one knows who the Son is except the Father, and who the Father is except the Son and anyone to whom the Son wishes to reveal him." The inference here is that we must approach that faith with “childlike” faith and trust in order to achieve that level of understanding.

Earlier in this chapter of St. Luke’s Gospel, Jesus sent out the seventy (two). Just prior to this selection, they returned and reported great success in doing what the Lord asked of them. We are given in today’s passage his prayer of thanks to the Father The Lord gives thanks that God has seen fit to reveal his identity and pass on his power to these disciples of his. It is reiterated that the Kingdom of God shall be revealed to the childlike (see also Luke 8:10) and turning to his disciples, he tells them that the victory they are witnessing is the Good News hoped for by prophets and kings throughout history.

CCC: Lk 10:21-23 2603; Lk 10:21 1083
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Luke 10:25-37

#105C Solemnities C Context (15th Sunday in Ordinary Time C)

#461 Weekday Year I Context (Monday of the 27th Week in Ordinary Time)

#461 Weekday Year II Context (Monday of the 27th Week in Ordinary Time)

#795 Ritual Mass Context (V. For the Pastoral Care of the Sick and Dying, 1. Anointing of the Sick, 13.)

#931 Mass for Various Needs Context (III. In Various Public Circumstances, 22. For Refugees and Exiles, Third Option)

There was a scholar of the law who stood up to test Jesus and said,
“Teacher, what must I do to inherit eternal life?”
Jesus said to him, “What is written in the law?
How do you read it?”
He said in reply,
“You shall love the Lord, your God,
with all your heart,
with all your being,
with all your strength,
and with all your mind,
and your neighbor as yourself.”
He replied to him, “You have answered correctly;
do this and you will live.”

But because he wished to justify himself, he said to Jesus,
“And who is my neighbor?”
Jesus replied,
“A man fell victim to robbers
as he went down from Jerusalem to Jericho.
They stripped and beat him and went off leaving him half-dead.
A priest happened to be going down that road,
but when he saw him, he passed by on the opposite side.
Likewise a Levite came to the place,
and when he saw him, he passed by on the opposite side.
But a Samaritan traveler who came upon him
was moved with compassion at the sight.
He approached the victim,
poured oil and wine over his wounds and bandaged them.
Then he lifted him up on his own animal,
took him to an inn, and cared for him.
The next day he took out two silver coins
and gave them to the innkeeper with the instruction,
‘Take care of him.
If you spend more than what I have given you,
I shall repay you on my way back.’
Which of these three, in your opinion,
was neighbor to the robbers’ victim?”
He answered, “The one who treated him with mercy.”
Jesus said to him, “Go and do likewise.”
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Lk 10:25-37

In this passage from St. Luke’s Gospel, we find Jesus being challenged by a person referred to as a “scholar.” It seems clear that this man has a good idea of how Jesus is likely to respond to his initial question about what he must do to inherit eternal life. As soon as the man tells Jesus what the law says, the scholar asks for still more clarification asking: “And who is my neighbor?

"In this passage, Jesus praises and accepts the summary of the Law given by the Jewish scribe. This reply, taken from Deuteronomy (6:4ff), was a prayer which the Jews used to say frequently. Our Lord gives the very same reply when He is asked which is the principal commandment of the Law and concludes His answer by saying, "On these two commandments depend all the law and the prophets" (Matthew 22:40; cf. also Romans 13:8-9; Galatians 5:14).

 There is a hierarchy and order in these two commandments constituting the double precept of charity: before everything and above everything comes loving God in Himself. In the second place, and as a consequence of the first commandment, comes loving one's neighbor, for God explicitly requires us to do so (1 John 4:21; cf. notes on Matthew 22:34-40 and 22:37-38)." [53]

The illustration Jesus uses in answering him does clarify the answer, and at the same time, uses a cultural tension to heighten the lesson. First he says a Priest of the Jewish Temple passes the victim of robbery (one who is most scrupulous in observing the letter of the Law), next a member of the priestly class, a Levite, does the same. The one who helps the victim, who is presumably a Jew, is a member of the Samaritan culture, antagonists of the Jewish people. In this way, the Lord provides a moral lesson along with an explanation of the Law.

CCC: Lk 10:25-37 2822; Lk 10:27-37 1825; Lk 10:27 2083; Lk 10:34 1293
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Luke 10:38-42

#108C Solemnities C Context (16th Sunday in Ordinary Time C)

#462 Weekday Year I Context (Tuesday of the 27th Week in Ordinary Time)

#462 Weekday Year II Context ( Tuesday of the 27th Week in Ordinary Time)

#530 Proper of Saints Context (St. Scholastica, Feb 10)

#607 Proper of Saints Context (St. Martha, Jul 29)

#736 Commons Context (Common of Virgins)

#742 Commons Context (Common of Holy Men and Women)

#815 Ritual Mass Context (VIII. For the Consecration of Virgins and Religious Profession, 11.)

#856 Mass for Various Needs Context (I. For the Holy Church, 7. For Religious, 5)

#24O-I BVM Context (The Blessed Virgin Mary, Seat of Wisdom)

Jesus entered a village
where a woman whose name was Martha welcomed him.
She had a sister named Mary
who sat beside the Lord at his feet listening to him speak.
Martha, burdened with much serving, came to him and said,
"Lord, do you not care
that my sister has left me by myself to do the serving?
Tell her to help me."
The Lord said to her in reply,
"Martha, Martha, you are anxious and worried about many things.
There is need of only one thing.
Mary has chosen the better part
and it will not be taken from her."
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Commentary on Lk 10:38-42

In this encounter with Martha and Mary in St. Luke’s Gospel, we see two distinct messages. First, we see the importance of the role of women and Jesus’ attitude toward them. Second we see the importance of listening to the word of God: "Mary has chosen the better part."

The selection emphasizes the importance of listening to the teachings of the Lord. While in some early texts the Lord tells Martha there is “need for only a few things,” or of one, the message is clear: Mary, in assuming the role of disciple (listening at the master’s feet) has chosen the correct or better role. Martha, concerning herself with the requirements of hospitality (old law) has chosen the lesser.

“Mystically (St. Gregory the Great, Moralia 2, 6): the two women signify two dimensions of the spiritual life. Martha signifies the active life as she busily labors to honor Christ through her work. Mary exemplifies the contemplative life as she sits attentively to listen and learn from Christ. While both activities are essential to Christian living, the latter is greater than the former. For in heaven the active life terminates, while the contemplative life reaches its perfection.”[3]

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Luke 11:1-13

#111C Solemnities C Context (17th Sunday in Ordinary Time C)

Jesus was praying in a certain place, and when he had finished,
one of his disciples said to him,
“Lord, teach us to pray just as John taught his disciples.”
He said to them, “When you pray, say:
Father, hallowed be your name,
your kingdom come.
Give us each day our daily bread
and forgive us our sins
for we ourselves forgive everyone in debt to us,
and do not subject us to the final test.”

And he said to them, “Suppose one of you has a friend
to whom he goes at midnight and says,
‘Friend, lend me three loaves of bread,
for a friend of mine has arrived at my house from a journey
and I have nothing to offer him,’
and he says in reply from within,
‘Do not bother me; the door has already been locked
and my children and I are already in bed.
I cannot get up to give you anything.’
I tell you,
if he does not get up to give the visitor the loaves
because of their friendship,
he will get up to give him whatever he needs
because of his persistence.

“And I tell you, ask and you will receive;
seek and you will find;
knock and the door will be opened to you.
For everyone who asks, receives;
and the one who seeks, finds;
and to the one who knocks, the door will be opened.
What father among you would hand his son a snake
when he asks for a fish?
Or hand him a scorpion when he asks for an egg?
If you then, who are wicked,
know how to give good gifts to your children,
how much more will the Father in heaven
give the Holy Spirit to those who ask him?”
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Commentary on Lk 11:1-13

The focus of this passage from the Gospel of Luke is prayer.  First, we are given the Lord’s Prayer from Luke’s Gospel, which differs somewhat from the same prayer offered in Matthew’s Gospel (Matthew 6:9-15).  We are taken further, in this case, to be reminded that God answers prayers.  He does this as a parable, and then in a litany of assurances.

Notes on the meaning of the various parts of the prayer are numerous. The short message in the Gospel is: “This is an appropriate way to speak to God.” It begins with an acknowledgement of God’s existence and omnipotence, praising his holiness. It continues with our further desire that the “will of God,” which creates his Heavenly Kingdom, may also rule on earth.

Next follows three petitions. The first is a petition to the Father that we be given nourishment; food for the body and (Eucharistic) food for the spirit, ”our daily bread.” This petition is followed by a plea for forgiveness, a tacit admission that we have all sinned and all need God’s salvation. The second part of this petition is a promise on the part of the petitioner, to attempt to follow Christ’s example, forgiving others as they have been forgiven. The prayer concludes with a final petition not to be tested as our Lord was tested by the evil one, who encouraged Jesus to forego his own passion and thus condemn the world to sin and death.

Next, Jesus uses the story of one friend asking another for bread (a strong Eucharistic reference) in the middle of the night. The parable is used as an instrument to tell them that God will always answer prayers, but in his own time (“I tell you, if he does not get up to give him the loaves because of their friendship, he will get up to give him whatever he needs because of his persistence”). He makes his message clear in the verses that follow, “ask and you will receive.”

CCC: Lk 11:1 520, 2601, 2759, 2773; Lk 11:2-4 2759; Lk 11:2 2632; Lk 11:4 1425, 2845; Lk 11:5-13 2613; Lk 11:9 2761; Lk 11:13 443, 728, 2623, 2671
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Luke 11:1-4

#463 Weekday Year I Context (Wednesday of the 27rh Week in Ordinary Time)

#463 Weekday Year II Context (Wednesday of the 27rh Week in Ordinary Time)

Jesus was praying in a certain place, and when he had finished,
one of his disciples said to him,
“Lord, teach us to pray just as John taught his disciples.”
He said to them, “When you pray, say:

Father, hallowed be your name,
your Kingdom come.
Give us each day our daily bread
and forgive us our sins
for we ourselves forgive everyone in debt to us,
and do not subject us to the final test.”
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Commentary on Lk 11:1-4

The Gospel from St. Luke gives us a shorter version of how the Lord passed on the “Lord’s Prayer” to his disciples. In St. Matthew’s Gospel (Matthew 6:9-15) this discourse takes place as part of the Sermon on the Mount. In St. Luke’s Gospel it is given while the Lord is himself at prayer.

Notes on the meaning of the various parts of the prayer are numerous. (See also CCC 2759 - 2865) The short message in the Gospel is: “This is an appropriate way to speak to God.” The seven petitions of the prayer begin with an acknowledgement of God’s existence and omnipotence, praising his holiness. It continues with our further desire that the “will of God,” which creates his Heavenly Kingdom, may also rule on earth (...your name; your kingdom; your will).

The next three petitions ask for grace and protection. The first of these is a petition to the Father that we be given nourishment, food for the body and (Eucharistic) food for the spirit, ”our daily bread.” This petition is followed by a plea for forgiveness, a tacit admission that we have all sinned and all need God’s salvation. The second part of this petition is a promise that we will attempt to follow Christ’s example, forgiving others as we have been forgiven. The prayer concludes with a final petition that we not be tested as our Lord was tested by the evil one; encouraged to forego his own passion thus condemning the world to sin and death.

CCC: Lk 11:1 520, 2601, 2759, 2773; Lk 11:2-4 2759; Lk 11:2 2632; Lk 11:4 1425, 2845
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Luke 11:5-13

#464 Weekday Year I Context (Thursday of the 27th Week in Ordinary Time)

#464 Weekday Year II Context (Thursday of the 27th Week in Ordinary Time)

#795 Ritual Mass Context (V. For the Pastoral Care of the Sick and Dying, 1. Anointing of the Sick, 14.)

Jesus said to his disciples:
“Suppose one of you has a friend
to whom he goes at midnight and says,
‘Friend, lend me three loaves of bread,
for a friend of mine has arrived at my house from a journey
and I have nothing to offer him,’
and he says in reply from within,
‘Do not bother me; the door has already been locked
and my children and I are already in bed.
I cannot get up to give you anything.’
I tell you, if he does not get up to give him the loaves
because of their friendship,
he will get up to give him whatever he needs
because of his persistence.

“And I tell you, ask and you will receive;
seek and you will find;
knock and the door will be opened to you.
For everyone who asks, receives;
and the one who seeks, finds;
and to the one who knocks, the door will be opened.
What father among you would hand his son a snake
when he asks for a fish?
Or hand him a scorpion when he asks for an egg?
If you then, who are wicked,
know how to give good gifts to your children,
how much more will the Father in heaven give the Holy Spirit
to those who ask him?”
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Commentary on Lk 11:5-13

In this passage from St. Luke’s Gospel, the Lord continues his response to the disciples' request to “teach them how to pray.” The Lord, using the story of the one friend asking another for bread (a strong Eucharistic reference) in the middle of the night as an instrument to tell them that God will always answer prayers, but in his own time. (“I tell you, if he does not get up to give him the loaves because of their friendship, he will get up to give him whatever he needs because of his persistence.”) He makes his message clear in the verses that follow: “ask and you will receive.

CCC: Lk 11:5-13 2613; Lk 11:9 2761; Lk 11:13 443, 728, 2623, 2671
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Luke 11:14-23

#240 Weekday Years I & II Context (Thursday of the 3rd Week of Lent)

Jesus was driving out a demon that was mute,
and when the demon had gone out,
the mute man spoke and the crowds were amazed.
Some of them said, “By the power of Beelzebul, the prince of demons,
he drives out demons.”
Others, to test him, asked him for a sign from heaven.
But he knew their thoughts and said to them,
“Every kingdom divided against itself will be laid waste
and house will fall against house.
And if Satan is divided against himself,
how will his kingdom stand?
For you say that it is by Beelzebul that I drive out demons.
If I, then, drive out demons by Beelzebul,
by whom do your own people drive them out?
Therefore they will be your judges.
But if it is by the finger of God that I drive out demons,
then the Kingdom of God has come upon you.
When a strong man fully armed guards his palace,
his possessions are safe.
But when one stronger than he attacks and overcomes him,
he takes away the armor on which he relied
and distributes the spoils.
Whoever is not with me is against me,
and whoever does not gather with me scatters.”
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Commentary on Lk 11:14-23

In the Gospel from St. Luke we find Jesus, in spite of his miraculous cure of the mute, being rejected by the people. They accuse him of representing a false God – Baal (the Jewish people nicknamed Baal – Beelzebul, “Lord of Flies”).

In response to the crowd asking for a “sign,” Jesus (equating belief in the false god Baal with Satan) forcefully rejects that notion. He sees in their request for a sign the desire to see a different kind of sign, a sign that would validate their view of what the Messiah should be, kingly and powerful in secular rule.

Jesus attacks their logic by saying that no kingdom could stand if its servants attacked each other. He makes it clear that by attacking evil he demonstrates that he comes from God. He goes on using analogy to say that God will always conquer evil (God is stronger than the strongest evil), and further, rejecting God’s Son amounts to standing on the side of evil.

CCC: Lk 11:20 700; Lk 11:21-22 385
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Luke 11:15-26

#465 Weekday Year I Context (Friday of the 27th Week in Ordinary Time)

#465 Weekday Year II Context (Friday of the 27th Week in Ordinary Time)

When Jesus had driven out a demon, some of the crowd said:
“By the power of Beelzebul, the prince of demons,
he drives out demons.”
Others, to test him, asked him for a sign from heaven.
But he knew their thoughts and said to them,
“Every kingdom divided against itself will be laid waste
and house will fall against house.
And if Satan is divided against himself, how will his kingdom stand?
For you say that it is by Beelzebul that I drive out demons.
If I, then, drive out demons by Beelzebul,
by whom do your own people drive them out?
Therefore they will be your judges.
But if it is by the finger of God that I drive out demons,
then the Kingdom of God has come upon you.
When a strong man fully armed guards his palace,
his possessions are safe.
But when one stronger than he attacks and overcomes him,
he takes away the armor on which he relied
and distributes the spoils.
Whoever is not with me is against me,
and whoever does not gather with me scatters.

“When an unclean spirit goes out of someone,
it roams through arid regions searching for rest
but, finding none, it says,
‘I shall return to my home from which I came.’
But upon returning, it finds it swept clean and put in order.
Then it goes and brings back seven other spirits
more wicked than itself who move in and dwell there,
and the last condition of that man is worse than the first.”
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Commentary on Lk 11:15-26

In this selection from St. Luke’s Gospel, the Lord is challenged by the Pharisees who do not deny the reality of the miracle, but want one of national importance (as befitting the Royal Messiah), as opposed to the one he performs – salvation for the poor and needy. His critics say that he has power over evil spirits because he is in league with Satan, their master. Jesus refutes this idea (he actually makes an allusion to Exodus 8:15 where, by the “finger of God,” Moses brought about God’s will, and the Egyptian magicians were unable to duplicate his actions) asking: “if Satan is divided against himself, how will his kingdom stand?” He then tells his audience that God is stronger than Satan, which is why he is able to cast out the evil spirits.

The passage concludes with a subtle but important message that says in essence: if an evil that tortures the spirit is removed, and strength from God is not substituted to fill it up, that evil will return, worse than before (see also 2 Peter 2:20).

CCC: Lk 11:20 700; Lk 11:21-22 385
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Luke 11:27-28

#466 Weekday Year I Context (Saturday of the 27th Week in Ordinary Time)

#466 Weekday Year II Context (Saturday of the 27th Week in Ordinary Time)

#613 Proper of Saints Context (Dedication of the Basilica of Saint Mary Major, Aug 5)

#621 Proper of Saints Context (Vigil of the Solemnity of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary, Aug 14)

#712 Commons Context (Common of the Blessed Virgin Mary)

#815 Ritual Mass Context (VIII. For the Consecration of Virgins and Religious Profession, 12.)

#28O-1 Context (The Immaculate Heart of the Blessed Virgin Mary)

#35O-2 BVM Context (The Blessed Virgin Mary, Pillar of Faith)

While Jesus was speaking,
a woman from the crowd called out and said to him,
"Blessed is the womb that carried you
and the breasts at which you nursed."
He replied, "Rather, blessed are those
who hear the word of God and observe it."
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Commentary on Lk 11:27-28

This short saying of Jesus is not a contradiction of the woman who blesses Mother Mary; rather it is an assertion by the Lord that the message is more important, in his eyes, than that biological relationship. Mary is more blessed because she heard “the word of God” (see also Luke 1:28-29 and Luke 1:42-45). This passage is consistent in meaning with Luke 8:19-21.

"In the course of her Son's preaching she [Mary] received the words whereby, in extolling a Kingdom beyond the concerns and ties of flesh and blood, he declared blessed those who heard and kept the word of God (cf. Mark 3:35; Luke 11:27-28) as she was faithfully doing (cf. Luke 2:19, 51)" (Lumen gentium, 58)"[5].

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Luke 11:29-32

#226 Weekday Years I & II Context (Wednesday of the 1st Week of Lent)

#467 Weekday Year I Context (Monday of the 28th Week in Ordinary Time)

#467 Weekday Year II Context (Monday of the 28th Week in Ordinary Time)

While still more people gathered in the crowd, Jesus said to them,
“This generation is an evil generation;
it seeks a sign, but no sign will be given it,
except the sign of Jonah.
Just as Jonah became a sign to the Ninevites,
so will the Son of Man be to this generation.
At the judgment
the queen of the south will rise with the men of this generation
and she will condemn them,
because she came from the ends of the earth
to hear the wisdom of Solomon,
and there is something greater than Solomon here.
At the judgment the men of Nineveh will arise with this generation
and condemn it,
because at the preaching of Jonah they repented,
and there is something greater than Jonah here.”
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Commentary on Lk 11:29-32

Jesus is asked again for a sign that would prove to his audience that he is what he claims to be. His response is vehement: the only sign that will be given to them will be the sign of Jonah, the message that they are under a condemnation from God unless they repent and return to faithfulness. This is followed by another reference to the Old Testament “the queen of the south,” a reference to the Queen of Sheba (1 Kings 10: 1ff),  who came seeking the wisdom of Solomon. Using this imagery, the Lord refers to himself as God’s Wisdom incarnate.

The final verse of this passage summarizes the message. Christ’s call to repentance carries more weight than Jonah’s call did for the Ninevites (Jonah 3:1-10) and his wisdom is greater than that of Solomon.

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Luke 11:37-41

#468 Weekday Year I Context (Tuesday of the 28th Week in Ordinary Time)

#468 Weekday Year II Context (Tuesday of the 28th Week in Ordinary Time)

After Jesus had spoken,
a Pharisee invited him to dine at his home.
He entered and reclined at table to eat.
The Pharisee was amazed to see
that he did not observe the prescribed washing before the meal.
The Lord said to him, “Oh you Pharisees!
Although you cleanse the outside of the cup and the dish,
inside you are filled with plunder and evil.
You fools!
Did not the maker of the outside also make the inside?
But as to what is within, give alms,
and behold, everything will be clean for you.”
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Commentary on Lk 11:37-41

St. Luke regularly associates Jesus with the Pharisees. In this case, Jesus is again dining with a member of that group. The Lord is challenged for his failure to observe the strict ritual cleansing required by pharisaic law. In response, he chastises the Pharisee for mistaking external hygiene for purity of spirit, saying that it is more important to demonstrate spiritual purity, especially through giving alms for the poor, than acts of religiosity for the sake of appearance (see also Matthew 23 and Mark 12:38).

As in Matthew 23:26ff, the final part of this section is concerned with “....a metaphor illustrating a concern for appearances while inner purity is ignored (see also Mark 7:4)”[15]. There is a strong reference here to the lack of self-control shown by these leaders.

CCC: Lk 11:37 588; Lk 11:39-54 579; Lk 11:41 2447
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Luke 11:42-46

#469 Weekday Year I Context (Wednesday of the 28th Week in Ordinary Time)

#469 Weekday Year II Context (Wednesday of the 28th Week in Ordinary Time)

The Lord said:
“Woe to you Pharisees!
You pay tithes of mint and of rue and of every garden herb,
but you pay no attention to judgment and to love for God.
These you should have done, without overlooking the others.
Woe to you Pharisees!
You love the seat of honor in synagogues
and greetings in marketplaces.
Woe to you!
You are like unseen graves over which people unknowingly walk.”

Then one of the scholars of the law said to him in reply,
“Teacher, by saying this you are insulting us too.”
And he said, “Woe also to you scholars of the law!
You impose on people burdens hard to carry,
but you yourselves do not lift one finger to touch them.”
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Commentary on Lk 11:42-46

In this passage the Lord continues his criticism of those who believe that ritual practice is more important than the spirit of God’s law. He points at their contributions to the temple, and their neglect of the needy as symbolic of this lack of understanding. In teaching this type of faith, focused only on religious practice, they lead others astray, and in doing so they are doing the evil one’s work. (“You are like unseen graves over which people unknowingly walk.” Touching human remains, according to Hebrew Law caused ritual impurity.)

Likewise, when questioned by the scholar of the law (probably referring to a scribe), the Lord points at his questioner and says that those who focus only on the minutiae of Hebraic Law are missing its intent.

CCC: Lk 11:39-54 579; Lk 11:41 2447
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Luke 11:47-54

#470 Weekday Year I Context (Thursday of the 28th Week in Ordinary Time)

#470 Weekday Year II Context (Thursday of the 28th Week in Ordinary Time)

The Lord said:
“Woe to you who build the memorials of the prophets
whom your fathers killed.
Consequently, you bear witness and give consent
to the deeds of your ancestors,
for they killed them and you do the building.
Therefore, the wisdom of God said,
‘I will send to them prophets and Apostles;
some of them they will kill and persecute’
in order that this generation might be charged
with the blood of all the prophets
shed since the foundation of the world,
from the blood of Abel to the blood of Zechariah
who died between the altar and the temple building.
Yes, I tell you, this generation will be charged with their blood!
Woe to you, scholars of the law!
You have taken away the key of knowledge.
You yourselves did not enter and you stopped those trying to enter.”
When Jesus left, the scribes and Pharisees
began to act with hostility toward him
and to interrogate him about many things,
for they were plotting to catch him at something he might say.
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Commentary on Lk 11:47-54

Jesus continues his attack on the Pharisees. In this passage he begins by criticizing them for giving prophets respect (“…build the memorials”) only after they have been killed. Recounted explicitly are the death of Abel (see Genesis 4:8) and Zechariah (2 Chronicles 24:20-22). This emphasis provides a rationale for the Lord’s own later persecution.

The final “Woe:” “You have taken away the key of knowledge,” is a reference to the Pharisees' rejection of Christ (who is the key of divine revelation). In rejecting Jesus they exhort the people who look up to them as teachers to also reject Christ (“…stopped those trying to enter.”).

CCC: Lk 11:39-54 579
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Luke 12:1-7

#471 Weekday Year I Contest (Friday of the 28th Week in Ordinary Time)

#471 Weekday Year II Contest (Friday of the 28th Week in Ordinary Time)

At that time:
So many people were crowding together
that they were trampling one another underfoot.
Jesus began to speak, first to his disciples,
“Beware of the leaven–that is, the hypocrisy–of the Pharisees.

“There is nothing concealed that will not be revealed,
nor secret that will not be known.
Therefore whatever you have said in the darkness
will be heard in the light,
and what you have whispered behind closed doors
will be proclaimed on the housetops.
I tell you, my friends,
do not be afraid of those who kill the body
but after that can do no more.
I shall show you whom to fear.
Be afraid of the one who after killing
has the power to cast into Gehenna;
yes, I tell you, be afraid of that one.
Are not five sparrows sold for two small coins?
Yet not one of them has escaped the notice of God.
Even the hairs of your head have all been counted.
Do not be afraid.
You are worth more than many sparrows.”
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Commentary on Lk 12:1-7

St. Luke continues to present us with a collection of sayings of Jesus passed on to his disciples. In this passage, he first warns them about adopting the style and attitude of the Pharisees, whose “holier than thou” attitude was a veneer for their internal sin. The Lord tells them that there is nothing that can be hidden from God, and that all will be made clear in the final judgment.

The Lord goes on to encourage his friends, telling them that God will watch over them. He uses the analogy of the sacrificial animals (“…five sparrows sold for two small coins”) as a metaphor for the attacks they will encounter from the Jewish leadership, and how God will uphold them.

CCC: Lk 12:1-3 678; Lk 12:6-7 342
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Luke 12:8-12

#472 Weekday Year I Context (Saturday of the 28th Week in Ordinary Time)

#472 Weekday Year II Context (Saturday of the 28th Week in Ordinary Time)

Jesus said to his disciples:
“I tell you,
everyone who acknowledges me before others
the Son of Man will acknowledge before the angels of God.
But whoever denies me before others
will be denied before the angels of God.

“Everyone who speaks a word against the Son of Man will be forgiven,
but the one who blasphemes against the Holy Spirit
will not be forgiven.
When they take you before synagogues and before rulers and authorities,
do not worry about how or what your defense will be
or about what you are to say.
For the Holy Spirit will teach you at that moment what you should say.”
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Commentary on Lk 12:8-12

Jesus, still addressing the disciples about their mission, brings in the person of the Holy Spirit. “The sayings about the Holy Spirit are set in the context of fearlessness in the face of persecution (Luke 12:2-9; cf Matthew 12:31-32). The Holy Spirit will be presented in Luke's second volume, the Acts of the Apostles, as the power responsible for the guidance of the Christian mission and the source of courage in the face of persecution.”[16]

CCC: Lk 12:8-9 333; Lk 12:10 1864; Lk 12:12 1287
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Luke 12:13-21

#114C Solemnities C Context (18th Sunday in Ordinary Time C)

#473 Weekday Year I Context (Monday of the 29th Week in Ordinary Time)

#473 Weekday Year II Context (Monday of the 29th Week in Ordinary Time)

Someone in the crowd said to Jesus,
“Teacher, tell my brother to share the inheritance with me.”
He replied to him,
“Friend, who appointed me as your judge and arbitrator?”
Then he said to the crowd,
“Take care to guard against all greed,
for though one may be rich,
one’s life does not consist of possessions.”

Then he told them a parable.
“There was a rich man whose land produced a bountiful harvest.
He asked himself, ‘What shall I do,
for I do not have space to store my harvest?’
And he said, ‘This is what I shall do:
I shall tear down my barns and build larger ones.
There I shall store all my grain and other goods
and I shall say to myself, “Now as for you,
you have so many good things stored up for many years,
rest, eat, drink, be merry!”’
But God said to him,
‘You fool, this night your life will be demanded of you;
and the things you have prepared, to whom will they belong?’
Thus will it be for the one who stores up treasure for himself
but is not rich in what matters to God.”
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Commentary on Lk 12:13-21

The passage begins with Jesus refusing to provide rabbinical guidance to a person in the crowd. Such guidance is provided in Numbers 27:1-11 and Deuteronomy 21:15ff, but the Lord saw greed at the root of the request. He uses the parable (found only in Luke) of the Rich Landowner (Fool in some translations) to emphasize the need to focus on the spiritual gifts that do not perish, not just on material goods. He tells the one who wishes to have Jesus arbitrate a dispute with that person’s brother to take care against greed.

The parable has elements of other stories used by Jesus in which the unpredictability of the end of life is emphasized. Speaking to the crowd, the Lord tells them to focus on those spiritual attributes without delay. St. Athanasius used these words: “A person who lives as if he were to die every day- given that our life is uncertain by definition- will not sin, for good fear extinguishes most of the disorder of our appetites; whereas he who thinks he has a long life ahead of him will easily let himself be dominated by pleasures (Adversus Antigonum).”[17]

CCC: Lk 12:13-14 549
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Luke 12:15-21

#886 Mass for Various Needs Context (II. For Public Needs, 13. For a Country or a City or for Those Who Serve in Public Office or for the Congress or for the President or for the Progress of Peoples, 7.)

#921 Mass for Various Needs Context (III. In Various Public Circumstances, 20. After the Harvest, First Option)

Jesus said to the crowd,
“Take care to guard against all greed,
for though one may be rich,
one’s life does not consist of possessions.”

Then he told them a parable.
“There was a rich man whose land produced a bountiful harvest.
He asked himself, ‘What shall I do,
for I do not have space to store my harvest?’
And he said, ‘This is what I shall do:
I shall tear down my barns and build larger ones.
There I shall store all my grain and other goods
and I shall say to myself, “Now as for you,
you have so many good things stored up for many years,
rest, eat, drink, be merry!”’
But God said to him,
‘You fool, this night your life will be demanded of you;
and the things you have prepared, to whom will they belong?’
Thus will it be for the one who stores up treasure for himself
but is not rich in what matters to God.”
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Commentary on Lk 12:15-21

Jesus uses the parable of the Rich Landowner to emphasize the need to focus on the spiritual gifts not just on material goods. He tells the one who wishes to have Jesus arbitrate a dispute with that person’s brother to take care against greed.

The parable has elements of other stories used by Jesus in which the unpredictability of the end of life is emphasized. Speaking to the crowd, the Lord tells them to focus on those spiritual attributes without delay. St. Athanasius used these words: “A person who lives as if he were to die every day- given that our life is uncertain by definition- will not sin, for good fear extinguishes most of the disorder of our appetites; whereas he who thinks he has a long life ahead of him will easily let himself be dominated by pleasures (Adversus Antigonum).”[17]

------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Luke 12:32-48*

#117C Solemnities C Context (19th Sunday in Ordinary Time C)

Jesus said to his disciples:
“Do not be afraid any longer, little flock,
for your Father is pleased to give you the kingdom.
Sell your belongings and give alms.
Provide money bags for yourselves that do not wear out,
an inexhaustible treasure in heaven
that no thief can reach nor moth destroy.
For where your treasure is, there also will your heart be.

“Gird your loins and light your lamps
and be like servants who await their master’s return from a wedding,
ready to open immediately when he comes and knocks.
Blessed are those servants
whom the master finds vigilant on his arrival.
Amen, I say to you, he will gird himself,
have them recline at table, and proceed to wait on them.
And should he come in the second or third watch
and find them prepared in this way,
blessed are those servants.
Be sure of this:
if the master of the house had known the hour
when the thief was coming,
he would not have let his house be broken into.
You also must be prepared, for at an hour you do not expect,
the Son of Man will come.”

Then Peter said,
“Lord, is this parable meant for us or for everyone?”
And the Lord replied,
“Who, then, is the faithful and prudent steward
whom the master will put in charge of his servants
to distribute the food allowance at the proper time?
Blessed is that servant whom his master on arrival finds doing so.
Truly, I say to you, the master will put the servant
in charge of all his property.
But if that servant says to himself,
‘My master is delayed in coming,’
and begins to beat the menservants and the maidservants,
to eat and drink and get drunk,
then that servant’s master will come
on an unexpected day and at an unknown hour
and will punish the servant severely
and assign him a place with the unfaithful.
That servant who knew his master’s will
but did not make preparations nor act in accord with his will
shall be beaten severely;
and the servant who was ignorant of his master’s will
but acted in a way deserving of a severe beating
shall be beaten only lightly.
Much will be required of the person entrusted with much,
and still more will be demanded of the person entrusted with more.”
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Lk 12:32-48

In the longer form of the Gospel, St. Luke explains the example found in the parable of the vigilant servants, which is the heart of the shorter form.  Jesus tells his disciples that the most valuable prize, the prize of faith and fidelity to God, is given to them freely, and that all of their worldly possessions amount to nothing in comparison.  He tells them that the treasure they hold most dearly will define them to the world, and that constant focus on the spiritual gifts is the prize that will win salvation.  The story makes it clear that those who fail, who focus on the things of earth and are not vigilant, will be found faithless and suffer the consequences.

CCC: Lk 12:32 764; Lk 12:35-40 2849
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Or
Second Option:Luke 12:35-40*

Jesus said to his disciples:
“Gird your loins and light your lamps
and be like servants who await their master’s return from a wedding,
ready to open immediately when he comes and knocks.
Blessed are those servants
whom the master finds vigilant on his arrival.
Amen, I say to you, he will gird himself,
have the servants recline at table, and proceed to wait on them.
And should he come in the second or third watch
and find them prepared in this way,
blessed are those servants.
Be sure of this:
if the master of the house had known the hour
when the thief was coming,
he would not have let his house be broken into.
You also must be prepared, for at an hour you do not expect,
the Son of Man will come.”
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Lk 12:35-40

The selection presented from St. Luke’s Gospel is one of a series that relates specifically to the Lord’s exhortation about the end times, the eschaton. Here he reminds his disciples that they must be constantly focused on God’s work (servants of the master – the one God). We see also in this brief reading an echo of the Last Supper as the master reclines at table. However, in the broader context, the lesson relates more to faithfulness.

The idea of placing constant faithfulness first (most importantly present) is given as the moral of the Lord’s parable.  Peter questions whether the parable is meant for everyone or just for the disciples he is addressing.  The Lord then clarifies that any who would inherit the Kingdom of God must be constantly faithful to the Lord’s precepts.  He goes on to conclude that no one may know the day or the hour that they will be called to account.  Finally he tells the disciples, who have been given much in their association with the Christ, that to those which much is given, even more is expected, essentially telling them that they must be examples to everyone, even each other.

CCC: Lk 12:35-40 2849
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Luke 12:32-34

#546^ Proper of Saints Context (St. Francis of Paola, Apr 2)

#584 Proper of Saints Context (St. Paulinus of Nola, Jun 22)

#616 Proper of Saints Context (St. Cajaten, Aug 6)

#742 Commons Context (Common of Holy Men and Women)

Jesus said to his disciples:
"Do not be afraid any longer, little flock,
for your Father is pleased to give you the Kingdom.
Sell your belongings and give alms.
Provide money bags for yourselves that do not wear out,
an inexhaustible treasure in heaven
that no thief can reach nor moth destroy.
For where your treasure is, there also will your heart be."
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Lk 12:32-34

This passage is part of a great compilation of the sayings of Jesus in the 12th Chapter. Here the Lord emphasizes the need of true dependence on God alone, a commandment taken to its most extreme by the religious who vow extreme poverty, depending upon God's mercy for subsistence. True treasure is acting on the spiritual impulses that come from God. This greatness of spirit cannot be taken from the one so endowed. Going further, the saying points out that the one who loves the Lord will do works that are pleasing to him as an natural consequence of that love (“For where your treasure is, there also will your heart be.”)

CCC: Lk 12:32 764
------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Luke 12:35-44

#774 Ritual Mass Context (II. For the Conferral of Holy Orders, 6.)

#795 Ritual Mass Context (V. For the Pastoral Care of the Sick and Dying, 1. Anointing of the Sick, 15.)

#810 Ritual Mass Context (VII. For the Blessing of Abbots and Abbesses, Second Option)

“Gird your loins and light your lamps
and be like servants who await their master’s return from a wedding,
ready to open immediately when he comes and knocks.
Blessed are those servants
whom the master finds vigilant on his arrival.
Amen, I say to you, he will gird himself,
have them recline at table, and proceed to wait on them.
And should he come in the second or third watch
and find them prepared in this way,
blessed are those servants.
Be sure of this:
if the master of the house had known the hour
when the thief was coming,
he would not have let his house be broken into.
You also must be prepared, for at an hour you do not expect,
the Son of Man will come.”

Then Peter said,
“Lord, is this parable meant for us or for everyone?”
And the Lord replied,
“Who, then, is the faithful and prudent steward
whom the master will put in charge of his servants
to distribute the food allowance at the proper time?
Blessed is that servant whom his master on arrival finds doing so.
Truly, I say to you, the master will put the servant
in charge of all his property.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Lk 12:32-44

Using the parable of the faithful servants, Jesus tells his disciples that the most valuable prize is given to them and that all their worldly possessions amount to nothing in comparison. He tells them that the treasure they hold most dearly will define them to the world. The Lord concludes telling the disciples, who have been given much in their association with the Christ, that to those which much is given, even more is expected. Essentially telling them that they must be examples to everyone even each other.

CCC: Lk 12:32 764; Lk 12:35-40 2849
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Luke 12:35-40

#511 Proper of Saint Context (St. Raymond of Penafort Jan 7)

#548 Proper of Saint Context (St. Vincent Ferrer Apr 5)

#742 Common Context (Common of Holy Men and Women)

#886 Mass for Various Needs Context (II. For Public Needs, 13. For the Country or a City or for Those Who Serve in Public Office or for the Congress or for the President or for the Progress of Peoples, 8.)

#906 Mass for Various Needs Context (III. In Various Public Circumstances, 17. For the Beginning of the Civil Year, Second Option)

#967 Mass for Various Needs Context (IV. For Various Needs, 31. For the Grace of a Happy Death, Second Option)

#1016 Mass for the Dead Context (Mass for the Dead, 7.)

Jesus said to his disciples:
“Gird your loins and light your lamps
and be like servants who await their master's return from a wedding,
ready to open immediately when he comes and knocks.
Blessed are those servants
whom the master finds vigilant on his arrival.
Amen, I say to you, he will gird himself,
have them recline at table, and proceed to wait on them.
And should he come in the second or third watch
and find them prepared in this way,
blessed are those servants.
Be sure of this:
if the master of the house had known the hour
when the thief was coming,
he would not have let his bouse be broken into.
You also must be prepared, for at an hour you do not expect,
the Son of Man will come.”
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Lk 12:35-40

The selection presented from St. Luke’s Gospel is one of a series that relates specifically to the Lord’s exhortation about the end times, the eschaton. Here he reminds his disciples that they must be constantly focused on God’s work (servants of the master – the one God). We see also in this brief reading an echo of the Last Supper as the master reclines at table. However, in the broader context, the lesson relates more to faithfulness.

The idea of placing constant faithfulness first (most importantly present) is given as the moral of the Lord’s parable.  Peter questions whether the parable is meant for everyone or just for the disciples he is addressing.  The Lord then clarifies that any who would inherit the Kingdom of God must be constantly faithful to the Lord’s precepts.  He goes on to conclude that no one may know the day or the hour that they will be called to account.  Finally he tells the disciples, who have been given much in their association with the Christ, that to those which much is given, even more is expected, essentially telling them that they must be examples to everyone, even each other.

CCC: Lk 12:35-40 2849
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Luke 12:35-38

#474 Weekday Year I Context (Tuesday of the 29th Week in Ordinary Time)

#474 Weekday Year II Context (Tuesday of the 29th Week in Ordinary Time)

Jesus said to his disciples:
“Gird your loins and light your lamps
and be like servants who await their master’s return from a wedding,
ready to open immediately when he comes and knocks.
Blessed are those servants
whom the master finds vigilant on his arrival.
Amen, I say to you, he will gird himself,
have them recline at table, and proceed to wait on them.
And should he come in the second or third watch
and find them prepared in this way,
blessed are those servants.”
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Lk 12:35-38

This selection from St. Luke’s Gospel emphasizes the need for fidelity and faithfulness to Christ’s teachings because the hour and the day of the Lord’s return are not known. The image used to describe this preparedness, “Gird your loins and light your lamps” instructs the faithful to be prepared for a journey from darkness into light. Similar ideas are presented in Matthew 25 1-13, in the parable of the Ten Virgins (see commentary on Matthew 25:1ff). To gird one’s loins refers to the practice of tucking the long, oriental style robes into a belt in order to move more rapidly (see Exodus 12:11; 1 Peter 1:13). The evangelist makes it clear that the time of the Parousia is unknown and the need for continual preparedness is expressed in the statement “And should he come in the second or third watch…” The Hebrews divided the evening hours into three watches (the Romans four). The third watch would have lasted until the night ended.

CCC: Lk 12:35-40 2849
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Luke 12:39-48

#475 Weekday Year I Context (Wednesday of the 29th Week in Ordinary Time)

#475 Weekday Year II Context (Wednesday of the 29th Week in Ordinary Time)

Jesus said to his disciples:
“Be sure of this:
if the master of the house had known the hour
when the thief was coming,
he would not have let his house be broken into.
You also must be prepared,
for at an hour you do not expect, the Son of Man will come.”

Then Peter said,
“Lord, is this parable meant for us or for everyone?”
And the Lord replied,
“Who, then, is the faithful and prudent steward
whom the master will put in charge of his servants
to distribute the food allowance at the proper time?
Blessed is that servant whom his master on arrival finds doing so.
Truly, I say to you, he will put him
in charge of all his property.
But if that servant says to himself,
‘My master is delayed in coming,’
and begins to beat the menservants and the maidservants,
to eat and drink and get drunk,
then that servant’s master will come
on an unexpected day and at an unknown hour
and will punish the servant severely
and assign him a place with the unfaithful.
That servant who knew his master’s will
but did not make preparations nor act in accord with his will
shall be beaten severely;
and the servant who was ignorant of his master’s will
but acted in a way deserving of a severe beating
shall be beaten only lightly.
Much will be required of the person entrusted with much,
and still more will be demanded of the person entrusted with more.”
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Lk 12:39-48

Following the Lord’s initial exhortation to his audience about the need to remain faithful, even if it seemed the hour was getting late, St. Peter asks the Lord if that message is for everyone or just for the disciples. The Lord responds with a parable similar to that which was used in the previous verses (Luke 12:35-38), and then punctuates it with a special injunction for the disciples. He uses the analogy of a servant entrusted with the master’s property, concluding with: “Much will be required of the person entrusted with much, and still more will be demanded of the person entrusted with more.” The final verse in this passage answers St. Peter’s question clearly.

CCC: Lk 12:35-40 2849
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Luke 12:49-53

#120C Solemnities C Context (20th Sunday in Ordinary Time C)

#476 Weekday Year I Context (Thursday of the 29th Week in Ordinary Time)

#476 Weekday Year II Context (Thursday of the 29th Week in Ordinary Time)

Jesus said to his disciples:
“I have come to set the earth on fire,
and how I wish it were already blazing!
There is a baptism with which I must be baptized,
and how great is my anguish until it is accomplished!
Do you think that I have come to establish peace on the earth?
No, I tell you, but rather division.
From now on a household of five will be divided,
three against two and two against three;
a father will be divided against his son
and a son against his father,
a mother against her daughter
and a daughter against her mother,
a mother-in-law against her daughter-in-law
and a daughter-in-law against her mother-in-law.”
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Lk 12:49-53

This discourse from St. Luke’s Gospel emphasizes the divisive nature of Christ’s message. He has already encountered resistance, and the author sees that his message of peace will have an even more profound influence on the world. It is clear that the Lord knows many will not be able to accept his words, and this will cause enmity among people, even within families.

In this passage, there is a glimpse of the passion (the baptism mentioned in  v.50  shares the image presented in Psalm 124:4-5), and the anguish the Lord feels for the message he is bringing. He sees the flame of faith igniting the whole world. Jesus knows there will be those who accept the proclamation of the Kingdom of God, and those who will reject both it and him.

CCC: Lk 12:49 696; Lk 12:50 536, 607, 1225, 2804
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Luke 12:54-59

#477 Weekday Year I Context (Friday of the 29th Week in Ordinary Time)

#477 Weekday Year II Context (Friday of the 29th Week in Ordinary Time)

Jesus said to the crowds,
“When you see a cloud rising in the west
you say immediately that it is going to rain–and so it does;
and when you notice that the wind is blowing from the south
you say that it is going to be hot–and so it is.
You hypocrites!
You know how to interpret the appearance of the earth and the sky;
why do you not know how to interpret the present time?

“Why do you not judge for yourselves what is right?
If you are to go with your opponent before a magistrate,
make an effort to settle the matter on the way;
otherwise your opponent will turn you over to the judge,
and the judge hand you over to the constable,
and the constable throw you into prison.
I say to you, you will not be released
until you have paid the last penny.”
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on: Lk 12:54-59

The Lord continues his reflection on the end times (the Parousia), and using the analogy of seeing what weather will come based upon the direction of the wind, he asks the people if they cannot see the signs of the coming of the Kingdom of God. Applying the image of an impending court date, at which a judge will pass a sentence, he urges the people to reconcile themselves with the Lord. Using the urgency generated by the uncertainty of the hour of that call to judgment, he exhorts the crowd to order their lives now, and do not delay.

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Luke 13:1-9

#30C Solemnities C Context (3rd Sunday of Lent C)

#478 Weekday Year I Context (Saturday of the 29th Week in Ordinary Time)

#478 Weekday Year I Context (Saturday of the 29th Week in Ordinary Time)

Some people told Jesus about the Galileans
whose blood Pilate had mingled with the blood of their sacrifices.
He said to them in reply,
“Do you think that because these Galileans suffered in this way
they were greater sinners than all other Galileans?
By no means!
But I tell you, if you do not repent,
you will all perish as they did!
Or those eighteen people who were killed
when the tower at Siloam fell on them—
do you think they were more guilty
than everyone else who lived in Jerusalem?
By no means!
But I tell you, if you do not repent,
you will all perish as they did!”

And he told them this parable:
“There once was a person who had a fig tree planted in his orchard,
and when he came in search of fruit on it but found none,
he said to the gardener,
‘For three years now I have come in search of fruit on this fig tree
but have found none.
So cut it down.
Why should it exhaust the soil?’
He said to him in reply,
‘Sir, leave it for this year also,
and I shall cultivate the ground around it and fertilize it;
it may bear fruit in the future.
If not you can cut it down.’”
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Lk 13:1-9

In the story from St. Luke, there is once more a reminder that urgency is required in seeking repentance. The story begins with an explanation by the Lord that victims of Roman punishment ("...whose blood Pilate had mingled with the blood of their sacrifices"), and victims of an accident ("...those eighteen people who were killed when the tower at Siloam fell on them"), were not singled out  by God for punishment. These statements are followed by the parable of the barren fig tree as a way of saying that God, at some point, will become impatient, and will call sinners to account for their actions.

The incidents recorded at the beginning of this reading (likely the accidental death of those on whom the tower fell) are found only in St. Luke’s Gospel. Based upon historical works of the time, the actions of Pilate were in keeping with his character. Jesus uses the event to call his audience to repentance.

“Following on the call to repentance, the parable of the barren fig tree presents a story about the continuing patience of God with those who have not yet given evidence of their repentance (see Luke 3:8). The parable may also be alluding to the delay of the end time, when punishment will be meted out, and the importance of preparing for the end of the age because the delay will not be permanent”[18]

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Luke 13:10-17

#479 Weekday Year I Context (Monday of the 30th Week in Ordinary Time)

#479 Weekday Year II Context (Monday of the 30th Week in Ordinary Time)

Jesus was teaching in a synagogue on the sabbath.
And a woman was there who for eighteen years
had been crippled by a spirit;
she was bent over, completely incapable of standing erect.
When Jesus saw her, he called to her and said,
“Woman, you are set free of your infirmity.”
He laid his hands on her,
and she at once stood up straight and glorified God.
But the leader of the synagogue,
indignant that Jesus had cured on the sabbath,
said to the crowd in reply,
“There are six days when work should be done.
Come on those days to be cured, not on the sabbath day.”
The Lord said to him in reply, “Hypocrites!
Does not each one of you on the sabbath
untie his ox or his ass from the manger
and lead it out for watering?
This daughter of Abraham,
whom Satan has bound for eighteen years now,
ought she not to have been set free on the sabbath day
from this bondage?”
When he said this, all his adversaries were humiliated;
and the whole crowd rejoiced at all the splendid deeds done by him.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Lk 13:10-17

The story of the cure of the crippled woman is parallel to the story of Jesus curing the man with dropsy on the Sabbath (see Luke 14:1-6). He is challenged by the local Jewish leadership for doing “work” on God’s holy day (cf. Exodus 20:8; 31:14 Leviticus 19:3-30). As before, he uses the need to tend to the necessities of life on the sabbath as parallel to his need to cure the woman. He re-interprets the Law establishing the need to please God through acts of mercy and kindness (cf. Hosea 6:6; James 2:13).

CCC: Lk 13:15-16 582
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Luke 13:18-21

#480 Weekday Year I Context (Tuesday of the 30th Week in Ordinary Time)

#480 Weekday Year II Context (Tuesday of the 30th Week in Ordinary Time)

Jesus said, “What is the Kingdom of God like?
To what can I compare it?
It is like a mustard seed that a man took and planted in the garden.
When it was fully grown, it became a large bush
and the birds of the sky dwelt in its branches.”

Again he said, “To what shall I compare the Kingdom of God?
It is like yeast that a woman took
and mixed in with three measures of wheat flour
until the whole batch of dough was leavened.”
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Lk 13:18-21

These two parables describe the humble beginnings and the ultimate growth of the Kingdom of God presented through Jesus’ ministry. While they have parallel passages in the Gospels of St. Matthew and St. Mark (Matthew 13:31-33 and Mark 4:30-32), they are especially powerful for the Gentile population to which St. Luke ministers because of the inclusive nature of the stories.

CCC: Lk 13:20-21 2660
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Luke 13:22-30

#123C Solemnities C Context (21st Sunday in Ordinary Time C)

#481 Weekday Year I Context (Wednesday of the 30th Week in Ordinary Time)

#481 Weekday Year II Context (Wednesday of the 30th Week in Ordinary Time)

Jesus passed through towns and villages,
teaching as he went and making his way to Jerusalem.
Someone asked him,
“Lord, will only a few people be saved?”
He answered them,
“Strive to enter through the narrow gate,
for many, I tell you, will attempt to enter
but will not be strong enough.
After the master of the house has arisen and locked the door,
then will you stand outside knocking and saying,
‘Lord, open the door for us.’
He will say to you in reply,
‘I do not know where you are from.’
And you will say,
‘We ate and drank in your company and you taught in our streets.’
Then he will say to you,
‘I do not know where you are from.
Depart from me, all you evildoers!’
And there will be wailing and grinding of teeth
when you see Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob
and all the prophets in the Kingdom of God
and you yourselves cast out.
And people will come from the east and the west
and from the north and the south
and will recline at table in the Kingdom of God.
For behold, some are last who will be first,
and some are first who will be last.”
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Lk 13:22-30

Jesus has just told the Parables of the Mustard Seed and the Yeast.  Here, the questioner is asking if many will be able to enter the Kingdom of Heaven. Jesus’ answer has two levels of meaning. Entering through the “narrow gate” implies that there is but one set of directions that must be followed to achieve heaven. He says many will attempt to follow these directions but will not be able to because they are difficult.

The Lord’s example of the Master locking the door is an analogy for the end times, the eschaton, when final judgment will be leveled against those who seek entry to the heavenly kingdom. We hear that people from all over the world will be called (see also Matthew 22:14). He concludes saying that some of the last (called to discipleship) will be first (have higher places of honor) and vice versa (similar in intent to Matthew 20:16).

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Luke 13:31-35

#482 Weekday Year I Context (Thursday of the 30th Week in Ordinary Time)

#482 Weekday Year II Context (Thursday of the 30th Week in Ordinary Time)

Some Pharisees came to Jesus and said,
“Go away, leave this area because Herod wants to kill you.”
He replied, “Go and tell that fox,
‘Behold, I cast out demons and I perform healings today and tomorrow,
and on the third day I accomplish my purpose.
Yet I must continue on my way today, tomorrow, and the following day,
for it is impossible that a prophet should die
outside of Jerusalem.’

“Jerusalem, Jerusalem,
you who kill the prophets and stone those sent to you,
how many times I yearned to gather your children together
as a hen gathers her brood under her wings,
but you were unwilling!
Behold, your house will be abandoned.
But I tell you, you will not see me until the time comes when you say,
Blessed is he who comes in the name of the Lord.”
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Lk 13:31-35

In this passage from St. Luke’s Gospel, we hear Jesus responding to Pharisees, who are warning of a plot by Herod. Their motives are not made clear, but we see Jesus using the opportunity to reinforce his role as fulfilling the Law and the Prophets. He declares, in essence, that he is the Messiah. There is a subtle message carried in St. Luke’s use of the number three and one half as well. This number (half of the perfect number “7”) symbolizes a time of dark persecution that will end with God’s glorification (see Daniel 7:25, 8:14, 12:12, and Luke 4:25).

The poem at the end, ending in a quote from Psalm 118:26, is found in St. Matthew’s Gospel linked with the Lord’s triumphant entry into Jerusalem (Matthew 23: 37-39). Placed here (and actually paraphrased again after Palm Sunday), it takes on a prophetic tone, an image of the passion to come.

CCC: Lk 13:31 575; Lk 13:33 557; Lk 13:35 585
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Luke 14:1-6

#483 Weekday Year I Context (Friday of the 30th Week in Ordinary Time)

#483 Weekday Year II Context (Friday of the 30th Week in Ordinary Time)

On a sabbath Jesus went to dine
at the home of one of the leading Pharisees,
and the people there were observing him carefully.
In front of him there was a man suffering from dropsy.
Jesus spoke to the scholars of the law and Pharisees in reply, asking,
“Is it lawful to cure on the sabbath or not?”
But they kept silent; so he took the man and,
after he had healed him, dismissed him.
Then he said to them
“Who among you, if your son or ox falls into a cistern,
would not immediately pull him out on the sabbath day?”
But they were unable to answer his question.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Lk 14:1-6

The miracle of the cure of the man with dropsy (a condition in which there is severe swelling caused by the retention of water) is unique to St. Luke’s Gospel. The issue he addresses at the banquet, however, is also taken up in a different context in Mark 3:1-6 and Matthew 12:9-14. The point (logion) expounded upon here is that fanatical observance of Mosaic Law is not serving God. Rather, the spirit of God’s law is love and compassion which he demonstrates by curing the man.

There is also a pun used in the language Jesus uses. When he says “if your son or ox falls into a well”, the words in Aramaic are be’îrā (“ox”) and berā (“son”) followed by bērā (“well”) giving us insight into Jesus sense of humor.

CCC: Lk 14:1 575, 588; Lk 14:3-4 582
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Luke 14:1, 7-14

#126C Solemnities C Context (22nd Sunday in Ordinary Time C)

On a sabbath Jesus went to dine
at the home of one of the leading Pharisees,
and the people there were observing him carefully.

He told a parable to those who had been invited,
noticing how they were choosing the places of honor at the table.
“When you are invited by someone to a wedding banquet,
do not recline at table in the place of honor.
A more distinguished guest than you may have been invited by him,
and the host who invited both of you may approach you and say,
‘Give your place to this man,’
and then you would proceed with embarrassment
to take the lowest place.
Rather, when you are invited,
go and take the lowest place
so that when the host comes to you he may say,
‘My friend, move up to a higher position.’
Then you will enjoy the esteem of your companions at the table.
For every one who exalts himself will be humbled,
but the one who humbles himself will be exalted.”
Then he said to the host who invited him,
“When you hold a lunch or a dinner,
do not invite your friends or your brothers
or your relatives or your wealthy neighbors,
in case they may invite you back and you have repayment.
Rather, when you hold a banquet,
invite the poor, the crippled, the lame, the blind;
blessed indeed will you be because of their inability to repay you.
For you will be repaid at the resurrection of the righteous.”
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Lk 14:1, 7-14

In this passage from Luke’s Gospel (see also Matthew 22:1-10) the virtue of humility is exhorted in an allegorical parable that depicts the messianic banquet.  He first speaks of the charism of humility using the example of a feast (just like the one to which he was invited) saying that one should assume the lowly station and be invited up, rather than assuming the higher station and being dismissed. He then turns his attention to the gathering itself, telling the Pharisee who had invited him that his efforts should not be to the rich who might repay him in kind, but for the poor, the crippled and the lame who needed his service.  In this way God’s purpose would be satisfied.

The entire story places emphasis on God's first invitation of the Hebrew people and then the broadened invitation expressed by Jesus in the story. When those first invited (the Hebrews) rejected Christ’s invitation to revelation, his message was expanded to include all peoples. The joined imagery of the banquet and the invitation recall that similar invitation extended in Isaiah 25:6-10a.

CCC: Lk 14:1 575, 588
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Luke 14:1, 7-11

#484 Weekday Year I Context (Saturday of the 30th Week in Ordinary Time)

#484 Weekday Year II Context (Saturday of the 30th Week in Ordinary Time)

On a sabbath Jesus went to dine
at the home of one of the leading Pharisees,
and the people there were observing him carefully.

He told a parable to those who had been invited,
noticing how they were choosing the places of honor at the table.
“When you are invited by someone to a wedding banquet,
do not recline at table in the place of honor.
A more distinguished guest than you may have been invited by him,
and the host who invited both of you may approach you and say,
‘Give your place to this man,’
and then you would proceed with embarrassment
to take the lowest place.
Rather, when you are invited,
go and take the lowest place
so that when the host comes to you he may say,
‘My friend, move up to a higher position.’
Then you will enjoy the esteem of your companions at the table.
For everyone who exalts himself will be humbled,
but the one who humbles himself will be exalted.”
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Lk 14:1, 7-11

This parable, found only in the Gospel of St. Luke, gives us Jesus teaching the need for humility. The Lord’s indirect criticism of those who seek the attention of the rich, and ignore the poor, sets the stage for the next passage and the parable of the great banquet. Jesus is giving some wisdom of his own. He first speaks of the charism of humility using the example of a feast (just like the one to which he was invited), saying that one should assume the lowly station and be invited up, rather than assuming the higher station and being dismissed.

CCC: Lk 14:1 575, 588
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Luke 14:12-14

#485 Weekday Year I Context (Monday of the 31st Week in Ordinary Time)

#485 Weekday Year II Context (Monday of the 31st Week in Ordinary Time)

#886 Mass for Various Needs Context (II. For Public Needs, 13. For the Country or a City or for Those Who Serve in Public Office or for the Congress or for the President or for the Progress of Peoples, 9.)

#926 Mass for Various Needs  Context (III. In Various Public Circumstances, 21. In Time of Famine or for Those Who Suffer from Famine, Third Option)

On a sabbath Jesus went to dine
at the home of one of the leading Pharisees.
He said to the host who invited him,
“When you hold a lunch or a dinner,
do not invite your friends or your brothers or sisters
or your relatives or your wealthy neighbors,
in case they may invite you back and you have repayment.
Rather, when you hold a banquet,
invite the poor, the crippled, the lame, the blind;
blessed indeed will you be because of their inability to repay you.
For you will be repaid at the resurrection of the righteous.”
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Lk 14:12-14

Following on the teaching about humility (those seeking places of honor at the banquet), Jesus now goes on to speak of service to the poor and to those who could not be expected to pay (or repay) for kindness or service. The purpose of this discourse reflects Jesus’ concern that his disciples should minister to the poor, not just to those who could repay them for their efforts.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Luke 14:15-24

#486 Weekday Year I Context (Tuesday of the 31st Week in Ordinary Time)

#486 Weekday Year II Context (Tuesday of the 31st Week in Ordinary Time)

One of those at table with Jesus said to him,
“Blessed is the one who will dine in the Kingdom of God.”
He replied to him,
“A man gave a great dinner to which he invited many.
When the time for the dinner came,
he dispatched his servant to say to those invited,
‘Come, everything is now ready.’
But one by one, they all began to excuse themselves.
The first said to him,
‘I have purchased a field and must go to examine it;
I ask you, consider me excused.’
And another said, ‘I have purchased five yoke of oxen
and am on my way to evaluate them;
I ask you, consider me excused.’
And another said, ‘I have just married a woman,
and therefore I cannot come.’
The servant went and reported this to his master.
Then the master of the house in a rage commanded his servant,
‘Go out quickly into the streets and alleys of the town
and bring in here the poor and the crippled,
the blind and the lame.’
The servant reported, ‘Sir, your orders have been carried out
and still there is room.’
The master then ordered the servant,
‘Go out to the highways and hedgerows
and make people come in that my home may be filled.
For, I tell you, none of those men who were invited will taste my dinner.’”
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Lk 14:15-24

This story about the dinner and the invited guests from St. Luke’s Gospel (a continuation of the meal he shares with the Pharisees) is an analogy for those of the Jewish faith who reject Jesus as the Messiah. In the parable, all manner of excuses are given by the invitees (representing the Hebrew peoples) for not attending the dinner (representing the heavenly banquet in the Kingdom of God).  He tells them as a moral to the story, that those to whom faith in God first was given (the Hebrews) have rejected the the Law and Prophets they hold sacred and others (the Gentiles portrayed in the story as those in "the highways and hedgerows")  will enjoy the fulfillment of God's promise.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Luke 14:25-33

#129 Solemnities C Context (23rd Sunday in Ordinary Time C)

#487 Weekday I Context (Wednesday of the 31st Week in Ordinary Time)

#487 Weekday II Context (Wednesday of the 31st Week in Ordinary Time)

#578 Proper of Saint Context (St. Norbert Jun 6)

#582 Proper of Saint Context (St. Romuald Jun 19)

#609 Proper of Saint Context (St. Ignatius of Loyola Jul 31)

#693 Proper of Saint Context (St. John of the Cross Dec 14)

#742 Common Context (Common of Holy Men and Women)

#861 Mass for Various Needs Context (I. For the Holy Church, 8. For Vocations to Holy Orders or Religious Life, 6.)

Great crowds were traveling with Jesus,
and he turned and addressed them,
"If anyone comes to me without hating his father and mother,
wife and children, brothers and sisters,
and even his own life,
he cannot be my disciple.
Whoever does not carry his own cross and come after me
cannot be my disciple.
W^hich of you wishing to construct a tower
does not first sit down and calculate the cost
to see if there is enough for its completion?
Otherwise, after laying the foundation
and finding himself unable to finish the work
the onlookers should laugh at him and say,
This one began to build but did not have the resources to finish.'
Or what king marching into battle would not first sit down
and decide whether with ten thousand troops
he can successfully oppose another king
advancing upon him with twenty thousand troops?
But if not, while he is still far away,
he will send a delegation to ask for peace terms.
In the same way,
every one of you who does not renounce all his possessions
cannot be my disciple."
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Lk 14:25-33

The Lord, perhaps in an action intended to identify those who had the zeal to be true disciples, tells the crowd of the necessity of total dedication to the call to discipleship. They had seen his recent miracles of healing and were, no doubt, hoping to learn wisdom from him.

He tells them that they must place their love of God first, in front of family and even their own lives. He tells them, through two examples – the construction of the tower and the evaluation of the battle – that they must measure the sacrifice needed to be his follower. He punctuates his statement by telling them they must “renounce” all their possessions to follow him.

CCC: Lk 14:26 1618; Lk 14:33 2544
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Luke 15:1-32*

#132C Solemnities C Context (24th Sunday in Ordinary Time C)

Tax collectors and sinners were all drawing near to listen to Jesus,
but the Pharisees and scribes began to complain, saying,
“This man welcomes sinners and eats with them.”
So to them he addressed this parable.
“What man among you having a hundred sheep and losing one of them
would not leave the ninety-nine in the desert
and go after the lost one until he finds it?
And when he does find it,
he sets it on his shoulders with great joy
and, upon his arrival home,
he calls together his friends and neighbors and says to them,
‘Rejoice with me because I have found my lost sheep.’
I tell you, in just the same way
there will be more joy in heaven over one sinner who repents
than over ninety-nine righteous people
who have no need of repentance.

“Or what woman having ten coins and losing one
would not light a lamp and sweep the house,
searching carefully until she finds it?
And when she does find it,
she calls together her friends and neighbors
and says to them,
‘Rejoice with me because I have found the coin that I lost.’
In just the same way, I tell you,
there will be rejoicing among the angels of God
over one sinner who repents.”

Then he said,
“A man had two sons, and the younger son said to his father,
‘Father give me the share of your estate that should come to me.’
So the father divided the property between them.
After a few days, the younger son collected all his belongings
and set off to a distant country
where he squandered his inheritance on a life of dissipation.
When he had freely spent everything,
a severe famine struck that country,
and he found himself in dire need.
So he hired himself out to one of the local citizens
who sent him to his farm to tend the swine.
And he longed to eat his fill of the pods on which the swine fed,
but nobody gave him any.
Coming to his senses he thought,
‘How many of my father’s hired workers
have more than enough food to eat,
but here am I, dying from hunger.
I shall get up and go to my father and I shall say to him,
“Father, I have sinned against heaven and against you.
I no longer deserve to be called your son;
treat me as you would treat one of your hired workers.”’
So he got up and went back to his father.
While he was still a long way off,
his father caught sight of him,
and was filled with compassion.
He ran to his son, embraced him and kissed him.
His son said to him,
‘Father, I have sinned against heaven and against you;
I no longer deserve to be called your son.’
But his father ordered his servants,
‘Quickly bring the finest robe and put it on him;
put a ring on his finger and sandals on his feet.
Take the fattened calf and slaughter it.
Then let us celebrate with a feast,
because this son of mine was dead, and has come to life again;
he was lost, and has been found.’
Then the celebration began.
Now the older son had been out in the field
and, on his way back, as he neared the house,
he heard the sound of music and dancing.
He called one of the servants and asked what this might mean.
The servant said to him,
‘Your brother has returned
and your father has slaughtered the fattened calf
because he has him back safe and sound.’
He became angry,
and when he refused to enter the house,
his father came out and pleaded with him.
He said to his father in reply,
‘Look, all these years I served you
and not once did I disobey your orders;
yet you never gave me even a young goat to feast on with my friends. But when your son returns,
who swallowed up your property with prostitutes,
for him you slaughter the fattened calf.’
He said to him,
‘My son, you are here with me always;
everything I have is yours.
But now we must celebrate and rejoice,
because your brother was dead and has come to life again;
he was lost and has been found.’”
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Lk 15:1-32

Jesus uses the criticism by the Scribes and Pharisees as a teaching moment. He uses parables to drive the point home that God rejoices in the return of those who have turned their backs to him in sin. The parable of the Prodigal Son is a special reinforcement of Jesus’ love for those who repent. It is a reassurance that all who repent will be welcomed back.

The parable of the Prodigal Son reveals the boundless mercy of God. Though our sins offend the Father, he is ever willing to show us compassion and restore us to family life. In many ways the parable narrates the continuing struggles of the spiritual life, where conversion and repentance are part of an ongoing process (CCC 1439, 2839).

At another level, the parable narrates the exile and eventual homecoming of historical Israel. After the reign of King Solomon, Israel split into two kingdoms, becoming like two brothers living side by side in northern (Israel) and southern (Judah) Palestine (1 Kings 12). By the eighth century B.C., the Assyrians had carried off the northern tribes of Israel into a far country, where they forsook God and worshiped idols - a sin the prophets called harlotry (15:30; Jeremiah 3:6; Hosea 4:15). In the New Covenant, God welcomes home his exiled son by lavishing him with mercy and restoring him to full sonship (Ezekiel 37:21-23; Hosea 11:1-3,11). This is especially brought out in Jeremiah 31:18-20, where Ephraim (northern Israel), after a period of exile and disgrace, repents of his sin, is ashamed of his wrongdoing, and turns to God for mercy. It is important to remember that in the Genesis narratives, Ephraim was the nephew of Judah and the youngest brother in the tribal family of Israel (Genesis 48:14).[38]

CCC: Lk 15 1443, 1846; Lk 15:1-2 589; Lk 15:7 545; Lk 15:11-32 545, 2839; Lk 15:11-31 1700; Lk 15:11-24 1439; Lk 15:18 1423, 2795; Lk 15:21 2795; Lk 15:23-32 589; Lk 15:32 1468
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Or
Shorter Form: Luke 15:1-10

Tax collectors and sinners were all drawing near to listen to Jesus,
but the Pharisees and scribes began to complain, saying,
“This man welcomes sinners and eats with them.”
So to them he addressed this parable.
“What man among you having a hundred sheep and losing one of them
would not leave the ninety-nine in the desert
and go after the lost one until he finds it?
And when he does find it,
he sets it on his shoulders with great joy
and, upon his arrival home,
he calls together his friends and neighbors and says to them,
‘Rejoice with me because I have found my lost sheep.’
I tell you, in just the same way
there will be more joy in heaven over one sinner who repents
than over ninety-nine righteous people
who have no need of repentance.

“Or what woman having ten coins and losing one
would not light a lamp and sweep the house,
searching carefully until she finds it?
And when she does find it,
she calls together her friends and neighbors
and says to them,
‘Rejoice with me because I have found the coin that I lost.’
In just the same way, I tell you,
there will be rejoicing among the angels of God
over one sinner who repents.”
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Lk 15:1-10

The shorter version of the Gospel omits the parable of the Prodigal Son, and gives us the stories of the lost sheep and the lost coin. Christian tradition, on the basis of this and other Gospel passages (cf. John 10:11), applies this parable to Christ, the Good Shepherd, who misses and then seeks out the lost sheep: the Word, by becoming man, seeks out mankind, which has strayed through sinning. Here is St. Gregory the Great's commentary: "He put the sheep on His shoulders because, on taking on human nature, He burdened Himself with our sins" ("In Evangelia Homiliae", II, 14).[39] Similarly, the silver coin (likely a drachma) would have been worth roughly a day’s wage in the economy of the time. Both of these short stories illustrate the intense love God has for each person. The clear intent Jesus has in telling them is that his mission is to save all peoples of all nations. A principal difference between St. Luke’s rendition of the Parable of the Lost Sheep and that of St. Matthew (Matthew 18:12-14) is St. Matthew emphasizes (to the Apostles) the seeking, while St. Luke emphasizes (to the Pharisees) the joy of finding.[40]

CCC: Lk 15 1443, 1846; Lk 15:1-2 589; Lk 15:7 545
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Luke 15:1-10

#488 Weekday Year I Context (Thursday of the 31st Week in Ordinary Time)

#488 Weekday Year II Context (Thursday of the 31st Week in Ordinary Time)

#1000 Votive Mass Context (The Most Sacred Heart of Jesus, 2.)

The tax collectors and sinners were all drawing near to listen to Jesus,
but the Pharisees and scribes began to complain, saying,
“This man welcomes sinners and eats with them.”
So Jesus addressed this parable to them.
“What man among you having a hundred sheep and losing one of them
would not leave the ninety-nine in the desert
and go after the lost one until he finds it?
And when he does find it,
he sets it on his shoulders with great joy
and, upon his arrival home,
he calls together his friends and neighbors and says to them,
‘Rejoice with me because I have found my lost sheep.’
I tell you, in just the same way
there will be more joy in heaven over one sinner who repents
than over ninety-nine righteous people
who have no need of repentance.

“Or what woman having ten coins and losing one
would not light a lamp and sweep the house,
searching carefully until she finds it?
And when she does find it,
she calls together her friends and neighbors
and says to them,
‘Rejoice with me because I have found the coin that I lost.’
In just the same way, I tell you,
there will be rejoicing among the angels of God
over one sinner who repents.”
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Lk 15:1-10

Jesus uses criticism by the Scribes and Pharisees as a teaching moment. He uses parables to announce God’s infinite mercy, driving the point home that God rejoices in the return of those who have turned their backs to him in sin. The two parables (the Parable of the Lost Sheep and the Parable of the Lost Coin) show clearly the Lord’s love for all people, and special joy in those who repent. These two stories are followed immediately by the parable of the Prodigal Son that emphasizes this point further.

A principal difference between St. Luke’s rendition of the Parable of the Lost Sheep and that of St. Matthew (Matthew 18:12-14) is that St. Matthew emphasizes (to the Apostles) the seeking, while St. Luke emphasizes (to the Pharisees) the joy of finding. This emphasis is graphically depicted as the author writes: “And when he does find it, he sets it on his shoulders with great joy.” As St. Gregory the Great comments: “He put the sheep on his shoulders because in taking on human nature he burdened himself with our sins” (In Evangelia homiliae, 2, 14).[19]

CCC: Lk 15 1443, 1846; Lk 15:1-2 589; Lk 15:7 545
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Luke 15:1-3, 11-32

#33C Solemnities C Context (4th Sunday of Lent C)

#235 Weekday Years I & II Context (Saturday of the 2nd Week of Lent)

#896 Mass for Various Needs Context (II. For Public Needs, 15. For Reconciliation, Third Option)

#952 Mass for Various Needs Context (IV. For Various Needs, 27. For the Remission of Sins, 4.)

#1000 Votive Mass Context (The Most Sacred Heart of Jesus, 3.)

Tax collectors and sinners were all drawing near to listen to Jesus,
but the Pharisees and scribes began to complain, saying,
“This man welcomes sinners and eats with them.”
So to them Jesus addressed this parable.
“A man had two sons, and the younger son said to his father,
‘Father, give me the share of your estate that should come to me.’
So the father divided the property between them.
After a few days, the younger son collected all his belongings
and set off to a distant country
where he squandered his inheritance on a life of dissipation.
When he had freely spent everything,
a severe famine struck that country,
and he found himself in dire need.
So he hired himself out to one of the local citizens
who sent him to his farm to tend the swine.
And he longed to eat his fill of the pods on which the swine fed,
but nobody gave him any.
Coming to his senses he thought,
‘How many of my father’s hired workers
have more than enough food to eat,
but here am I, dying from hunger.
I shall get up and go to my father and I shall say to him,
“Father, I have sinned against heaven and against you.
I no longer deserve to be called your son;
treat me as you would treat one of your hired workers.”’
So he got up and went back to his father.
While he was still a long way off,
his father caught sight of him, and was filled with compassion.
He ran to his son, embraced him and kissed him.
His son said to him,
‘Father, I have sinned against heaven and against you;
I no longer deserve to be called your son.’
But his father ordered his servants,
‘Quickly, bring the finest robe and put it on him;
put a ring on his finger and sandals on his feet.
Take the fattened calf and slaughter it.
Then let us celebrate with a feast,
because this son of mine was dead, and has come to life again;
he was lost, and has been found.’
Then the celebration began.
Now the older son had been out in the field
and, on his way back, as he neared the house,
he heard the sound of music and dancing.
He called one of the servants and asked what this might mean.
The servant said to him,
‘Your brother has returned
and your father has slaughtered the fattened calf
because he has him back safe and sound.’
He became angry,
and when he refused to enter the house,
his father came out and pleaded with him.
He said to his father in reply,
‘Look, all these years I served you
and not once did I disobey your orders;
yet you never gave me even a young goat to feast on with my friends.
But when your son returns
who swallowed up your property with prostitutes,
for him you slaughter the fattened calf.’
He said to him,
‘My son, you are here with me always;
everything I have is yours.
But now we must celebrate and rejoice,
because your brother was dead and has come to life again;
he was lost and has been found.’“
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Lk 15:1-3, 11-32

The topic of repentance and forgiveness comes to a climax with St. Luke’s Parable of the Prodigal Son, one of the two “Parables of Mercy” found in this section.  The parables distill the essence of the Good News. Found only in St. Luke’s Gospel, the imagery is instantly clear that this is to be an analogy. The father in the story represents God and the Prodigal Son followers of Christ, when they repent their sins. Interestingly, the older brother also represents Christians when they do not forgive those who have also sinned. We are given the picture of the loving father welcoming his son home, an allusion used also in the parable of the Lost Sheep (Luke 15:3-7). The invitation implicit is that those who seek forgiveness find it in God.

CCC: Lk 15 1443, 1846; Lk 15:1-2 589; Lk 15:11-32 545, 2839; Lk 15:11-31 1700; Lk 15:11-24 1439; Lk 15:18 1423, 2795; Lk 15:21 2795; Lk 15:23-32 589; Lk 15:32 1468
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Luke 15:3-7

#172C Solemnities C Context (Solemnity of The Most Sacred Heart of Jesus C)

Jesus addressed this parable to the Pharisees and scribes:
"What man among you having a hundred sheep and losing one of them
would not leave the ninety-nine in the desert
and go after the lost one until he finds it?
And when he does find it,
he sets it on his shoulders with great joy
and, upon his arrival home,
he calls together his friends and neighbors and says to them,
'Rejoice with me because I have found my lost sheep.'
I tell you, in just the same way
there will be more joy in heaven over one sinner who repents
than over ninety-nine righteous people
who have no need of repentance."
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Lk 15:3-7

The Gospel of St. Luke gives us the parable of the Lost Sheep, connecting the metaphor of the good shepherd from Ezekiel (Ezekiel 34:11-16), with the love of God for those who are lost to sin. This parable, along with the parable of the lost coin and the prodigal son, gives insight into the special love of Christ for those who are lost, but are found through repentance.

CCC: Lk 15 1443, 1846; Lk 15:1-2 589; Lk 15:7 545
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Luke 16:1-13*

#135C Solemnities C Context (25th Sunday in Ordinary Time C)

Jesus said to his disciples,
“A rich man had a steward
who was reported to him for squandering his property.
He summoned him and said,
‘What is this I hear about you?
Prepare a full account of your stewardship,
because you can no longer be my steward.’
The steward said to himself, ‘What shall I do,
now that my master is taking the position of steward away from me?
I am not strong enough to dig and I am ashamed to beg.
I know what I shall do so that,
when I am removed from the stewardship,
they may welcome me into their homes.’
He called in his master’s debtors one by one.
To the first he said,
‘How much do you owe my master?’
He replied, ‘One hundred measures of olive oil.’
He said to him, ‘Here is your promissory note.
Sit down and quickly write one for fifty.’
Then to another the steward said, ‘And you, how much do you owe?’
He replied, ‘One hundred kors of wheat.’
The steward said to him, ‘Here is your promissory note;
write one for eighty.’
And the master commended that dishonest steward for acting prudently.
“For the children of this world
are more prudent in dealing with their own generation
than are the children of light.
I tell you, make friends for yourselves with dishonest wealth,
so that when it fails, you will be welcomed into eternal dwellings.
The person who is trustworthy in very small matters
is also trustworthy in great ones;
and the person who is dishonest in very small matters
is also dishonest in great ones.
If, therefore, you are not trustworthy with dishonest wealth,
who will trust you with true wealth?
If you are not trustworthy with what belongs to another,
who will give you what is yours?
No servant can serve two masters.
He will either hate one and love the other,
or be devoted to one and despise the other.
You cannot serve both God and mammon.”
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Lk 16:1-13

The common practice, at the time this parable was told, was for the steward to receive interest or commission on the amounts owed to their masters. Therefore, in this account, when the dishonest steward reduces the amount owed to his master, he is really just retrieving the actual amount owed – hence the master’s praise. Three morals can be extracted from this parable.  "Use prudently the wealth that you have, in order to insure your status within the final age; remember that wealth tends to lead men to dishonesty.  When earthly goods fail, you will be welcomed into the everlasting tents of the Kingdom of God (some Greek texts read, "when you fail.") In this second moralization, emphasis shifts from the eschatological age to day-to-day fidelity.  The Christian must make a prudent, restrained use of earthly goods."[43] The final lesson that can be taken from this passage has nothing to do with the parable's main theme.  It reiterates the expectation Jesus has of his followers, that they have total dedication to him.

CCC: Lk 16:1 952; Lk 16:3 952; Lk 16:13 2424
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Or
Shorter Form: Luke 16:10-13

Jesus said to his disciples:
“The person who is trustworthy in very small matters
is also trustworthy in great ones;
and the person who is dishonest in very small matters
is also dishonest in great ones.
If, therefore, you are not trustworthy with dishonest wealth,
who will trust you with true wealth?
If you are not trustworthy with what belongs to another,
who will give you what is yours?
No servant can serve two masters.
He will either hate one and love the other,
or be devoted to one and despise the other.
You cannot serve both God and mammon.”
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Lk 16:10-13

The focus of this alternate reading changes from the prudent use of material wealth, to one of trust and dedication. The Lord defines trustworthiness as a character trait.  If present it will be there in large and small matters, and if absent, it will be absent in all instances as well.

Concluding both readings is the statement “You cannot serve God and mammon." This is a third conclusion of the story; wealth in this statement is cast as a god. We can have only one master. Emphasis in this form is upon the third moral of the parable, the complete dedication required of Jesus' disciples to the Lord and his Gospel message.

CCC: Lk 16:13 2424
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Luke 16:1-8

#489 Weekday Year I Context (Friday of the 31st Week in Ordinary Time)

#489 Weekday Year II Context (Friday of the 31st Week in Ordinary Time)

Jesus said to his disciples, “A rich man had a steward
who was reported to him for squandering his property.
He summoned him and said,
‘What is this I hear about you?
Prepare a full account of your stewardship,
because you can no longer be my steward.’
The steward said to himself, ‘What shall I do,
now that my master is taking the position of steward away from me?
I am not strong enough to dig and I am ashamed to beg.
I know what I shall do so that,
when I am removed from the stewardship,
they may welcome me into their homes.’
He called in his master’s debtors one by one.
To the first he said, ‘How much do you owe my master?’
He replied, ‘One hundred measures of olive oil.’
He said to him, ‘Here is your promissory note.
Sit down and quickly write one for fifty.’
Then to another he said, ‘And you, how much do you owe?’
He replied, ‘One hundred measures of wheat.’
He said to him, ‘Here is your promissory note;
write one for eighty.’
And the master commended that dishonest steward for acting prudently.
For the children of this world
are more prudent in dealing with their own generation
than the children of light.”
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Commentary on Lk 16:1-8

The common practice at the time this parable was told was for the steward to receive interest or commission on the amounts owed to their masters. Therefore, in this account, when the dishonest steward reduces the amount owed to his master, he is really just retrieving the actual amount owed, foregoing his own extravagant interest, hence the master’s praise. (Given that the steward was being dismissed, this “praise” was provided as an ironic statement to emphasize the lesson or logion.) The moral taught by this story is that we are to be prudent with material wealth accumulated through the use of God’s gifts. Avoiding greed, to which wealth can easily lead, will establish the person in a positive light in the next stage of existence.

Given the juxtaposition of “children of this world” and “children of light,” we also see a moral contrast implying a rather Pauline thought, that we may be viewed as foolish in our love for one another as we do not deal shrewdly with others, but act out of fairness, even charity.

CCC: Lk 16:1 952; Lk 16:3 952
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Luke 16:9-15

#490 Weekday Year I Context (Saturday of the 31st Week in Ordinary Time)

#490 Weekday Year II Context (Saturday of the 31st Week in Ordinary Time)

Jesus said to his disciples:
“I tell you, make friends for yourselves with dishonest wealth,
so that when it fails, you will be welcomed into eternal dwellings.
The person who is trustworthy in very small matters
is also trustworthy in great ones;
and the person who is dishonest in very small matters
is also dishonest in great ones.
If, therefore, you are not trustworthy with dishonest wealth,
who will trust you with true wealth?
If you are not trustworthy with what belongs to another,
who will give you what is yours?
No servant can serve two masters.
He will either hate one and love the other,
or be devoted to one and despise the other.
You cannot serve God and mammon.”

The Pharisees, who loved money,
heard all these things and sneered at him.
And he said to them,
“You justify yourselves in the sight of others,
but God knows your hearts;
for what is of human esteem is an abomination in the sight of God.”
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Commentary on Lk 16:9-15

This passage contains the conclusions or morals of the parable of the dishonest steward. “Dishonest wealth: literally, "mammon of iniquity." Mammon is the Greek transliteration of a Hebrew or Aramaic word that is usually explained as meaning "that in which one trusts." The characterization of this wealth as dishonest expresses a tendency of wealth to lead one to dishonesty. Eternal dwellings: or, "eternal tents," i.e., heaven as opposed to the teachings.”[20]

The lessons taught to the disciples in the second and third moralizations of that story are, first the need to be faithful in positions of responsibility, and then the inability of a person to serve two masters. “'Abomination': the original Greek word means worship of idols, and, by derivation, the horror this provoked in a true worshiper of God. So the expression conveys God's disgust with the attitude of the Pharisees who, by wanting to be exalted, are putting themselves, like idols, in the place of God.”[21]

CCC: Lk 16:13 2424
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Luke 16:19-31

#138C Solemnities C Context (26th Sunday in Ordinary Time C)

#233 Weekday Years I & II Contest (Thursday of the 2nd Week of Lent)

#886 Mass for Various Needs Context (II. For Public Needs, 13. For the Country or a City or for Those Who Serve in Public Office or for the Congress or for the President of for the Progress of Peoples, 10.)

#926 Mass for Various Needs Context (III. In Various Public Circumstances, 21. In Time of Famine or for Those Who Suffer from Famine, Fourth Option)

Jesus said to the Pharisees:
“There was a rich man who dressed in purple garments and fine linen
and dined sumptuously each day.
And lying at his door was a poor man named Lazarus, covered with sores,
who would gladly have eaten his fill of the scraps
that fell from the rich man’s table.
Dogs even used to come and lick his sores.
When the poor man died,
he was carried away by angels to the bosom of Abraham.
The rich man also died and was buried,
and from the netherworld, where he was in torment,
he raised his eyes and saw Abraham far off
and Lazarus at his side.
And he cried out, ‘Father Abraham, have pity on me.
Send Lazarus to dip the tip of his finger in water and cool my tongue,
for I am suffering torment in these flames.’
Abraham replied, ‘My child,
remember that you received what was good during your lifetime
while Lazarus likewise received what was bad;
but now he is comforted here, whereas you are tormented.
Moreover, between us and you a great chasm is established
to prevent anyone from crossing
who might wish to go from our side to yours
or from your side to ours.’
He said, ‘Then I beg you, father, send him
to my father’s house,
for I have five brothers, so that he may warn them,
lest they too come to this place of torment.’
But Abraham replied, ‘They have Moses and the prophets.
Let them listen to them.’
He said, ‘Oh no, father Abraham,
but if someone from the dead goes to them, they will repent.’
Then Abraham said,
‘If they will not listen to Moses and the prophets,
neither will they be persuaded
if someone should rise from the dead.’“
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Commentary on Lk 16:19-31

The story of Lazarus and the Rich Man  is found only in the Gospel of Luke (The name "Dives," applied to the rich man derives from the Latin word "rich" originating in the Vulgate from "Homo quidam erat dives, qui induebatur purpura et bysso, et epulabatur quotidie splendide," some ancient texts name him "Nineveh"[51]). Jesus addresses this story to the Pharisees who were known to be fond of money. In this context we need to understand that all Jewish landowners were considered to be tenants of Yahweh, the true landowner, and they all owed a tax to God’s representatives, the poor.

The rich man’s great sin was ignoring the suffering of Lazarus, and when they both had passed from this life to the next, the rich man, suffering torment, begged Abraham to send Lazarus to warn his brothers. The “punchline” that follows must have been especially harsh for the Pharisaic audience. "If they will not listen to Moses and the prophets, neither will they be persuaded if someone should rise from the dead." This last statement, of course, is also alluding to his own rejection by the scribes and Pharisees even after his own resurrection.

CCC: Lk 16:23-27 2615; Lk 16:24 2615, 2815; Lk 16:26 2815; Lk 16:28 661, 2795
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Luke 17:1-6

#491 Weekday Year I Context (Monday of the 32nd Week in Ordinary Time)

#491 Weekday Year II Context (Monday of the 32nd Week in Ordinary Time)

Jesus said to his disciples,
“Things that cause sin will inevitably occur,
but woe to the one through whom they occur.
It would be better for him if a millstone were put around his neck
and he be thrown into the sea
than for him to cause one of these little ones to sin.
Be on your guard!
If your brother sins, rebuke him;
and if he repents, forgive him.
And if he wrongs you seven times in one day
and returns to you seven times saying, ‘I am sorry,’
you should forgive him.”

And the Apostles said to the Lord, “Increase our faith.”
The Lord replied, “If you have faith the size of a mustard seed,
you would say to this mulberry tree,
‘Be uprooted and planted in the sea,’ and it would obey you.”
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Commentary on Lk 17:1-6

Jesus begins teaching his disciples about forgiveness in the selection from St. Luke’s Gospel. He tells his friends to hold each other accountable and to forgive them if they ask for forgiveness. Even if it is a great sin (“seven times in one day” using Hebrew numerology, this would be absolute sin followed by absolute apology and forgiveness) forgiveness should be given.

St. Luke’s Gospel gives us three sayings of Jesus to consider. The first is an exhortation not to lead others to sin (even though “sin will inevitably occur”). Jesus anticipates a situation that will later plague St. Paul – one of “false teachers”. His (Jesus’) view for these people is that it would be better for them if they had never been born. (Note: while St. Luke’s Gospel he refers to “little ones” meaning poor or helpless, in St. Matthew this saying references adults: “those who believe in me.”)

The second saying involves forgiveness, both of self (“Be on your guard!”) and of others. The use of the number “seven” relates to Hebrew numerology and demonstrates the depth of forgiveness required of the Christian (cf. Genesis 4:24). The implication is perfect or complete forgiveness as referenced in 1 Corinthians 13:4f, 7.

The disciples' request for increased faith is answered in a way that implies that faith is evidenced first by results and understood later. “It is the quality rather than the quantity of faith that must be revitalized. The nuance of the Greek verbs indicates that if you ‘would say…it would already have obeyed you’ almost as though fulfillment anticipates faith.”[22]

CCC: Lk 17:1 2287; Lk 17:3-4 2845; Lk 17:4 2227; Lk 17:5 162
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Luke 17:5-10

#141C Solemnities C Context (27th Sunday in Ordinary Time C)

The apostles said to the Lord, "Increase our faith."
The Lord replied,
"If you have faith the size of a mustard seed,
you would say to this mulberry tree,
'Be uprooted and planted in the sea,’ and it would obey you.

"Who among you would say to your servant
who has just come in from plowing or tending sheep in the field,
'Come here immediately and take your place at table'?
Would he not rather say to him,
'Prepare something for me to eat.
Put on your apron and wait on me while I eat and drink.
You may eat and drink when I am finished'?
Is he grateful to that servant because he did what was commanded?
So should it be with you.
When you have done all you have been commanded,
say, 'We are unprofitable servants;
we have done what we were obliged to do.'"
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Commentary on Lk 17:5-10

The disciples ask Jesus to show them how to increase their faith. The Lord responds to them, telling them that once they have tapped into that power (of faith) amazing things can happen. Then, almost as a caution, he adds the concluding saying.  "'We are unprofitable servants; we have done what we were obliged to do.'" “ These sayings of Jesus, peculiar to Luke, which continue his response to the apostles' request to increase their faith (Luke 17:5-6), remind them that Christian disciples can make no claim on God's graciousness; in fulfilling the exacting demands of discipleship, they are only doing their duty.”[41]

CCC: Lk 17:5 162
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Luke 17:7-10

#492 Weekday Year I Context (Tuesday of the 32nd Week in Ordinary Time)

#492 Weekday Year I Context (Tuesday of the 32nd Week in Ordinary Time)

Jesus said to the Apostles:
“Who among you would say to your servant
who has just come in from plowing or tending sheep in the field,
‘Come here immediately and take your place at table’?
Would he not rather say to him,
‘Prepare something for me to eat.
Put on your apron and wait on me while I eat and drink.
You may eat and drink when I am finished’?
Is he grateful to that servant because he did what was commanded?
So should it be with you.
When you have done all you have been commanded, say,
‘We are unprofitable servants;
we have done what we were obliged to do.’”
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Commentary on Lk 17:7-10

Jesus continues to respond to the disciples' request to have their faith increased. In this selection he uses the story of the servant who could not claim his master’s gratitude simply because he had finished his other duties. He was only doing what he was called to do. In the same way the disciples could make no special claim on God because they did what they were obliged to do because of their call to serve the Lord.

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Luke 17:11-19

#144C Solemnities C Context (28th Sunday in Ordinary Time C)

#493 Weekday Year I Context (Wednesday of the 32nd Week in Ordinary Time)

#493 Weekday Year II Context (Wednesday of the 32nd Week in Ordinary Time)

#921 Mass for Various Needs Context (III. In Various Public Circumstances, 20. After the Harvest, Second Option)

#947 Mass for Various Needs Context (III. In Various Public Circumstances, 26. In Thanksgiving to God, 6.)

As Jesus continued his journey to Jerusalem,
he traveled through Samaria and Galilee.
As he was entering a village, ten lepers met him.
They stood at a distance from him and raised their voice, saying,
“Jesus, Master! Have pity on us!”
And when he saw them, he said,
“Go show yourselves to the priests.”
As they were going they were cleansed.
And one of them, realizing he had been healed,
returned, glorifying God in a loud voice;
and he fell at the feet of Jesus and thanked him.
He was a Samaritan.
Jesus said in reply,
“Ten were cleansed, were they not?
Where are the other nine?
Has none but this foreigner returned to give thanks to God?”
Then he said to him, “Stand up and go;
your faith has saved you.”
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Commentary on Lk 17:11-19

The story of the Samaritan leper, found only in St. Luke’s Gospel, reiterates Jesus’ ability to remove sins. Here the Lord cures ten lepers, outcasts, who are viewed by the community as being under God’s punishment. The Gospel is an indictment of the Hebrews who did not recognize Jesus as the Messiah. Jesus’ comment: “Has none but this foreigner returned to give thanks to God?” is a clear indication that this lack of faith will have consequences. This is especially true when he follows this statement with: “Stand up and go; your faith has saved you.” This would seem to imply that those who refuse to accept Jesus’ status as the Christ would not receive God's salvation.

“This incident recounting the thankfulness of the cleansed Samaritan leper is narrated only in Luke's gospel and provides an instance of Jesus holding up a non-Jew as an example to his Jewish contemporaries (cf Luke 10:33 where a similar purpose is achieved in the story of the good Samaritan). Moreover, it is the faith in Jesus manifested by the foreigner that has brought him salvation (Luke 17:19; cf the similar relationship between faith and salvation in Luke 7:50; 8:48, 50).”[23]

CCC: Lk 17:14 586; Lk 17:19-31 2463
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Luke 17:20-25

#494 Weekday Year I Context (Thursday of the 32nd Week in Ordinary Time)

#494 Weekday Year II Context (Thursday of the 32nd Week in Ordinary Time)

Asked by the Pharisees when the Kingdom of God would come,
Jesus said in reply,
“The coming of the Kingdom of God cannot be observed,
and no one will announce, ‘Look, here it is,’ or, ‘There it is.’
For behold, the Kingdom of God is among you.”

Then he said to his disciples,
“The days will come when you will long to see
one of the days of the Son of Man, but you will not see it.
There will be those who will say to you,
‘Look, there he is,’ or ‘Look, here he is.’
Do not go off, do not run in pursuit.
For just as lightning flashes
and lights up the sky from one side to the other,
so will the Son of Man be in his day.
But first he must suffer greatly and be rejected by this generation.”
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Commentary on Lk 17:20-25

In this selection from St. Luke’s Gospel, the Pharisees ask Jesus to tell them when the Kingdom of God will come. Throughout Luke, Jesus has been denying that the messianic age will come simply by following Mosaic Law and the Prophets (even the greatest of them – John the Baptist).[24] He is now confronted with the question: “Where is the Kingdom of God?” He answers that it is already among them (referring to his own ministry and the effect it has on his followers).

Jesus’ description of the “coming days” is also a reference to the coming destruction of Jerusalem:”(1) Many of the sayings collected here appear in the Olivet Discourse, where they more explicitly refer to the doom that awaits the city and the Temple (Matthew 24-25; Mark 13). (2) Mention of the days of the Son of man (17:22) is echoed later in Luke when reference is made to the “days” when foreign armies will besiege the city (Luke 19:43) and the “days” when the Temple will be devastated (Luke 21:6).”[25]

To his disciples, Jesus makes it clear that his coming passion will cause them to flee, and that doubt will assail them. He reassures them of his eternal presence as he tells them that, once he has gone from them, he will not be coming back, but at the same time he will always be with them (“…just as lightning flashes and lights up the sky from one side to the other, so will the Son of Man be [in his day]”).

CCC: Lk 17:19-31 2463
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Luke 17:26-37

#495 Weekday Year I Context (Friday of the 32nd Week in Ordinary Time)

#495 Weekday Year II Context (Friday of the 32nd Week in Ordinary Time)

Jesus said to his disciples:
“As it was in the days of Noah,
so it will be in the days of the Son of Man;
they were eating and drinking,
marrying and giving in marriage up to the day
that Noah entered the ark,
and the flood came and destroyed them all.
Similarly, as it was in the days of Lot:
they were eating, drinking, buying,
selling, planting, building;
on the day when Lot left Sodom,
fire and brimstone rained from the sky to destroy them all.
So it will be on the day the Son of Man is revealed.
On that day, someone who is on the housetop
and whose belongings are in the house
must not go down to get them,
and likewise one in the field
must not return to what was left behind.
Remember the wife of Lot.
Whoever seeks to preserve his life will lose it,
but whoever loses it will save it.
I tell you, on that night there will be two people in one bed;
one will be taken, the other left.
And there will be two women grinding meal together;
one will be taken, the other left.”
They said to him in reply, “Where, Lord?”
He said to them, “Where the body is,
there also the vultures will gather.”
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Commentary on Lk 17:26-37

In this section of his discourse, Jesus speaks of the Eschaton (the end times). Relating the coming of the Son of Man (the Parousia) to the purges of evil and disbelief of the Great Flood (Genesis 6:5-8, 7:6-24) and the destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah (Genesis 18:16-19:28), he tells his disciples that, in that time, the things of this world (including the physical body) do not matter. Using the example of Lot’s wife (cf. Genesis 19:26), he explains that any attempt to preserve physical reality will be disastrous. It is only important that one believes and has faith in Christ, for the soul is eternal, and the body must die. (“Where the body is, there also the vultures will gather.”)

CCC: Lk 17:19-31 2463; Lk 17:33 1889
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Luke 18:1-8

#147C Solemnities C Context (29th Sunday in Ordinary Time C)

#496 Weekday Year I Context (Saturday of the 32nd Week in Ordinary Time)

#496 Weekday Year II Context (Saturday of the 32nd Week in Ordinary Time)

#942 Mass for Various Needs Context (III. In Various Public Circumstances, 25. In Time of Earthquake or for Rain or for Good Weather or to Avert Storms or for Any Need, Third Option)

Jesus told his disciples a parable
about the necessity for them to pray always without becoming weary.
He said, “There was a judge in a certain town
who neither feared God nor respected any human being.
And a widow in that town used to come to him and say,
‘Render a just decision for me against my adversary.’
For a long time the judge was unwilling, but eventually he thought,
‘While it is true that I neither fear God nor respect any human being,
because this widow keeps bothering me
I shall deliver a just decision for her
lest she finally come and strike me.’”
The Lord said, “Pay attention to what the dishonest judge says.
Will not God then secure the rights of his chosen ones
who call out to him day and night?
Will he be slow to answer them?
I tell you, he will see to it that justice is done for them speedily.
But when the Son of Man comes, will he find faith on earth?”
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Commentary on Lk 18:1-8

This is the first of two parables on the need for prayer found in St. Luke’s Gospel. In this selection, the Lord tells the disciples of the need for persistent prayer so they do not fall victim to apostasy.  He assures them that God, the Just Judge, will listen to their prayers, and come speedily to their aid in times of need.

“As the widow pleaded for justice, so we should persevere in faith and tirelessly petition God for our needs (Romans 12:12; 1 Thessalonians 5:17)” In v.6, “His [the unrighteous judge’s] indifference to the widow’s distress was a violation of justice (Deuteronomy 27:19).  The parable’s outcome is thus a mere shadow of God’s concern for us.  If an unjust and callous judge will vindicate a persevering widow, the Father will much more come to the aid of his prayerful children (Sirach 35:12-17).”[44]

The question at the end of the Parable (“But when the Son of Man comes, will he find faith on earth?”) completes a thought in Luke 17:37, which relates the relationship of the faithful to God at the final judgment.

CCC: Lk 18:1-8 2573, 2613; Lk 18:1 2098; Lk 18:8 675
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Luke 18:9-14

#150C Solemnities C Context (13th Sunday in Ordinary Time C)

#242 Weekday Years I & II Context (Saturday of the 3rd Week of Lent)

#795 Ritual Mass Context (V. For the Pastoral Care of the Sick and Dying, 1. Anointing of the Sick, 16.)

>Jesus addressed this parable
to those who were convinced of their own righteousness
and despised everyone else.
“Two people went up to the temple area to pray;
one was a Pharisee and the other was a tax collector.
The Pharisee took up his position and spoke this prayer to himself,
‘O God, I thank you that I am not like the rest of humanity -
greedy, dishonest, adulterous - or even like this tax collector.
I fast twice a week,
and I pay tithes on my whole income.’
But the tax collector stood off at a distance
and would not even raise his eyes to heaven
but beat his breast and prayed,
‘O God, be merciful to me a sinner.’
I tell you, the latter went home justified, not the former;
for everyone who exalts himself will be humbled,
and the one who humbles himself will be exalted.”
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Commentary on Lk 18:9-14

The Gospel story is the Parable of the Pharisee and the Publican (Tax Collector). Here we find Jesus addressing those who think of themselves as closer to God, and therefore better than those who are not so scrupulous in their worship. It is the second of two consecutive parables on prayer. In this one, the Lord takes a critical stance against the prideful Pharisee, telling his disciples that, like the tax collector, their prayer must recognize that all have sinned and all must be humble before God. The parable carries a message and image similar to the earlier parable (Luke 7:36-50) where Christ forgives the sinful woman in the house of Simon.

Jesus points out that the Pharisee, who focuses on pious acts to demonstrate his own holiness, misses the point of God’s desire for authentic worship, while the humility and authenticity of the Tax Collector will be “justified.” It is easier to hear in the Jerusalem Bible version which says; “This man, I tell you, went home again at rights with God; the other did not.

CCC: Lk 18:9-14 2559, 2613; Lk 18:9 588; Lk 18:13 2631, 2667, 2839
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Luke 18:35-43

#497 Weekday Year I Context (Monday of the 33rd Week in Ordinary Time)

#497 Weekday Year II Context (Monday of the 33rd Week in Ordinary Time)

As Jesus approached Jericho
a blind man was sitting by the roadside begging,
and hearing a crowd going by, he inquired what was happening.

They told him,
“Jesus of Nazareth is passing by.”
He shouted, “Jesus, Son of David, have pity on me!”
The people walking in front rebuked him,
telling him to be silent,
but he kept calling out all the more,
“Son of David, have pity on me!”
Then Jesus stopped and ordered that he be brought to him;
and when he came near, Jesus asked him,
“What do you want me to do for you?”
He replied, “Lord, please let me see.”
Jesus told him, “Have sight; your faith has saved you.”
He immediately received his sight
and followed him, giving glory to God.
When they saw this, all the people gave praise to God.
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Commentary on Lk 18:35-43

This passage from St. Luke’s Gospel takes place as Jesus is returning to Jerusalem for the last time. The blind man, whom he cures, addresses him as “Son of David,” a clear reference to Christ’s role as Messiah. Understanding his faith, the Lord announces: “Have sight; your faith has saved you.” The message is that those who recognize Jesus as the Messiah are saved. As a further testament to the identity of Jesus as Messiah, we are told the witnesses to this healing event recognized the action as a work of God's mercy, not the work of a man: "...all the people gave praise to God."

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Luke 19:1-10

#153C Solemnities C Context (31st Sunday in Ordinary Time C)

#498 Weekday Year I Context (Tuesday of the 33rd Week in Ordinary Time)

#498 Weekday Year II Context (Tuesday of the 33rd Week in Ordinary Time)

#706 Commons Context (Common of the Dedication of a Church)

At that time Jesus came to Jericho and intended to pass through the town.
Now a man there named Zacchaeus,
who was a chief tax collector and also a wealthy man,
was seeking to see who Jesus was;
but he could not see him because of the crowd,
for he was short in stature.
So he ran ahead and climbed a sycamore tree in order to see Jesus,
who was about to pass that way.
When he reached the place, Jesus looked up and said,
“Zacchaeus, come down quickly,
for today I must stay at your house.”
And he came down quickly and received him with joy.
When they saw this, they began to grumble, saying,
“He has gone to stay at the house of a sinner.”
But Zacchaeus stood there and said to the Lord,
“Behold, half of my possessions, Lord, I shall give to the poor,
and if I have extorted anything from anyone
I shall repay it four times over.”
And Jesus said to him,
“Today salvation has come to this house
because this man too is a descendant of Abraham.
For the Son of Man has come to seek
and to save what was lost.”
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Commentary on Lk 19:1-10

In this passage, we hear the story of Zacchaeus, the tax collector, and Jesus. While still on his final journey to Jerusalem, this encounter takes place in Jericho, on the western edge of Jordan Valley, about 6 miles north of the Dead Sea, northeast of Jerusalem. Jesus chooses Zacchaeus’ home for his resting place (an unpopular choice: “…they began to grumble, saying, ‘He has gone to stay at the house of a sinner’”).

Jesus uses this occasion to give us a clear idea of why he came. When Zacchaeus tells him what he has done with his material possessions, Jesus proclaims: “…the Son of Man has come to seek and to save what was lost.” The Lord's mission is salvation.

The story of Zacchaeus is another of the stories unique to the Gospel of St. Luke. The tax collector exemplifies the attitude the faithful should take. He detaches himself easily from his wealth. Zacchaeus' offers go beyond what Mosaic Law calls for (assuming some of his dealings were dishonest: Exodus 21:37; Numbers 5:5-7) to give half of his possessions to the poor, and to make amends four times over for any accounts he has wrongly settled. This action, the Lord tells those present, has earned him salvation.

CCC: Lk 19:1-10 2712; Lk 19:8 549, 2412; Lk 19:9 1443
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Luke 19:11-28

#499 Weekday Year I Context (Wednesday of the 33rd Week in Ordinary Time)

#499 Weekday Year II Context (Wednesday of the 33rd Week in Ordinary Time)

While people were listening to Jesus speak,
he proceeded to tell a parable because he was near Jerusalem
and they thought that the Kingdom of God
would appear there immediately.

So he said,
“A nobleman went off to a distant country
to obtain the kingship for himself and then to return.
He called ten of his servants and gave them ten gold coins
and told them, ‘Engage in trade with these until I return.’
His fellow citizens, however, despised him
and sent a delegation after him to announce,
‘We do not want this man to be our king.’
But when he returned after obtaining the kingship,
he had the servants called, to whom he had given the money,
to learn what they had gained by trading.
The first came forward and said,
‘Sir, your gold coin has earned ten additional ones.’
He replied, ‘Well done, good servant!
You have been faithful in this very small matter;
take charge of ten cities.’
Then the second came and reported,
‘Your gold coin, sir, has earned five more.’
And to this servant too he said,
‘You, take charge of five cities.’
Then the other servant came and said,
‘Sir, here is your gold coin;
I kept it stored away in a handkerchief,
for I was afraid of you, because you are a demanding man;
you take up what you did not lay down
and you harvest what you did not plant.’
He said to him,
‘With your own words I shall condemn you,
you wicked servant.
You knew I was a demanding man,
taking up what I did not lay down
and harvesting what I did not plant;
why did you not put my money in a bank?
Then on my return I would have collected it with interest.’
And to those standing by he said,
‘Take the gold coin from him
and give it to the servant who has ten.’
But they said to him,
‘Sir, he has ten gold coins.’
He replied, ‘I tell you,
to everyone who has, more will be given,
but from the one who has not,
even what he has will be taken away.
Now as for those enemies of mine who did not want me as their king,
bring them here and slay them before me.’”

After he had said this,
he proceeded on his journey up to Jerusalem.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Lk 19:11-28

This selection from St. Luke’s Gospel contains two interwoven parables. The first is the Parable of the Talents (see also Matthew 25:14ff). The gold coins represent the gifts God has given us. The king’s return is meant to symbolize the Lord's final return in judgment. His reaction to each of the servants indicates the Lord’s expectation that the gifts he gives us are expected to be used, and used for his greater glory. We are not to hide them; in doing so we lose them.

The second is the Parable of the rejected King. This latter parable could have had historical significance since, after the death of Herod the Great, his son Archelaus went to Rome to receive the same authority. He was opposed by a delegation of Jews. Although he was not given the title of King, he was given authority over Judea and Samaria. This parallel used by St. Luke would have served to stop speculation about the imminent parousia. A second possibility is that the Lord himself was predicting that his impending entry to Jerusalem was not to be a glorious kingship, but rather he would have to travel to a far distant place (heaven) to receive that crown.

St. Luke’s version of the Parable of the Talents serves to reinforce the idea that the faithful must be diligent in building up the Kingdom of God through the use of what God has provided. Failure to do so (presuming the imminent second coming and laying down one’s vocation) would result in severe punishment.

CCC: Lk 19:11-27 1936; Lk 19:13;15 1880
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Luke 19:28-40

#37C Solemnities C Context ([Palm Sunday] At the Procession With Palms C)

Jesus proceeded on his journey up to Jerusalem.
As he drew near to Bethphage and Bethany
at the place called the Mount of Olives,
he sent two of his disciples.
He said, “Go into the village opposite you,
and as you enter it you will find a colt tethered
on which no one has ever sat.
Untie it and bring it here.
And if anyone should ask you,
‘Why are you untying it?’
you will answer,
‘The Master has need of it.’”
So those who had been sent went off
and found everything just as he had told them.
And as they were untying the colt, its owners said to them,
“Why are you untying this colt?”
They answered,
“The Master has need of it.”
So they brought it to Jesus,
threw their cloaks over the colt,
and helped Jesus to mount.
As he rode along,
the people were spreading their cloaks on the road;
and now as he was approaching the slope of the Mount of Olives,
the whole multitude of his disciples
began to praise God aloud with joy
for all the mighty deeds they had seen.
They proclaimed:
“Blessed is the king who comes
in the name of the Lord.
Peace in heaven
and glory in the highest.”
Some of the Pharisees in the crowd said to him,
“Teacher, rebuke your disciples.”
He said in reply,
“I tell you, if they keep silent,
the stones will cry out!”
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Lk 19:28-40

Jesus is now coming back to Jerusalem and it is clear that the disciples to whom St. Luke is referring are more than just the twelve (“…the whole multitude of his disciples began to praise God aloud with joy”). Included in this number were those who had seen the signs he had performed and had expectations of another kind of Messiah.

The acclamation the disciples gave Jesus in this version of the story is the same one that the angels gave at his birth: “Blessed is the king who comes in the name of the Lord. Peace in heaven and glory in the highest.” It is also the reason the Pharisees asked Jesus to stop them. They did not want the Romans to interpret this acclamation as rebellion against the Emperor.

CCC: Lk 19:38 559
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Luke 19:41-44

#500 Weekday Year I Context (Thursday of the 33rd Week in Ordinary Time)

#500 Weekday Year II Context (Thursday of the 33rd Week in Ordinary Time)

As Jesus drew near Jerusalem,
he saw the city and wept over it, saying,
“If this day you only knew what makes for peace–
but now it is hidden from your eyes.
For the days are coming upon you
when your enemies will raise a palisade against you;
they will encircle you and hem you in on all sides.
They will smash you to the ground and your children within you,
and they will not leave one stone upon another within you
because you did not recognize the time of your visitation.”
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Lk 19:41-44

This lament for Jerusalem is found only in the Gospel of St. Luke. It is predictive of the destruction of that city in 70 A.D. by the Romans. “Jesus clothes his solemn words with the language and imagery of OT prophecy (Isaiah 29:1-3; Jeremiah 6:6; Ezekiel 4:1-3). Because Jerusalem has become a repeat offender, it will again suffer the devastation that befell the city in 586 B.C. with the Babylonian invasion.”[26] The clear meaning here is this event was a result of Jerusalem not accepting Christ the mediator of peace.

Mystically: (St. Gregory the Great, Hom. In Evan. 39) Christ continues to weep for sinners who, like Jerusalem, run after evil and refuse to make peace with God. Their sins hide from their eyes the judgment that is coming; otherwise they would weep for themselves. When it arrives, demons will besiege the soul and the Lord will visit them with his dreadful punishment.”[27]

CCC: Lk 19:41-42 558
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Luke 19:45-48

#501 Weekday Year I Context (Friday of the 33rd Week in Ordinary Time)

#501 Weekday Year II Context (Friday of the 33rd Week in Ordinary Time)

Jesus entered the temple area and proceeded to drive out
those who were selling things, saying to them,
“It is written, My house shall be a house of prayer,
but you have made it a den of thieves.”
And every day he was teaching in the temple area.
The chief priests, the scribes, and the leaders of the people, meanwhile,
were seeking to put him to death,
but they could find no way to accomplish their purpose
because all the people were hanging on his words.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Lk 19:45-48

Following the lament for Jerusalem, the Lord proceeds directly to the Temple in Jerusalem and there displays his power and zeal for “His Father’s House.” He drives out the vendors who had set up business in the outer precincts so that he would have a purified place to continue his teaching mission.

This episode, also captured in Mark 11:11, 15-19Matthew 21:10-17, and John 2:13-22 with different emphasis for each, is best understood, according to scholars, in conjunction with the words of the Prophet Malachi (Malachi 3:1-3).  “And suddenly there will come to the temple the LORD whom you seek.” Jesus quotes Isaiah 56:7 synthesizing it with Jeremiah 7:11 as in St. Luke’s Gospel. This is done to create an environment of holiness in which his mission of prayer and teaching may continue.

CCC: Lk 9:45 554
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Luke 20:27-40

#502 Weekday Year I Context (Saturday of the 33rd Week in Ordinary Time)

#502 Weekday Year II Context (Saturday of the 33rd Week in Ordinary Time)

Some Sadducees, those who deny that there is a resurrection,
came forward and put this question to Jesus, saying,
“Teacher, Moses wrote for us,
If someone’s brother dies leaving a wife but no child,
his brother must take the wife
and raise up descendants for his brother.
Now there were seven brothers;
the first married a woman but died childless.
Then the second and the third married her,
and likewise all the seven died childless.
Finally the woman also died.
Now at the resurrection whose wife will that woman be?

For all seven had been married to her.”
Jesus said to them,
“The children of this age marry and remarry;
but those who are deemed worthy to attain to the coming age
and to the resurrection of the dead
neither marry nor are given in marriage.
They can no longer die,
for they are like angels;
and they are the children of God
because they are the ones who will rise.
That the dead will rise
even Moses made known in the passage about the bush,
when he called ‘Lord’
the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob;
and he is not God of the dead, but of the living,
for to him all are alive.”
Some of the scribes said in reply,
“Teacher, you have answered well.”
And they no longer dared to ask him anything.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Lk 20:27-40

The Sadducees' question, based on the law of levirate marriage recorded in Deuteronomy 25:5 ff, ridicules the idea of the resurrection. Jesus corrects their grave misunderstanding of the resurrection. He then argues on behalf of the resurrection of the dead on the basis of the written law that the Sadducees accept. He uses Exodus 3:2, 6 as an example of the Heavenly Father being God of the living who have passed from this life to the next.

This passage also relates the idea that the risen body is glorified. He states that the body is brought to a glorified state, free of the burdens of age or deformity (“…for they are like angels”). No longer is there earthly need for marriage, that purpose being the continuation of the species. It is not necessary because there is no death in the Heavenly Kingdom.

CCC: Lk 20:36 330; Lk 20:39 575
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Luke 20:27-38*

#156C Solemnities C Context (32nd Sunday in Ordinary Time C)

Some Sadducees, those who deny that there is a resurrection,
came forward and put this question to Jesus, saying,
"Teacher, Moses wrote for us,
If someone's brother dies leaving a wife but no child,
his brother must take the wife
and raise up descendants for his brother.
Now there were seven brothers;
the first married a woman but died childless.
Then the second and the third married her,
and likewise all the seven died childless.
Finally the woman also died.
Now at the resurrection whose wife will that woman be?
For all seven had been married to her."
Jesus said to them,
"The children of this age marry and remarry;
but those who are deemed worthy to attain to the coming age
and to the resurrection of the dead
neither marry nor are given in marriage.
They can no longer die,
for they are like angels;
and they are the children of God
because they are the ones who will rise.
That the dead will rise
even Moses made known in the passage about the bush,
when he called out 'Lord, '
the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob;
and he is not God of the dead, but of the living,
for to him all are alive."
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Lk 20:27-38

This passage from St. Luke’s Gospel is closely is rooted in  2 Maccabees 7:1-2, 9-14. It has the same basic subject, the resurrection, and it uses seven brothers as part of the lesson. The real linkage comes as Christ refutes the Sadducees, whose role, because of their rejection of the resurrection, would ironically parallel the evil king in 2 Maccabees 7:1-2, 9-14. Jesus chides them as “children of this age,” a reference to their simplistic understanding of Mosaic Law.

The apparent dismissal of marriage in heaven is not refuting marriage in this life, but rather pointing to the fact that the earthly purposes of marriage (i.e. propagation of the race through children and assisting one’s spouse to grow in holiness) are not necessary in heaven since: “Life in heaven will no longer require populating the Church and sanctifying spouses. Rather the righteous will live as angles, who beget no offspring and worship God continually (cf. Isaiah 6:2-3; Revelation 5:11, 12).”[45]  (from notes on Matthew 22:30)

“The burning bush episode shows that Yahweh identified himself with the patriarchs long after their death (Exodus 3:6).  If Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob are still with God, then life must endure beyond death and a future resurrection is implied in the Pentateuch.” [46]

CCC: Lk 20:36 330
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
OR
Shorter From:
Luke 20:27, 34-38

Some Sadducees, those who deny that there is a resurrection,
came forward.

Jesus said to them,
"The children of this age marry and remarry;
but those who are deemed worthy to attain to the coming age
and to the resurrection of the dead
neither marry nor are given in marriage.
They can no longer die,
for they are like angels;
and they are the children of God
because they are the ones who will rise.
That the dead will rise
even Moses made known in the passage about the bush,
when he called out 'Lord, '
the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob;
and he is not God of the dead, but of the living,
for to him all are alive."
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Lk 20:27, 34-38

The shorter version of this Gospel story really focuses on the nature of the spirit at the resurrection. Jesus says that, while the bonds of love and friendship remain, the resurrected are like angels for “they are children of God.

The apparent dismissal of marriage in heaven is not refuting marriage in this life but rather pointing to the fact that the earthly purposes of marriage (i.e. propagation of the race through children and assisting one’s spouse to grow in holiness) are not necessary in heaven since: “Life in heaven will no longer require populating the Church and sanctifying spouses. Rather the righteous will live as angles, who beget no offspring and worship God continually (cf. Isaiah 6:2-3Revelation 5:11, 12).”[45]  (from notes on Matthew 22:30)

CCC: Lk 20:36 330
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Luke 21:1-4

#503 Weekday Year I Context (Monday of the 34th Week in Ordinary Time)

#503 Weekday Year II Context (Monday of the 34th Week in Ordinary Time)

When Jesus looked up he saw some wealthy people
putting their offerings into the treasury
and he noticed a poor widow putting in two small coins.
He said, “I tell you truly,
this poor widow put in more than all the rest;
for those others have all made offerings from their surplus wealth,
but she, from her poverty, has offered her whole livelihood.”
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Lk 21:1-4

The widow in this Gospel story represents the poor whose focus must be on God rather than on material wealth. This emphasis in their lives brings them the blessing of God because of their genuine praise and love. The passage is a principal example of Jesus’ teaching on the importance of the gifts of the spirit.

“The widow is another example of the poor ones in this gospel whose detachment from material possessions and dependence on God leads to their blessedness (Luke 6:20). Her simple offering provides a striking contrast to the pride and pretentiousness of the scribes denounced in the preceding section (Luke 20:45-47). The story is taken from Mark 12:41-44.”[28]

CCC: Lk 21:4 2544
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Luke 21:5-11

#504 Weekday Year I Context (Tuesday of the 34th Week in Ordinary Time)

#504 Weekday Year II Context (Tuesday of the 34th Week in Ordinary Time)

While some people were speaking about
how the temple was adorned with costly stones and votive offerings,
Jesus said, “All that you see here–
the days will come when there will not be left
a stone upon another stone that will not be thrown down.”

Then they asked him,
“Teacher, when will this happen?
And what sign will there be when all these things are about to happen?”
He answered,
“See that you not be deceived,
for many will come in my name, saying,
‘I am he,’ and ‘The time has come.’
Do not follow them!
When you hear of wars and insurrections,
do not be terrified; for such things must happen first,
but it will not immediately be the end.”
Then he said to them,
“Nation will rise against nation, and kingdom against kingdom.
There will be powerful earthquakes, famines, and plagues
from place to place;
and awesome sights and mighty signs will come from the sky.”
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Lk 21:5-11

This selection is part of  St. Luke’s version of Jesus' eschatological (end times) discourse. This version differs significantly from the version found in Mark’s Gospel (Mark 13:1-37) in that it does not anticipate the parousia (second coming) within the lifetime of the audience. We note from many of St. Paul’s epistles that the early Christian community anticipated that Jesus was coming again within their lifetimes.

In this passage, Jesus points to events in the future as opposed to those that would have occurred during the author’s lifetime. St. Luke focuses on the Christian Community living the faith from day to day. He relates how Jesus told the disciples of the coming persecutions and bid them to trust in the Holy Spirit who would keep their souls safe from harm.

CCC: Lk 21:4 2544
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Luke 21:5-19

#159C Solemnities C Context (33rd Sunday in Ordinary Time C)

While some people were speaking about
how the temple was adorned with costly stones and votive offerings,
Jesus said, "All that you see here--
the days will come when there will not be left
a stone upon another stone that will not be thrown down."

Then they asked him,
"Teacher, when will this happen?
And what sign will there be when all these things are about to happen?"
He answered,
"See that you not be deceived,
for many will come in my name, saying,
'I am he,’ and 'The time has come.’
Do not follow them!
When you hear of wars and insurrections,
do not be terrified; for such things must happen first,
but it will not immediately be the end."
Then he said to them,
"Nation will rise against nation, and kingdom against kingdom.
There will be powerful earthquakes, famines, and plagues
from place to place;
and awesome sights and mighty signs will come from the sky.

"Before all this happens, however,
they will seize and persecute you,
they will hand you over to the synagogues and to prisons,
and they will have you led before kings and governors
because of my name.
It will lead to your giving testimony.
Remember, you are not to prepare your defense beforehand,
for I myself shall give you a wisdom in speaking
that all your adversaries will be powerless to resist or refute.
You will even be handed over by parents, brothers, relatives, and friends,
and they will put some of you to death.
You will be hated by all because of my name,
but not a hair on your head will be destroyed.
By your perseverance you will secure your lives."
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Lk 21:5-19

St. Luke’s Gospel, unlike St. Mark’s account of this eschatological discourse, does not place the end times as being “at hand.” Rather, he focuses on the Christian community living the faith from day to day. He tells the disciples of the coming persecutions, and bids them to trust in the Holy Spirit, who will keep their souls safe from harm.

“Jesus’ Olivet [eschatological] Discourse foretells the coming devastation of Jerusalem in language that makes use of several OT images and themes (Luke 21:6, 24). His words are confirmed a generation later, when the Romans trampled the city and the Temple to the ground in A.D. 70. The catastrophe was a historical preview of the end of the world, showing how God’s judgment upon the one nation of Israel at the end of the Old Covenant era prefigures the judgment of all nations at the end of the New (CCC 585-86).”[42]

CCC: Lk 21:4 2544; Lk 21:12 675
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Luke 21:12-19

#505 Weekday Year I Context (Wednesday of the 34th Week in Ordinary Time)

#505 Weekday Year II Context (Wednesday of the 34th Week in Ordinary Time)

Jesus said to the crowd:
“They will seize and persecute you,
they will hand you over to the synagogues and to prisons,
and they will have you led before kings and governors
because of my name.
It will lead to your giving testimony.
Remember, you are not to prepare your defense beforehand,
for I myself shall give you a wisdom in speaking
that all your adversaries will be powerless to resist or refute.
You will even be handed over by parents,
brothers, relatives, and friends,
and they will put some of you to death.
You will be hated by all because of my name,
but not a hair on your head will be destroyed.
By your perseverance you will secure your lives.”
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Lk 21:12-19

The apocalyptic discourse from St. Luke’s Gospel continues as Jesus, who has just predicted the destruction of Jerusalem, now tells the crowd that this does not mean the end time has come. He predicts the great persecutions that will take place. The subject of how the Gospel message will divide families is once more brought up.  The Lord informs those present that persecution will take place within families as well as in society at large.

The Gospel being proclaimed by the Lord's followers will result in persecution from every side for the early Christian community. Jesus foresees this time of intense persecution and asks for a steadfast response. By not preparing a defense, he is asking that those persecuted not recant the faith and promises them the reward of the martyrs. The passage concludes with a restatement of the promise of salvation for those who remain faithful: “By your perseverance you will secure your lives.

CCC: Lk 21:12 675
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Luke 21:20-28

#506 Weekday Year I Context (Thursday of the 34th Week in Ordinary Time)

#506 Weekday Year II Context (Thursday of the 34th Week in Ordinary Time)

Jesus said to his disciples:
“When you see Jerusalem surrounded by armies,
know that its desolation is at hand.
Then those in Judea must flee to the mountains.
Let those within the city escape from it,
and let those in the countryside not enter the city,
for these days are the time of punishment
when all the Scriptures are fulfilled.
Woe to pregnant women and nursing mothers in those days,
for a terrible calamity will come upon the earth
and a wrathful judgment upon this people.
They will fall by the edge of the sword
and be taken as captives to all the Gentiles;
and Jerusalem will be trampled underfoot by the Gentiles
until the times of the Gentiles are fulfilled.

“There will be signs in the sun, the moon, and the stars,
and on earth nations will be in dismay,
perplexed by the roaring of the sea and the waves.
People will die of fright
in anticipation of what is coming upon the world,
for the powers of the heavens will be shaken.
And then they will see the Son of Man
coming in a cloud with power and great glory.
But when these signs begin to happen,
stand erect and raise your heads
because your redemption is at hand.”
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Commentary on Lk 21:20-28

The apocalyptic discourse continues in St. Luke’s Gospel. The first part of this section deals with the destruction of Jerusalem (which actually took place in 70 AD). Since this event took place before the Gospel was published, Luke and his community look back upon the event. This provides the assurance that, just as Jesus' prediction of Jerusalem's destruction was fulfilled, so too will the announcement of their final redemption come to pass. The prediction itself is validated by the historical account of Eusebius of Casoria. When the Christians saw the approach of the Roman armies they recalled Christ’s prediction and fled across the Jordan.[32]

The second part of the reading provides a description of the actual events of the end times. The Lord assures his disciples that he will return and those who follow him should not be afraid, even as the terrible signs manifest themselves upon the earth.

CCC: Lk 21:24 58, 674; Lk 21:27 671, 697
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Luke 21:25-28, 34-36

#3C Solemnities C Context (1st Sunday of Advent C)

Jesus said to his disciples:
“There will be signs in the sun, the moon, and the stars,
and on earth nations will be in dismay,
perplexed by the roaring of the sea and the waves.
People will die of fright
in anticipation of what is coming upon the world,
for the powers of the heavens will be shaken.
And then they will see the Son of Man
coming in a cloud with power and great glory.
But when these signs begin to happen,
stand erect and raise your heads
because your redemption is at hand.

“Beware that your hearts do not become drowsy
from carousing and drunkenness
and the anxieties of daily life,
and that day catch you by surprise like a trap.
For that day will assault everyone
who lives on the face of the earth.
Be vigilant at all times
and pray that you have the strength
to escape the tribulations that are imminent
and to stand before the Son of Man.”
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Lk 21:25-28, 34-36

Jesus finds it necessary to remind his disciples not to become complacent in their practice of the faith. It is one of his sternest warnings that the end will come without notice and judgment will be immediate. The final verses of this same Gospel reading concluded the Liturgical Year, having been used the previous day (Saturday of the 34th Week in Ordinary Time) and is repeated to begin the Advent season. This dual use emphasizes that we celebrate not only the coming of Christ in his nativity but look forward to his second coming in Glory.

"It is clear from this short section that Luke (different from 1 Thessalonians) eliminated the idea of an immediate Parousia.  Sudden trials will strike everyone, and so there is need of continual vigilance.  Everyone, however, will eventually take part in the Parousia.  How a person lives now determines how he will 'stand before the Son of Man.'"[48] 

CCC: Lk 21:27 671, 697; Lk 21:34-36 2612
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Luke 21:29-33

#507 Weekday Year I Context (Friday of the 34th Week in Ordinary Time)

#507 Weekday Year II Context (Friday of the 34th Week in Ordinary Time)

Jesus told his disciples a parable.
“Consider the fig tree and all the other trees.
When their buds burst open,
you see for yourselves and know that summer is now near;
in the same way, when you see these things happening,
know that the Kingdom of God is near.
Amen, I say to you, this generation will not pass away
until all these things have taken place.
Heaven and earth will pass away,
but my words will not pass away.”
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Commentary on Lk 21:29-33

As part of his discourse on the destruction of Jerusalem, St. Luke’s Gospel gives us the Parable of the Fig Tree (see also Mark 13:28-32 and Matthew 24:32-35). In Palestine, nothing looks as dead in the winter as a fig tree. However, in spring they bloom to new life (see also Joel 2:22). This imagery is seen at two levels. First, the Lord himself must undergo his passion before taking his place at the right hand of the Father. Second, more prophetically, the Christian community must also undergo trials before coming to its own spring-time of rebirth, alluding to the persecutions to come.

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Luke 21:34-36

#508 Weekday Year I Context (Saturday of the 34th Week in Ordinary Time)

#508 Weekday Year II Context (Saturday of the 34th Week in Ordinary Time)

#967 Mass for Various Needs Context (IV. For Various Needs, 31. For the Grace of a Happy Death, Third Option)

Jesus said to his disciples:
“Beware that your hearts do not become drowsy
from carousing and drunkenness
and the anxieties of daily life,
and that day catch you by surprise like a trap.
For that day will assault everyone
who lives on the face of the earth.
Be vigilant at all times
and pray that you have the strength
to escape the tribulations that are imminent
and to stand before the Son of Man.”
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Lk 21:34-36

This selection is the end of Jesus' final public exhortation before his passion and death.  Some scholars have speculated that the Gospel author could be using a fragment of some forgotten scroll from St. Paul because the Hellenistic form is so similar (see 1 Thessalonians 5:4).

"It is clear from this short section that Luke (different from 1 Thessalonians) eliminated the idea of an immediate parousia.  Sudden trials will strike everyone, and so there is need of continual vigilance.  Everyone, however, will eventually take part in the parousia.  How a person lives now determines how he will 'stand before the Son of Man.'"[48] Jesus reminds his disciples not to become complacent in their practice of the faith. It is one of his sternest warnings that the end will come without notice and judgment will be immediate.

CCC: Lk 21:34-36 2612
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Luke 22:14-20, 24-30

#774 Ritual Mass Context (II. For the Conferral of Holy Orders, 7.)

When the hour came,
Jesus took his place at table with the apostles.
He said to them,
“I have eagerly desired to eat this Passover with you before I suffer,
for, I tell you, I shall not eat it again
until there is fulfillment in the kingdom of God.”
Then he took a cup, gave thanks, and said,
“Take this and share it among yourselves;
for I tell you that from this time on
I shall not drink of the fruit of the vine
until the kingdom of God comes.”
Then he took the bread, said the blessing,
broke it, and gave it to them, saying,
“This is my body, which will be given for you;
do this in memory of me.”
And likewise the cup after they had eaten, saying,
“This cup is the new covenant in my blood,
which will be shed for you.

Then an argument broke out among them
about which of them should be regarded as the greatest.
He said to them,
“The kings of the Gentiles lord it over them
and those in authority over them are addressed as ‘Benefactors’;
but among you it shall not be so.
Rather, let the greatest among you be as the youngest,
and the leader as the servant.
For who is greater:
the one seated at table or the one who serves?
Is it not the one seated at table?
I am among you as the one who serves.
It is you who have stood by me in my trials;
and I confer a kingdom on you,
just as my Father has conferred one on me,
that you may eat and drink at my table in my kingdom;
and you will sit on thrones
judging the twelve tribes of Israel.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Lk 22:14-20, 24-30

The beginning verses of the Passion set the tone for what is to follow. Jesus is fully aware of what will transpire in the next hours and embraces his mission fully (“I have eagerly desired to eat this Passover with you before I suffer…"). “We must therefore approach this mystery, above all, with humble reverence, not following human arguments, which ought to be hushed, but in steadfast adherence to divine revelation.” (Paul VI, Mysterium fidei) [33]

The narrative immediately relates Jesus celebration of the Passover with his disciples. The Old Covenant is celebrated as a reminder of God’s love for his people. Jesus then transforms the celebration into the New Covenant. “As Passover recalls Israel’s deliverance from Egypt, so the Eucharist both commemorates and accomplishes our redemption from slavery in sin. Jesus reconfigures this ancient feast by placing himself at the center of its significance; he is the true Lamb offered for sin and given as food to God’s family (John 1:291 Corinthians 5:6-8CCC 11511340).”[34] The Seder meal which Jesus celebrates is structured based on four cups of wine. The first cup, which the Lord offers is the Sanctifying Cup. Jesus sets this feast as one holy and set aside for the Heavenly Father. The Eucharistic Cup offered after the sacrifice of his body in the bread, was probably the third cup – the Cup of Blessing (1 Corinthians 10:16).

In Luke 22:24-30 an argument among the disciples takes place following the Lord’s announcement that one of his closest friends would betray him. Jesus proceeds to provide the disciples with straight forward teaching about the servant role they were to exemplify. He then promises all of them that, because they will have stood by him, they will also be with him in heaven.

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Luke 22:14-20

#982 Votive Mass Context (Jesus Christ, the Eternal High Priest)

When the hour came,
Jesus took his place at table with the Apostles.
He said to them,
“I have eagerly desired to eat this Passover with you before I suffer,
for, I tell you, I shall not eat it again
until there is fulfillment in the kingdom of God.”
Then he took a cup, gave thanks, and said,
“Take this and share it among yourselves;
for I tell you that from this time on
I shall not drink of the fruit of the vine
until the kingdom of God comes.”
Then he took the bread, said the blessing,
broke it, and gave it to them, saying,
“This is my body, which will be given for you;
do this in memory of me.”
And likewise the cup after they had eaten, saying,
“This cup is the new covenant in my blood,
which will be shed for you.
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Commentary on Lk 22:14-20

The beginning verses of the Passion set the tone for what is to follow. Jesus is fully aware of what will transpire in the next hours and embraces his mission fully (“I have eagerly desired to eat this Passover with you before I suffer…"). “We must therefore approach this mystery, above all, with humble reverence, not following human arguments, which ought to be hushed, but in steadfast adherence to divine revelation.” (Paul VI, Mysterium fidei) [33]

The narrative immediately relates Jesus celebration of the Passover with his disciples. The Old Covenant is celebrated as a reminder of God’s love for his people. Jesus then transforms the celebration into the New Covenant. “As Passover recalls Israel’s deliverance from Egypt, so the Eucharist both commemorates and accomplishes our redemption from slavery in sin. Jesus reconfigures this ancient feast by placing himself at the center of its significance; he is the true Lamb offered for sin and given as food to God’s family (John 1:291 Corinthians 5:6-8CCC 11511340).”[34] The Seder meal which Jesus celebrates is structured based on four cups of wine. The first cup, which the Lord offers is the Sanctifying Cup. Jesus sets this feast as one holy and set aside for the Heavenly Father. The Eucharistic Cup offered after the sacrifice of his body in the bread, was probably the third cup – the Cup of Blessing (1 Corinthians 10:16).

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Luke 22:14-23:56*

#38C Solemnities C Context (Palm Sunday of the Lord’s Passion C)

When the hour came,
Jesus took his place at table with the apostles.
He said to them,
“I have eagerly desired to eat this Passover with you before I suffer,
for, I tell you, I shall not eat it again
until there is fulfillment in the kingdom of God.”
Then he took a cup, gave thanks, and said,
“Take this and share it among yourselves;
for I tell you that from this time on
I shall not drink of the fruit of the vine
until the kingdom of God comes.”
Then he took the bread, said the blessing,
broke it, and gave it to them, saying,
“This is my body, which will be given for you;
do this in memory of me.”
And likewise the cup after they had eaten, saying,
“This cup is the new covenant in my blood,
which will be shed for you.

“And yet behold, the hand of the one who is to betray me
is with me on the table;
for the Son of Man indeed goes as it has been determined;
but woe to that man by whom he is betrayed.”
And they began to debate among themselves
who among them would do such a deed.

Then an argument broke out among them
about which of them should be regarded as the greatest.
He said to them,
“The kings of the Gentiles lord it over them
and those in authority over them are addressed as ‘Benefactors’;
but among you it shall not be so.
Rather, let the greatest among you be as the youngest,
and the leader as the servant.
For who is greater:
the one seated at table or the one who serves?
Is it not the one seated at table?
I am among you as the one who serves.
It is you who have stood by me in my trials;
and I confer a kingdom on you,
just as my Father has conferred one on me,
that you may eat and drink at my table in my kingdom;
and you will sit on thrones
judging the twelve tribes of Israel.

“Simon, Simon, behold Satan has demanded
to sift all of you like wheat,
but I have prayed that your own faith may not fail;
and once you have turned back,
you must strengthen your brothers.”
He said to him,
“Lord, I am prepared to go to prison and to die with you.”
But he replied,
“I tell you, Peter, before the cock crows this day,
you will deny three times that you know me.”

He said to them,
“When I sent you forth without a money bag or a sack or sandals,
were you in need of anything?”
“No, nothing, “ they replied.
He said to them,
“But now one who has a money bag should take it,
and likewise a sack,
and one who does not have a sword
should sell his cloak and buy one.
For I tell you that this Scripture must be fulfilled in me,
namely, He was counted among the wicked;
and indeed what is written about me is coming to fulfillment.”
Then they said,
“Lord, look, there are two swords here.”
But he replied, “It is enough!”

Then going out, he went, as was his custom, to the Mount of Olives,
and the disciples followed him.
When he arrived at the place he said to them,
“Pray that you may not undergo the test.”
After withdrawing about a stone’s throw from them and kneeling,
he prayed, saying, “Father, if you are willing,
take this cup away from me;
still, not my will but yours be done.”
And to strengthen him an angel from heaven appeared to him.
He was in such agony and he prayed so fervently
that his sweat became like drops of blood
falling on the ground.
When he rose from prayer and returned to his disciples,
he found them sleeping from grief.
He said to them, “Why are you sleeping?
Get up and pray that you may not undergo the test.”

While he was still speaking, a crowd approached
and in front was one of the Twelve, a man named Judas.
He went up to Jesus to kiss him.
Jesus said to him,
“Judas, are you betraying the Son of Man with a kiss?”
His disciples realized what was about to happen, and they asked,
“Lord, shall we strike with a sword?”
And one of them struck the high priest’s servant
and cut off his right ear.
But Jesus said in reply,
“Stop, no more of this!”
Then he touched the servant’s ear and healed him.
And Jesus said to the chief priests and temple guards
and elders who had come for him,
“Have you come out as against a robber, with swords and clubs?
Day after day I was with you in the temple area,
and you did not seize me;
but this is your hour, the time for the power of darkness.”

After arresting him they led him away
and took him into the house of the high priest;
Peter was following at a distance.
They lit a fire in the middle of the courtyard and sat around it,
and Peter sat down with them.
When a maid saw him seated in the light,
she looked intently at him and said,
“This man too was with him.”
But he denied it saying,
“Woman, I do not know him.”
A short while later someone else saw him and said,
“You too are one of them”;
but Peter answered, “My friend, I am not.”
About an hour later, still another insisted,
“Assuredly, this man too was with him,
for he also is a Galilean.”
But Peter said,
“My friend, I do not know what you are talking about.”
Just as he was saying this, the cock crowed,
and the Lord turned and looked at Peter;
and Peter remembered the word of the Lord,
how he had said to him,
“Before the cock crows today, you will deny me three times.”
He went out and began to weep bitterly.
The men who held Jesus in custody were ridiculing and beating him.
They blindfolded him and questioned him, saying,
“Prophesy! Who is it that struck you?”
And they reviled him in saying many other things against him.
When day came the council of elders of the people met,
both chief priests and scribes,
and they brought him before their Sanhedrin.
They said, “If you are the Christ, tell us, “
but he replied to them, “If I tell you, you will not believe,
and if I question, you will not respond.
But from this time on the Son of Man will be seated
at the right hand of the power of God.”
They all asked, “Are you then the Son of God?”
He replied to them, “You say that I am.”
Then they said, “What further need have we for testimony?
We have heard it from his own mouth.”

Then the whole assembly of them arose and brought him before Pilate.
They brought charges against him, saying,
“We found this man misleading our people;
he opposes the payment of taxes to Caesar
and maintains that he is the Christ, a king.”
Pilate asked him, “Are you the king of the Jews?”
He said to him in reply, “You say so.”
Pilate then addressed the chief priests and the crowds,
“I find this man not guilty.”
But they were adamant and said,
“He is inciting the people with his teaching throughout all Judea,
from Galilee where he began even to here.”

On hearing this Pilate asked if the man was a Galilean;
and upon learning that he was under Herod’s jurisdiction,
he sent him to Herod who was in Jerusalem at that time.
Herod was very glad to see Jesus;
he had been wanting to see him for a long time,
for he had heard about him
and had been hoping to see him perform some sign.
He questioned him at length,
but he gave him no answer.
The chief priests and scribes, meanwhile,
stood by accusing him harshly.
Herod and his soldiers treated him contemptuously and mocked him,
and after clothing him in resplendent garb,
he sent him back to Pilate.
Herod and Pilate became friends that very day,
even though they had been enemies formerly.
Pilate then summoned the chief priests, the rulers, and the people
and said to them, “You brought this man to me
and accused him of inciting the people to revolt.
I have conducted my investigation in your presence
and have not found this man guilty
of the charges you have brought against him,
nor did Herod, for he sent him back to us.
So no capital crime has been committed by him.
Therefore I shall have him flogged and then release him.”

But all together they shouted out,
“Away with this man!
Release Barabbas to us.”
— Now Barabbas had been imprisoned for a rebellion
that had taken place in the city and for murder. —
Again Pilate addressed them, still wishing to release Jesus,
but they continued their shouting,
“Crucify him! Crucify him!”
Pilate addressed them a third time,
“What evil has this man done?
I found him guilty of no capital crime.
Therefore I shall have him flogged and then release him.”
With loud shouts, however,
they persisted in calling for his crucifixion,
and their voices prevailed.
The verdict of Pilate was that their demand should be granted.
So he released the man who had been imprisoned
for rebellion and murder, for whom they asked,
and he handed Jesus over to them to deal with as they wished.

As they led him away
they took hold of a certain Simon, a Cyrenian,
who was coming in from the country;
and after laying the cross on him,
they made him carry it behind Jesus.
A large crowd of people followed Jesus,
including many women who mourned and lamented him.
Jesus turned to them and said,
“Daughters of Jerusalem, do not weep for me;
weep instead for yourselves and for your children
for indeed, the days are coming when people will say,
‘Blessed are the barren,
the wombs that never bore
and the breasts that never nursed.’
At that time people will say to the mountains,
‘Fall upon us!’
and to the hills, ‘Cover us!’
for if these things are done when the wood is green
what will happen when it is dry?”
Now two others, both criminals,
were led away with him to be executed.

When they came to the place called the Skull,
they crucified him and the criminals there,
one on his right, the other on his left.
Then Jesus said,
“Father, forgive them, they know not what they do.”
They divided his garments by casting lots.
The people stood by and watched;
the rulers, meanwhile, sneered at him and said,
“He saved others, let him save himself
if he is the chosen one, the Christ of God.”
Even the soldiers jeered at him.
As they approached to offer him wine they called out,
“If you are King of the Jews, save yourself.”
Above him there was an inscription that read,
“This is the King of the Jews.”

Now one of the criminals hanging there reviled Jesus, saying,
“Are you not the Christ?
Save yourself and us.”
The other, however, rebuking him, said in reply,
“Have you no fear of God,
for you are subject to the same condemnation?
And indeed, we have been condemned justly,
for the sentence we received corresponds to our crimes,
but this man has done nothing criminal.”
Then he said,
“Jesus, remember me when you come into your kingdom.”
He replied to him,
“Amen, I say to you,
today you will be with me in Paradise.”

It was now about noon and darkness came over the whole land
until three in the afternoon
because of an eclipse of the sun.
Then the veil of the temple was torn down the middle.
Jesus cried out in a loud voice,
“Father, into your hands I commend my spirit”;
and when he had said this he breathed his last.

Here all kneel and pause for a short time.

The centurion who witnessed what had happened glorified God and said,
“This man was innocent beyond doubt.”
When all the people who had gathered for this spectacle saw what had happened,
they returned home beating their breasts;
but all his acquaintances stood at a distance,
including the women who had followed him from Galilee
and saw these events.
Now there was a virtuous and righteous man named Joseph who,
though he was a member of the council,
had not consented to their plan of action.
He came from the Jewish town of Arimathea
and was awaiting the kingdom of God.
He went to Pilate and asked for the body of Jesus.
After he had taken the body down,
he wrapped it in a linen cloth
and laid him in a rock-hewn tomb
in which no one had yet been buried.
It was the day of preparation,
and the sabbath was about to begin.
The women who had come from Galilee with him followed behind,
and when they had seen the tomb
and the way in which his body was laid in it,
they returned and prepared spices and perfumed oils.
Then they rested on the sabbath according to the commandment.
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Commentary on Lk 22:14—23:56

The passion according to St. Luke recounts the “Last Supper,” the “Prayer in the Garden,” as well as Jesus' arrest, trial, conviction, and execution.

The Last Supper (Luke 22:14-38)

The beginning verses of the Passion set the tone for what is to follow. Jesus is fully aware of what will transpire in the next hours and embraces his mission fully (“I have eagerly desired to eat this Passover with you before I suffer…"). “We must therefore approach this mystery, above all, with humble reverence, not following human arguments, which ought to be hushed, but in steadfast adherence to divine revelation.” (Paul VI, Mysterium fidei) [33]

The narrative immediately relates Jesus' celebration of the Passover with his disciples. The Old Covenant is celebrated as a reminder of God’s love for his people. Jesus then transforms the celebration into the New Covenant. “As Passover recalls Israel’s deliverance from Egypt, so the Eucharist both commemorates and accomplishes our redemption from slavery in sin. Jesus reconfigures this ancient feast by placing himself at the center of its significance; he is the true Lamb offered for sin and given as food to God’s family (John 1:29; 1 Corinthians 5:6-8; CCC 1151, 1340).”[34] The Seder meal which Jesus celebrates is structured based on four cups of wine. The first cup which the Lord offers is the Sanctifying Cup. Jesus sets this feast as one holy and set aside for the Heavenly Father. The Eucharistic Cup, offered after the sacrifice of his body in the bread, was probably the third cup, the Cup of Blessing (1 Corinthians 10:16).

In Luke 22:24-30 an argument among the disciples takes place following the Lord’s announcement that one of his closest friends would betray him. Jesus proceeds to provide the disciples with straightforward teaching about the servant role they were to exemplify. He then promises all of them that, because they will have stood by him, they will also be with him in heaven.

Following this part of the discourse, Jesus predicts Peter’s denials. In Mark 14:27-31 and Matthew 26:31-35 this discussion takes place as the disciples walk with Jesus to the garden at Gethsemane. In Luke it takes place in the upper room. Here, “the theme of trials (v. 28) is continued and has some implications for the Eucharistic celebration. The intimacy of the dinner table casts deeper shadows of shame and guilt about Peter’s denials; Jesus’ anticipated forgiveness lays down a basic condition how Christians are to approach the table.”[35] Peter has already been told by Christ that he is to have a special and important role in continuing the Lord’s ministry. He was told he would be Cephas; “The Rock” upon which the Church would be built (John 1:42). This promise is not withdrawn as Jesus tells Peter he will fail to support the Lord. He will fail but he will not lose faith. “As St. John Chrysostom comments, it is as if our Lord were saying to Peter, ‘I have not prayed that you may not deny me but that your faith may not fail.’ (Hom. On St. Matthew, 3).”[36] Using the denials of Peter as a point of departure, Jesus predicts his coming passion using a reference from Isaiah 53:12 “He was counted among the wicked.” He effectively warns the disciples of the approaching spiritual battle. His response, when they misunderstand that he is using metaphor when he speaks of swords, is clearly one of frustration “It is enough!

Gethsemane (Luke 22:39-63)

Jesus takes his disciples “as was his custom” to the garden. Only in St. Luke’s Gospel do we understand that he frequently uses this place to pray. The owner must have been a friend to allow this access. Jesus moves away from the disciples for private prayer. The imminent sense of his trials causes him to go into intense prayer. Only in this situation do we find Jesus explicitly kneeling in prayer, completely humble before his Father. He shows his human frailty in the fear of what is to come. At the same time he demonstrates his complete obedience in the prayer he offers. In a singular gift of loving grace, God’s messenger, an angel appeared to him, offering God’s consolation. We note that another time when angels were present in Jesus’ life was during his temptation in the desert (Matthew 4:11 and Mark 1:13). Following his prayer which we are told was so intense that “…his sweat became like drops of blood” Jesus returns to his friends and finds them asleep, pleading again that they may not suffer as he is about to suffer.

Even as the Lord is chastising his disciples his betrayer approaches. Judas is to use a pre-arranged signal (Matthew 26:48) to identify Jesus to the guards who have come with him. Even at this point, the Lord attempts to offer his disciple a path to redemption saying “Judas, are you betraying the Son of Man with a kiss?” How tenderly he offers this question in the face of Judas’ deed. The disciples, however, seeing the threat respond with violence; one of them (Simon Peter – John 18:10) striking the High Priest’s servant (Malchus), cutting off his ear. Jesus touches the slave and heals him, putting an end to resistance from his disciples and performing his last healing miracle before his death.

The arrest plays out as Jesus places the action in its proper light. He first asks why they have chosen this time and place (night and remote). He speaks plainly – it is a cowardly act of darkness. He submits and is lead away to the house of the high priest. In Luke’s story no mention is made of what became of the other disciples. We hear only of Peter following along at a distance. When they arrive at the house of the high priest, Peter is questioned and fulfills the Lord’s prophecy in denying Jesus three times. The numerical significance is clear. Peter denied Christ completely in the third repetition. While Peter is fulfilling his destiny, Jesus is undergoing the first of his humiliations and scourging at the hands of the temple guards.

The Trial(s) (Luke 22:64–23-25)

When Luke’s account of Jesus’ trial before the Sanhedrin is compared with the accounts from Matthew 26:59-66 and Mark 14:53-64 it appears as if there are two trials before the Jewish Leadership. Their first of these, at night, reported in Matthew and Mark, would have established the charges to be leveled against Jesus. In Luke, the daytime trial before the whole Sanhedrin takes place. The Jewish leaders want a charge that merits the death penalty and so attempt to use blasphemy as their avenue. Under questioning, Jesus is fully aware of the intention of the Sanhedrin and confirms that he is the Messiah, at which point the assembly takes him before the Roman Procurator, Pilate.

The accusations placed before Pilate are intended to paint the Lord as a revolutionary rather than one who is the target of religious zeal. They charge him with refuting the authority of Caesar and attempting to assume political power in opposition to Roman rule. If these charges had been authentic, Pilate would not have hesitated to condemn Jesus to death. However, in the exchange between Pilate and Jesus, no such resistance to the Roman rule is seen. Indeed Jesus likely makes an impression on Pilate who quickly finds Jesus not guilty. Those who brought the charges immediately challenge the innocent verdict. Pilate discovers that Jesus is a Galilean and therefore belongs to Herod’s jurisdiction and defers the decision to him.

 Jesus' trial before Herod is uneventful since Jesus stands mute before him. Herod for his part was looking forward to being shown a sign, like the ones he had heard of in Jesus' public ministry. Instead, he sends him back to Pilate with no real evidence of wrong doing either way. He does, however mock the Lord intending humiliation as punishment.

When Jesus arrives before Pilate again, the Procurator clearly intends to release Jesus after having scourged him. The Jewish leadership is adamant that Jesus is a threat to Roman rule and becomes increasingly more agitated, finally demanding that he be crucified. They asked instead that Barabbas be released. (Barabbas was, according to historical accounts a zealot and a revolutionary). Because of the zeal of the crowd demanding Jesus’ death, Pilate finally accedes to their demand.

The Crucifixion of Jesus (Luke 23:26-43)

Jesus, now condemned is led away to the place of execution. Reference is made in Luke 23:35-43 to the most grievous charge leveled against Jesus before Pilot. The Sanhedrin told the Proconsul that Jesus had claimed kingship over the Jews in opposition to the rule of Caesar. We recall that at the head of the Cross was a sign that read “Jesus of Nazareth, King of the Jews”.

Luke’s account, while it omits a number of events such as the crowning with thorns and the taunting of Jesus by the Pretorian guards, expands the agonizing journey to the place of execution into the description of the Way of the Cross.

At Golgotha (The Place of the Skull) (Note: Luke does not use this name. The later term Calvary comes from the Latin word for skull – calvaria.), Jesus is crucified with two criminals to further fulfill the prophecy from Isaiah 53:8ff wherein the Messiah is assigned a place among evildoers though he has done no wrong. In this part of the Passion we hear the jeering of those in leadership because of what they perceived to be the Christ’s ironic fate. Even one of the two criminals begins to take up the insult but is silenced by the other who seems to understand that the kingdom of Jesus is not of this world, but rather the Kingdom of God. Demonstrating the love only the Savior is capable of, the Lord forgives those who have tortured and crucified him even as his life’s blood flows down the wood of the cross.

The Death and Burial of Jesus (Luke 23:44-56)

As the Savior cries out and breathes his last several events occur that are significant to the life of the Church. The darkening of the sky occurs signifying that the light of Jesus who once walked the earth as a sign of God’s unimaginable love for his people has departed from this life. The curtain in the Temple being torn in the middle is significant as it depicts the destruction of the old covenant and the beginning of the New Covenant. “The curtain being referred to was the one hanging between the Holy Place and the Holy of Holies (Exodus 26:31ff). In Hebrews 9:12 and 10:20 this event is interpreted as the suppression of the Mosaic cult and the admission of all men, Gentiles as well as Jews, into the heavenly sanctuary.”[37]

We note that Luke does not mention the verification of Jesus’ death, rather a Centurion professes his conviction that Jesus was the Son of God (he glorified God) and that there was no guilt in him. The grief of those followers of the Lord who were present at his death is expressed through the beating of their breasts. They must have been fearful of additional reprisals for we are told they stood at a distance.

Luke next relates how Joseph of Arimathea, a member of the Sanhedrin, petitions Pilate for the body of Jesus and is granted permission to remove it. This would have been important as it was Friday, the day before the Sabbath and preparations needed to be made quickly. The burial must have taken place immediately as no work could be done on the Sabbath and touching a corpse would have made them ritually unclean. This is why later “on the first day of the week, the Marys would have been going to complete the entombment preparations.

CCC: Lk 22:15-16 1130; Lk 22:15 607; Lk 22:18 1403; Lk 22:19-20 1365; Lk 22:19 610, 611, 621, 1328, 1381; Lk 22:20 612; Lk 22:26-27 894; Lk 22:27 1570; Lk 22:28-30 787; Lk 22:29-30 551; Lk 22:30 765; Lk 22:31-32 641, 643; Lk 22:32 162, 552, 2600; Lk 22:40 2612; Lk 22:41-44 2600; Lk 22:42 532, 2605, 2824; Lk 22:43 333; Lk 22:44 2806; Lk 22:46 2612; Lk 22:61 1429; Lk 22:70 443; Lk 23:2 596; Lk 23:19 596; Lk 23:28 2635; Lk 23:34 591, 597, 2605, 2635; Lk 23:39-43 440, 2616; Lk 23:40-43 2266; Lk 23:43 1021; Lk 23:46 730, 1011, 2045; Lk 23:47 441
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OR
Shorter Form: Luke 23:1-49

The elders of the people, chief priests and scribes,
arose and brought Jesus before Pilate.
They brought charges against him, saying,
“We found this man misleading our people;
he opposes the payment of taxes to Caesar
and maintains that he is the Christ, a king.”
Pilate asked him, “Are you the king of the Jews?”
He said to him in reply, “You say so.”
Pilate then addressed the chief priests and the crowds,
“I find this man not guilty.”
But they were adamant and said,
“He is inciting the people with his teaching throughout all Judea,
from Galilee where he began even to here.”

On hearing this Pilate asked if the man was a Galilean;
and upon learning that he was under Herod’s jurisdiction,
he sent him to Herod who was in Jerusalem at that time.
Herod was very glad to see Jesus;
he had been wanting to see him for a long time,
for he had heard about him
and had been hoping to see him perform some sign.
He questioned him at length,
but he gave him no answer.
The chief priests and scribes, meanwhile,
stood by accusing him harshly.
Herod and his soldiers treated him contemptuously and mocked him,
and after clothing him in resplendent garb,
he sent him back to Pilate.
Herod and Pilate became friends that very day,
even though they had been enemies formerly.
Pilate then summoned the chief priests, the rulers, and the people
and said to them, “You brought this man to me
and accused him of inciting the people to revolt.
I have conducted my investigation in your presence
and have not found this man guilty
of the charges you have brought against him,
nor did Herod, for he sent him back to us.
So no capital crime has been committed by him.
Therefore I shall have him flogged and then release him.”

But all together they shouted out,
“Away with this man!
Release Barabbas to us.”
— Now Barabbas had been imprisoned for a rebellion
that had taken place in the city and for murder. —
Again Pilate addressed them, still wishing to release Jesus,
but they continued their shouting,
“Crucify him! Crucify him!”
Pilate addressed them a third time,
“What evil has this man done?
I found him guilty of no capital crime.
Therefore I shall have him flogged and then release him.”
With loud shouts, however,
they persisted in calling for his crucifixion,
and their voices prevailed.
The verdict of Pilate was that their demand should be granted.
So he released the man who had been imprisoned
for rebellion and murder, for whom they asked,
and he handed Jesus over to them to deal with as they wished.

As they led him away
they took hold of a certain Simon, a Cyrenian,
who was coming in from the country;
and after laying the cross on him,
they made him carry it behind Jesus.
A large crowd of people followed Jesus,
including many women who mourned and lamented him.
Jesus turned to them and said,
“Daughters of Jerusalem, do not weep for me;
weep instead for yourselves and for your children
for indeed, the days are coming when people will say,
‘Blessed are the barren,
the wombs that never bore
and the breasts that never nursed.’
At that time people will say to the mountains,
‘Fall upon us!’
and to the hills, ‘Cover us!’
for if these things are done when the wood is green
what will happen when it is dry?”
Now two others, both criminals,
were led away with him to be executed.

When they came to the place called the Skull,
they crucified him and the criminals there,
one on his right, the other on his left.
Then Jesus said,
“Father, forgive them, they know not what they do.”
They divided his garments by casting lots.
The people stood by and watched;
the rulers, meanwhile, sneered at him and said,
“He saved others, let him save himself
if he is the chosen one, the Christ of God.”
Even the soldiers jeered at him.
As they approached to offer him wine they called out,
“If you are King of the Jews, save yourself.”
Above him there was an inscription that read,
“This is the King of the Jews.”

Now one of the criminals hanging there reviled Jesus, saying,
“Are you not the Christ?
Save yourself and us.”
The other, however, rebuking him, said in reply,
“Have you no fear of God,
for you are subject to the same condemnation?
And indeed, we have been condemned justly,
for the sentence we received corresponds to our crimes,
but this man has done nothing criminal.”
Then he said,
“Jesus, remember me when you come into your kingdom.”
He replied to him,
“Amen, I say to you,
today you will be with me in Paradise.”

It was now about noon and darkness came over the whole land
until three in the afternoon
because of an eclipse of the sun.
Then the veil of the temple was torn down the middle.
Jesus cried out in a loud voice,
“Father, into your hands I commend my spirit”;
and when he had said this he breathed his last.

Here all kneel and pause for a short time.

The centurion who witnessed what had happened glorified God and said,
“This man was innocent beyond doubt.”
When all the people who had gathered for this spectacle
saw what had happened,
they returned home beating their breasts;
but all his acquaintances stood at a distance,
including the women who had followed him from Galilee
and saw these events.
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Commentary on Lk 23:1-49

The shorter version of the Passion omits all that preceded Jesus’ trail by Pilate (the Lord’s betrayal by Judas, his arrest in the garden, and confrontation by Herod and the Sanhedrin). It focuses on the final condemnation of Jesus by the people and his physical abuse, followed by his crucifixion and death. While the shorter form may be used for pastoral reasons and does describe the climax of his passion, it should be noted that Christ’s suffering began in earnest with his betrayal by Judas – one of the twelve.

CCC:Lk 23:2 596; Lk 23:19 596; Lk 23:28 2635; Lk 23:34 591, 597, 2605, 2635; Lk 23:39-43 440, 2616; Lk 23:40-43 2266; Lk 23:43 1021; Lk 23:46 730, 1011, 2045; Lk 23:47 441
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Luke 22:24-30

#565 Proper of Saints Context (St. John I, May 18)

#635 Proper of Saints Context (St. Gregory the Great, Sep 3)

#656 Proper of Saints Context (St. Callistus, Oct 14)

#724 Commons Context (Common of Pastors)

#847 Mass for Various Needs Context (I. For the Holy Church, 5. For Priests, 4.)

#886 Mass for Various Needs Context (II. For Public Needs, 13. For the Country or a City or for Those Who Serve in Public Office or for the Congress or for the President or for the Progress of Peoples, 11.)

An argument broke out among the Apostles
about which of them should be regarded as the greatest.
Jesus said to them,
"The kings of the Gentiles lord it over them
and those in authority over them are addressed as 'Benefactors';
but among you it shall not be so.
Rather, let the greatest among you be as the youngest,
and the leader as the servant.
For who is greater:
the one seated at table or the one who serves?
Is it not the one seated at table?
I am among you as the one who serves.
It is you who have stood by me in my trials;
and I confer a kingdom on you,
just as my Father has conferred one on me,
that you may eat and drink at my table in my Kingdom;
and you will sit on thrones
judging the twelve tribes of Israel."
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Commentary on Lk 22:24-30

This argument among the disciples is timed ironically in that it occurs in the upper room during the feast of the last supper, following the Lord’s announcement that one of his closest friends would betray him. Jesus proceeds to provide the disciples with straightforward teaching about the servant role they were to exemplify. He then promises all of them that, because they will have stood by him, they will also be with him in heaven.

CCC: Lk 22:26-27 894; Lk 22:27 1570; Lk 22:28-30 787; Lk 22:29-30 551; Lk 22:30 765
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Luke 22:24-27

#810 Ritual Mass Context (VII. For the Blessing of Abbots and Abbesses, Third Option)

An argument broke out among the Apostles
about which of them should be regarded as the greatest.
Jesus said to them,
"The kings of the Gentiles lord it over them
and those in authority over them are addressed as 'Benefactors';
but among you it shall not be so.
Rather, let the greatest among you be as the youngest,
and the leader as the servant.
For who is greater:
the one seated at table or the one who serves?
Is it not the one seated at table?
I am among you as the one who serves.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Lk 22:24-27

This argument among the disciples is timed ironically in that it occurs in the upper room during the feast of the last supper, following the Lord’s announcement that one of his closest friends would betray him. Jesus proceeds to provide the disciples with straight forward teaching about the servant role they were to exemplify. The passage concludes with the Lord offering himself as the example to all Christians; "I am among you as the one who serves."

CCC: Lk 22:26-27 894; Lk 22:27 1570
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Luke 22:39-44

#981 Votive Mass Context (The Most Holy Eucharist, 4.)

#994 Votive Mass Context (The Most Precious Blood of Our Lord Jesus Christ, 3.)

Jesus went, as was his custom, to the Mount of Olives,
and the disciples followed him.
When he arrived at the place he said to them,
“Pray that you may not undergo the test.”
After withdrawing about a stone’s throw from them and kneeling,
he prayed, saying, “Father, if you are willing,
take this cup away from me;
still, not my will but yours be done.”
And to strengthen him an angel from heaven appeared to him.
He was in such agony and he prayed so fervently
that his sweat became like drops of blood
falling on the ground.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Lk 22:39-44

Jesus takes his disciples “as was his custom” to the garden. Only in St. Luke’s Gospel do we understand that he frequently uses this place to pray. The owner must have been a friend to allow this access. Jesus moves away from the disciples for private prayer. The imminent sense of his trials causes him to go into intense prayer. Only in this situation do we find Jesus explicitly kneeling in prayer, completely humble before his Father. He shows his human frailty in the fear of what is to come. At the same time he demonstrates his complete obedience in the prayer he offers. In a singular gift of loving grace, God’s messenger, an angle appeared to him, offering God’s consolation. We note that another time when angles were present in Jesus’ life was during his temptation in the desert (Matthew 4:11 and Mark 1:13). His prayer, we are told, was so intense that “…his sweat became like drops of blood”, so great was the passion he endured for our salvation.

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Luke 22:39-43

#937 Mass for Various Needs Context (II. In Various Public Circumstances, 24. For the Sick, Third Option)

Jesus went, as was his custom, to the Mount of Olives,
and the disciples followed him.
When he arrived at the place he said to them,
“Pray that you may not undergo the test.”
After withdrawing about a stone’s throw from them and kneeling,
he prayed, saying, “Father, if you are willing,
take this cup away from me;
still, not my will but yours be done.”
And to strengthen him an angel from heaven appeared to him.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Lk 22:39-43

Jesus takes his disciples “as was his custom” to the garden. Only in St. Luke’s Gospel do we understand that he frequently uses this place to pray. The owner must have been a friend to allow this access. Jesus moves away from the disciples for private prayer. The imminent sense of his trials causes him to go into intense prayer. Only in this situation do we find Jesus explicitly kneeling in prayer, completely humble before his Father. He shows his human frailty in the fear of what is to come. At the same time he demonstrates his complete obedience in the prayer he offers. In a singular gift of loving grace, God’s messenger, an angle appeared to him, offering God’s consolation. We note that another time when angles were present in Jesus’ life was during his temptation in the desert (Matthew 4:11 and Mark 1:13). God's consolation - when we are in need, God is always with us sharing our burdens and giving hope.

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Luke 23:33-34, 39-46

#975 Votive Mass Context (Mystery of the Holy Cross, 8.)

When they came to the place called the Skull,
  they crucified him and the criminals there,
  one on his right, the other on his left.
Then Jesus said,
  "Father, forgive them, they know not what they do."
They divided his garments by casting lots.

Now one of the criminals hanging there
  reviled Jesus, saying,
  "Are you not the Christ?
  Save yourself and us."
The other man, however, rebuking him, said in reply,
  "Have you no fear of God,
  for you are subject to the same condemnation?
And indeed, we have been condemned justly,
  for the sentence we received corresponds to our crimes,
  but this man has done nothing criminal."
Then he said,
  "Jesus, remember me when you come into your Kingdom."
He replied to him,
  "Amen, I say to you,
  today you will be with me in Paradise."

It was now about noon and darkness came over the whole land
  until three in the afternoon
   because of an eclipse of the sun.
Then the veil of the temple was torn down the middle.
Jesus cried out in a loud voice,
   "Father, into your hands I commend my spirit";
  and when he had said this he breathed his last.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Lk 23:33-34, 39-46

At Golgotha (The Place of the Skull) (Note: Luke does not use this name. The later term Calvary comes from the Latin word for skull – calvaria.) Jesus is crucified with two criminals to further fulfill the prophecy from Isaiah 53:8ff wherein the Messiah is assigned a place among evildoers thought he has done no wrong. In this part of the Passion we hear the jeering of those in leadership because of what they perceived to be the Christ’s ironic fate. Even one of the two criminals begins to take up the insult but is silenced by the other who seems to understand that the kingdom of Jesus is not of this world, but rather the Kingdom of God. Demonstrating the love only the Savior is capable of, the Lord forgives those who have tortured and crucified him even as his life’s blood flows down the wood of the cross.

As the Savior cries out and breaths his last, several events occur that are significant to the life of the Church. The darkening of the sky occurs signifying that the light of Jesus which once walked the earth as a sign of God’s unimaginable love for his people has departed from this life. The curtain in the Temple be torn in the middle is significant as it depicts the destruction of the old covenant and the beginning of the New Covenant. “The curtain being referred to was the one hanging between the Holy Place and the Holy of Holies (Exodus 26:31ff). In Hebrews 9:12 and 10:20 this event is interpreted as the suppression of the Mosaic cult and the admission of all me, Gentiles as well as Jews, into the heavenly sanctuary.”[37]

CCC: Lk 23:34 591, 597, 2605, 2635; Lk 23:39-43 440, 2616; Lk 23:40-43 2266; Lk 23:43 1021; Lk 23:46 730, 1011, 2045
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Luke 23:33, 39-43

#1016 Mass for the Dead Context (8.)

When they came to the place called the Skull,
  they crucified him and the criminals there,
  one on his right, the other on his left.

Now one of the criminals hanging there
  reviled Jesus, saying,
  "Are you not the Christ?
  Save yourself and us."
The other man, however, rebuking him, said in reply,
  "Have you no fear of God,
  for you are subject to the same condemnation?
And indeed, we have been condemned justly,
  for the sentence we received corresponds to our crimes,
  but this man has done nothing criminal."
Then he said,
  "Jesus, remember me when you come into your Kingdom."
He replied to him,
  "Amen, I say to you,
  today you will be with me in Paradise."
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Lk 23:33-34, 39-46

At Golgotha (The Place of the Skull) (Note: Luke does not use this name. The later term Calvary comes from the Latin word for skull – calvaria.) Jesus is crucified with two criminals to further fulfill the prophecy from Isaiah 53:8ff wherein the Messiah is assigned a place among evildoers thought he has done no wrong. In this part of the Passion we hear the jeering of those in leadership because of what they perceived to be the Christ’s ironic fate. Even one of the two criminals begins to take up the insult but is silenced by the other who seems to understand that the kingdom of Jesus is not of this world, but rather the Kingdom of God. Demonstrating the love only the Savior is capable of, the Lord forgives those who have tortured and crucified him even as his life’s blood flows down the wood of the cross. Even to the criminal who is repentant, he offers the reward of eternal life as he answers the plea "Amen, I say to you, today you will be with me in Paradise."

CCC: Lk 23:34 591, 597, 2605, 2635; Lk 23:39-43 440, 2616; Lk 23:40-43 2266; Lk 23:43 1021; Lk 23:46 730, 1011, 2045
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Luke 23:35-43

#162C Solemnities C Context (Solemnity of Christ the King C)

The rulers sneered at Jesus and said,
"He saved others, let him save himself
if he is the chosen one, the Christ of God."
Even the soldiers jeered at him.
As they approached to offer him wine they called out,
"If you are King of the Jews, save yourself."
Above him there was an inscription that read,
"This is the King of the Jews."

Now one of the criminals hanging there reviled Jesus, saying,
"Are you not the Christ?
Save yourself and us."
The other, however, rebuking him, said in reply,
"Have you no fear of God,
for you are subject to the same condemnation?
And indeed, we have been condemned justly,
for the sentence we received corresponds to our crimes,
but this man has done nothing criminal."
Then he said,
"Jesus, remember me when you come into your kingdom."
He replied to him,
"Amen, I say to you,
today you will be with me in Paradise."
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Lk 23:35-43

Reference is made in this first part of the Gospel to the most grievous charge leveled against Jesus before Pilot. The Sanhedrin told the Proconsul that Jesus had claimed kingship over the Jews in opposition to the rule of Caesar. We recall that, at the head of the Cross, was a sign that read: “Jesus of Nazareth, King of the Jews.” (Matthew 27:37)

In this part of the Passion from St. Luke’s Gospel, we hear the jeering of those in leadership because of what they perceived to be the Christ’s ironic fate. Even one of the two criminals begins to take up the insult, but is silenced by the other who seems to understand that the kingdom over which Jesus rules is not of this world, but rather it is the Kingdom of God.

CCC: Lk 23:39-43 440, 2616; Lk 23:40-43 2266; Lk 23:43 1021
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Luke 23:39-46

#967 Mass for Various Needs Context (IV. For Various Needs, 31. For the Grace of a Happy Death, Fourth Option)

One of the criminals hanging there
reviled Jesus, saying,
“Are you not the Christ?
Save yourself and us.”
The other, however, rebuking him, said in reply,
“Have you no fear of God,
for you are subject to the same condemnation?
And indeed, we have been condemned justly,
for the sentence we received corresponds to our crimes,
but this man has done nothing criminal.”
Then he said,
“Jesus, remember me when you come into your kingdom.”
He replied to him,
“Amen, I say to you,
today you will be with me in Paradise.”

It was now about noon and darkness came over the whole land
until three in the afternoon
because of an eclipse of the sun.
Then the veil of the temple was torn down the middle.
Jesus cried out in a loud voice,
“Father, into your hands I commend my spirit”;
and when he had said this he breathed his last.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Lk 23:39-46

In this part of the Passion we hear the jeering of those in leadership because of what they perceived to be the Christ’s ironic fate. Even one of the two criminals begins to take up the insult but is silenced by the other who seems to understand that the kingdom of Jesus is not of this world, but rather the Kingdom of God. Demonstrating the love only the Savior is capable of, the Lord forgives those who have tortured and crucified him even as his life’s blood flows down the wood of the cross. Even to the criminal who is repentant, he offers the reward of eternal life as he answers the plea "Amen, I say to you, today you will be with me in Paradise."

As the Savior cries out and breaths his last, several events occur that are significant to the life of the Church. The darkening of the sky occurs signifying that the light of Jesus which once walked the earth as a sign of God’s unimaginable love for his people has departed from this life. The curtain in the Temple be torn in the middle is significant as it depicts the destruction of the old covenant and the beginning of the New Covenant. “The curtain being referred to was the one hanging between the Holy Place and the Holy of Holies (Exodus 26:31ff). In Hebrews 9:12 and 10:20 this event is interpreted as the suppression of the Mosaic cult and the admission of all me, Gentiles as well as Jews, into the heavenly sanctuary.”[37]

CCC: Lk 23:39-43 440, 2616; Lk 23:40-43 2266; Lk 23:43 1021; Lk 23:46 730, 1011, 2045
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Luke 23:44-46, 50, 52-53; 24:1-6a*

#668 Proper of Saints Context (The Commemoration of All the Faithful Departed Nov 2)

#1016 Mass for the Dead Context (9.)

It was about noon and darkness came over the whole land
  until three in the afternoon
  because of an eclipse of the sun.
Then the veil of the temple was torn down the middle.
Jesus cried out in a loud voice,
  "Father, into your hands I commend my spirit";
  and when he had said this he breathed his last.
Now there was a virtuous and righteous man named Joseph who,
  though he was a member of the council,
  went to Pilate and asked for the Body of Jesus.
After he had taken the Body down,
  he wrapped it in a linen cloth
  and laid him in a rock-hewn tomb
  in which no one had yet been buried.

At daybreak on the first day of the week
  the women took the spices they had prepared
  and went to the tomb.
They found the stone rolled away from the tomb;
  but when they entered,
  they did not find the Body of the Lord Jesus.
While they were puzzling over this, behold,
  two men in dazzling garments appeared to them.
They were terrified and bowed their faces to the ground.
They said to them,
  "Why do you seek the living one among the dead?
He is not here, but he has been raised."
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Lk 23:44-46, 50, 52-53; 24:1-6a

As the Savior cries out and breaths his last, several events occur that are significant to the life of the Church. The darkening of the sky occurs signifying that the light of Jesus which once walked the earth as a sign of God’s unimaginable love for his people has departed from this life. The curtain in the Temple be torn in the middle is significant as it depicts the destruction of the old covenant and the beginning of the New Covenant. “The curtain being referred to was the one hanging between the Holy Place and the Holy of Holies (Exodus 26:31ff). In Hebrews 9:12 and 10:20 this event is interpreted as the suppression of the Mosaic cult and the admission of all me, Gentiles as well as Jews, into the heavenly sanctuary.”[37]

Luke next relates how Joseph of Arimathea, a member of the Sanhedrin petitions Pilate for the body of Jesus and is granted permission to remove it. This would have been important as it was Friday, the day before the Sabbath and preparations needed to be made quickly. The burial must have taken place immediately as no work could be done on the Sabbath and touching a corpse would have made them ritually unclean. This is why later “on the first day of the week, the Mary’s would have been going to complete the entombment preparations.

Next comes the first of five parts of the resurrection story taking place nearly simultaneously in St. Luke’s Gospel.  Joanna, Mary Magdalene, and Mary the mother of James arrive at the tomb to find it empty and encounter two angels. The announcement of the resurrection comes in the form of a question; “Why do you seek the living one among the dead? He is not here, but he has been raised.” The great promise has been fulfilled.  Luke relates that, when these holy women relate the events, there was disbelief.  Only Peter believed them and ran to the tomb.  We are not told that he understood (as John's Gospel relates about the Evangelist, himself cf John 20:1-8); rather that Peter was amazed at what had happened.

CCC: Lk 23:46 730, 1011, 2045; Lk 23:47 441; Lk 24:1 641, 2174; Lk 24:3 640; Lk 24:5-6 626, 640; Lk 24:6-7 652
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OR Short Form
Luke 23:44-46, 50, 52-53

It was about noon and darkness came over the whole land
  until three in the afternoon
  because of an eclipse of the sun.
Then the veil of the temple was torn down the middle.
Jesus cried out in a loud voice,
  "Father, into your hands 1 commend my spirit";
  and when he had said this he breathed his last.

Now there was a virtuous and righteous man named Joseph who,
  though he was a member of the council,
  went to Pilate and asked for the Body of Jesus.
After he had taken the Body down,
  he wrapped it in a linen cloth
  and laid him in a rock-hewn tomb
  in which no one had yet been buried.

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Commentary on Lk 23:44-46, 50, 52-53

This shorter form focuses on the death of Jesus on the cross and his removal from the cross and burial.  There is not reference to the resurrection narrative so the focus moves from an explicit statement of Christ's resurrection to the implicit aftermath.  Jesus very human death is followed by a very human act of burial.

CCC: Lk 23:46 730, 1011, 2045; Lk 23:47 441
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Luke 24:1-12

#41C Solemnities C Context (Easter Vigil in the Holy Night of Easter)

At daybreak on the first day of the week
the women who had come from Galilee with Jesus
took the spices they had prepared
and went to the tomb.
They found the stone rolled away from the tomb;
but when they entered,
they did not find the body of the Lord Jesus.
While they were puzzling over this, behold,
two men in dazzling garments appeared to them.
They were terrified and bowed their faces to the ground.
They said to them,
“Why do you seek the living one among the dead?
He is not here, but he has been raised.
Remember what he said to you while he was still in Galilee,
that the Son of Man must be handed over to sinners
and be crucified, and rise on the third day.”
And they remembered his words.
Then they returned from the tomb
and announced all these things to the eleven
and to all the others.
The women were Mary Magdalene, Joanna, and Mary the mother of James;
the others who accompanied them also told this to the apostles,
but their story seemed like nonsense
and they did not believe them.
But Peter got up and ran to the tomb,
bent down, and saw the burial cloths alone;
then he went home amazed at what had happened.
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Commentary on Lk 24:1-12

This is the first of five parts of the resurrection story taking place nearly simultaneously in St. Luke’s Gospel. Joanna, Mary Magdalene, and Mary the mother of James arrive at the tomb to find it empty and encounter two angels. The announcement of the resurrection comes in the form of a question: “Why do you seek the living one among the dead? He is not here, but he has been raised.” The great promise has been fulfilled.  Luke says that, when these holy women related the events, there was disbelief.  Only Peter believed them and ran to the tomb.  We are not told that he understood (as John's Gospel relates about the Evangelist, himself cf John 20:1-8), rather that Peter was amazed at what had happened.

CCC: Lk 24:1 641, 2174; Lk 24:3 640; Lk 24:5-6 626, 640; Lk 24:6-7 652; Lk 24:9-10 641; Lk 24:11 643; Lk 24:12 640
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Luke 24:13-35*

#42A Solemnities A Context (The Mass of Easter Day at an afternoon or evening Mass A)

#46A Solemnities A Context (3rd Sunday of Easter A)

#42B Solemnities B Context (The Mass of Easter Day at an afternoon or evening Mass B)

#42C Solemnities C Context (The Mass of Easter Day at an afternoon or evening Mass C)

#263 Weekday Years I & II Context (Wednesday in the Octave of Easter)

#668 Proper of Saints Context (The Commemoration of All the Faithful Departed Nov 2) [Shorter Form Only]

#789 Ritual Mass Context (IV. For the Conferral of Ministries, 2.Institution of Acolytes, 3.)

#981 Votive Mass Context (Most Holy Eucharist, 5. [shorter form offered])

#1016 Mass for the Dead Context (10. [shorter form offered])

That very day, the first day of the week,
two of Jesus' disciples were going
to a village seven miles from Jerusalem called Emmaus,
and they were conversing about all the things that had occurred.
And it happened that while they were conversing and debating,
Jesus himself drew near and walked with them,
but their eyes were prevented from recognizing him.
He asked them,
"What are you discussing as you walk along?"
They stopped, looking downcast.
One of them, named Cleopas, said to him in reply,
"Are you the only visitor to Jerusalem
who does not know of the things
that have taken place there in these days?"
And he replied to them, "What sort of things?"
They said to him,
"The things that happened to Jesus the Nazarene,
who was a prophet mighty in deed and word
before God and all the people,
how our chief priests and rulers both handed him over
to a sentence of death and crucified him.
But we were hoping that he would be the one to redeem Israel;
and besides all this,
it is now the third day since this took place.
Some women from our group, however, have astounded us:
they were at the tomb early in the morning
and did not find his body;
they came back and reported
that they had indeed seen a vision of angels
who announced that he was alive.
Then some of those with us went to the tomb
and found things just as the women had described,
but him they did not see."
And he said to them, "Oh, how foolish you are!
How slow of heart to believe all that the prophets spoke!
Was it not necessary that the Christ should suffer these things
and enter into his glory?"
Then beginning with Moses and all the prophets,
he interpreted to them what referred to him
in all the Scriptures.
As they approached the village to which they were going,
he gave the impression that he was going on farther.
But they urged him, "Stay with us,
for it is nearly evening and the day is almost over."
So he went in to stay with them.
And it happened that, while he was with them at table,
he took bread, said the blessing,
broke it, and gave it to them.
With that their eyes were opened and they recognized him,
but he vanished from their sight.
Then they said to each other,
"Were not our hearts burning within us
while he spoke to us on the way and opened the Scriptures to us?"
So they set out at once and returned to Jerusalem
where they found gathered together
the eleven and those with them who were saying,
"The Lord has truly been raised and has appeared to Simon!"
Then the two recounted
what had taken place on the way
and how he was made known to them in the breaking of bread.
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Commentary on Lk 24:13-35

This story of the disciples on the road to Emmaus is only found in Luke’s Gospel. There is a mention in Mark (Mark 16;12) that is vague but probably refers to this event. The actual location of Emmaus is not known, but it is estimated that it was between 7 and 18 miles from Jerusalem. The focus of the story is the unrecognized Jesus (similar: in John 20:11-18, Mary Magdalene thought he was a gardener).  Jesus interprets scripture and then he is recognized in the breaking of the bread (the Eucharistic reference).

"In the course of their conversation with Jesus, the disciples' mood changes from sadness to joy; they begin to hope again, and feel the need to share their joy with others, thus becoming heralds and witnesses of the risen Christ."[47]

CCC: Lk 24:13-49 1094; Lk 24:13-35 1329, 1347; Lk 24:15 645, 659; Lk 24:17 643; Lk 24:21 439; Lk 24:22-23 640; Lk 24:25-27 112, 601; Lk 24:26-27 572, 652; Lk 24:26 555, 710; Lk 24:27 555, 2625; Lk 24:30 645, 1166; Lk 24:31 659; Lk 24:34 552, 641
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OR Short Form
Luke 24:13-16, 28-35

#668 Proper of Saints Context (The Commemoration of All the Faithful Departed Nov 2)

That very day, the first day of the week,
two of Jesus' disciples were going
to a village seven miles from Jerusalem called Emmaus,
and they were conversing about all the things that had occurred.
And it happened that while they were conversing and debating,
Jesus himself drew near and walked with them,
but their eyes were prevented from recognizing him.
As they approached the village to which they were going,
he gave the impression that he was going on farther.
But they urged him, "Stay with us,
for it is nearly evening and the day is almost over."
So he went in to stay with them.
And it happened that, while he was with them at table,
he took bread, said the blessing,
broke it, and gave it to them.
With that their eyes were opened and they recognized him,
but he vanished from their sight.
Then they said to each other,
"Were not our hearts burning within us
while he spoke to us on the way and opened the Scriptures to us?"
So they set out at once and returned to Jerusalem
where they found gathered together
the eleven and those with them who were saying,
"The Lord has truly been raised and has appeared to Simon!"
Then the two recounted
what had taken place on the way
and how he was made known to them in the breaking of bread.
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Commentary on Luke 24:13-16, 28-35

This story of the disciples of the road to Emmaus is only found in Luke’s Gospel. This shorter for omits the exchange between Jesus and the disciples on the road. This omission focuses the passage more keenly on the recognition of the Lord in the breaking of the bread (Eucharist).

CCC: Lk 24:13-49 1094; Lk 24:13-35 1329, 1347; Lk 24:15 645, 659; Lk 24:30 645, 1166; Lk 24:31 659; Lk 24:34 552, 641
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Luke 24:35-48

#47B Solemnities B Context (3rd Sunday of Easter B)

#264 Weekday Years I & II Context (Thursday in the Octave of Easter)

#974 Votive Mass Context (Mystery of the Holy Cross, Third Option)

The disciples of Jesus recounted what had taken place along the way,
and how they had come to recognize him in the breaking of bread.

While they were still speaking about this,
he stood in their midst and said to them,
"Peace be with you."
But they were startled and terrified
and thought that they were seeing a ghost.
Then he said to them, "Why are you troubled?
And why do questions arise in your hearts?
Look at my hands and my feet, that it is I myself.
Touch me and see, because a ghost does not have flesh and bones
as you can see I have."
And as he said this,
he showed them his hands and his feet.
While they were still incredulous for joy and were amazed,
he asked them, "Have you anything here to eat?"
They gave him a piece of baked fish;
he took it and ate it in front of them.

He said to them,
"These are my words that I spoke to you while I was still with you,
that everything written about me in the law of Moses
and in the prophets and psalms must be fulfilled."
Then he opened their minds to understand the Scriptures.
And he said to them,
"Thus it is written that the Christ would suffer
and rise from the dead on the third day
and that repentance, for the forgiveness of sins,
would be preached in his name
to all the nations, beginning from Jerusalem.
You are witnesses of these things."
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Lk 24:35-48

This is the first appearance of the Risen Christ to the disciples immediately following his appearance on the road to Emmaus, the account of which is referenced at the beginning of this selection. No mention is made of St. Thomas’ presence or absence as in the account from St. John (see John 20:19-31). He shows the disciples his wounds, and then to prove he is corporeal, he asks for food and eats in front of them.

As with the disciples on the road to Emmaus, Jesus “opened their minds” so they could see how the Law and Prophets were fulfilled in him. Then, satisfied that they believe, the Lord brings them to understand the prophetic significance of what had taken place. He concludes pointedly by saying: “You are witnesses to these things.” This statement is important since later in St. Luke’s narrative in the Acts of Apostles, their witness becomes the foundation of faith for others.

CCC: Lk 24:36 641, 645; Lk 24:38 644; Lk 24:39 644, 645, 645, 999; Lk 24:40 645; Lk 24:41-43 645; Lk 24:41 644; Lk 24:43 2605; Lk 24:44-48 652; Lk 24:44-46 112; Lk 24:44-45 572, 601; Lk 24:44 702, 2625, 2763; Lk 24:45 108; Lk 24:46 627; Lk 24:47-48 730; Lk 24:47 981, 1120, 1122; Lk 24:48-49 1304
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Luke 24:44-53

#755 Ritual Mass Context (I. For the Conferral of Christian Initiation, 1. Catechumenate and Christian Initiation of Adults, Christian Initiation Apart from the Easter Vigil, 6.)

#876 Mass for Various Needs Context (I. For the Holy Church, 11. For the Evangelization of Peoples, 3.)

Jesus said to his disciples:
"These are my words that I spoke to you while I was still with you,
  that everything written about me in the law of Moses
  and in the prophets and psalms must be fulfilled."
Then he opened their minds to understand the Scriptures.
And he said to them,
  "Thus it is written that the Christ would suffer
  and rise from the dead on the third day
  and that repentance, for the forgiveness of sins,
  would be preached in his name
  to all the nations, beginning from Jerusalem.
You are witnesses of these things.
And behold I am sending the promise of my Father upon you;
  but stay in the city
  until you are clothed with power from on high."
Then he led them out as far as Bethany,
  raised his hands, and blessed them.
As he blessed them he parted from them
  and was taken up to heaven.
They did him homage
   and then returned to Jerusalem with great joy,
   and they were continually in the temple praising God.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Lk 24:44-53

This is the first appearance of the Risen Christ to the disciples immediately following his appearance on the road to Emmaus. He is with his friends in the locked room.  Jesus “opened their minds” so they could see how the Law and Prophets were fulfilled in Him. Then, satisfied that they believe, the Lord brings them to understand the prophetic significance of what had taken place. He continues pointedly by saying; “You are witnesses to these things.” This statement is important since later in St. Luke’s narrative in the Acts of Apostles, their witness becomes the foundation of faith for others.

This passage concludes with the Luke's account of the Ascension. This short version is setting the stage for a more completed record of the events that follow in Acts of the Apostles (cf Acts 1:4-14).

CCC:  Lk 24:44-48 652; Lk 24:44-46 112; Lk 24:44-45 572, 601; Lk 24:44 702, 2625, 2763; Lk 24:45 108; Lk 24:46 627; Lk 24:47-48 730; Lk 24:47 981, 1120, 1122; Lk 24:48-49 1304; Lk 24:51 659
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Luke 24:44-48

#784 Ritual Mass Context (IV. For the Conferral of Ministries, 1. Institution of Readers, 4.)

Jesus said to his disciples:
"These are my words that I spoke to you while I was still with you,
  that everything written about me in the law of Moses
  and in the prophets and psalms must be fulfilled."
Then he opened their minds to understand the Scriptures.
And he said to them,
  "Thus it is written that the Christ would suffer
  and rise from the dead on the third day
  and that repentance, for the forgiveness of sins,
  would be preached in his name
  to all the nations, beginning from Jerusalem.
You are witnesses of these things.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Lk 24:44-48

This is passage is set within the first appearance of the Risen Christ to the disciples immediately following his appearance on the road to Emmaus. He is with his friends in the locked room.  Jesus “opened their minds” so they could see how the Law and Prophets were fulfilled in Him. Then, satisfied that they believe, the Lord brings them to understand the prophetic significance of what had taken place. He continues pointedly by saying; “You are witnesses to these things.” This statement is important since later in St. Luke’s narrative in the Acts of Apostles, their witness becomes the foundation of faith for others.

CCC:  Lk 24:44-48 652; Lk 24:44-46 112; Lk 24:44-45 572, 601; Lk 24:44 702, 2625, 2763; Lk 24:45 108; Lk 24:46 627; Lk 24:47-48 730; Lk 24:47 981, 1120, 1122; Lk 24:48-49 1304
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Luke 24:46-53

#58C Solemnities C Context (Ascension of the Lord C)

Jesus said to his disciples:
“Thus it is written that the Christ would suffer
and rise from the dead on the third day
and that repentance, for the forgiveness of sins,
would be preached in his name
to all the nations, beginning from Jerusalem.
You are witnesses of these things.
And behold I am sending the promise of my Father upon you;
but stay in the city
until you are clothed with power from on high.”

Then he led them out as far as Bethany,
raised his hands, and blessed them.
As he blessed them he parted from them
and was taken up to heaven.
They did him homage
and then returned to Jerusalem with great joy,
and they were continually in the temple praising God.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Lk 24:46-53

Luke’s Gospel provides us with a shortened version of the Ascension story. The emphasis in our Gospel is that what was promised has been fulfilled and now the next stage in God’s revelation is to begin. This short version is setting the stage for a more completed record of the events that follow in Acts of the Apostles (cf Acts 1:4-14)

"St. Matthew stresses that the Old Testament prophecies are fulfilled in Christ, because his immediate audience was Jews, who would accept this as proof that Jesus was indeed the promised Messiah. St Luke does not usually argue along these lines because he is writing for Gentiles; however, in this epilogue he does report, in a summarized way, Christ's statement to the effect that everything foretold about him had come true. By doing so he shows the unity of Old and New Testaments and that Jesus is truly the Messiah."[52]

CCC: Lk 24:46 627; Lk 24:47-48 730; Lk 24:47 981, 1120, 1122; Lk 24:48-49 1304; Lk 24:51 659
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Luke 24:46-48

#952 Mass for Various Needs Context (IV. For Various Needs, 27. For the Remission of Sins, 5.)

Jesus said to his disciples,
  "Thus it is written that the Christ would suffer
  and rise from the dead on the third day
  and that repentance, for the forgiveness of sins,
  would be preached in his name
  to all the nations, beginning from Jerusalem.
You are witnesses of these things.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Lk 24:46-48

This is passage is set within the first appearance of the Risen Christ to the disciples immediately following his appearance on the road to Emmaus. He is with his friends in the locked room.  The Lord brings them to understand the prophetic significance of what had taken place. He continues pointedly by saying; “You are witnesses to these things.” This statement is important since later in St. Luke’s narrative in the Acts of Apostles, their witness becomes the foundation of faith for others.

CCC: Lk 24:44-46 112; Lk 24:44-45 572, 601; Lk 24:44 702, 2625, 2763; Lk 24:45 108; Lk 24:46 627; Lk 24:47-48 730; Lk 24:47 981, 1120, 1122; Lk 24:48-49 1304
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

^Omitted from the Lectionary Index
+ Added from the Sacramentary Supplement, provisional number assigned by SOW 
* Citation in the Lectionary is incorrect.  It should include vv. 54-55 [1] See NAB footnote on Luke 3:23-38
[2] See NAB Footnote on Luke 2:22
[3] Ignatius Catholic Study Bible, © 2010, Ignatius Press, San Francisco, CA. pp. 129
[4] See NAB footnote on Matthew 9:9
[5] The Navarre Bible, Gospels and Acts, Scepter Publishers, Princeton, NJ, © 2002, pp. 431
[6] See NAB footnote on Luke 7:11ff
[7] See NAB footnote on John 2:4
[8] See NAB footnote on Matthew 12:1-8
[9] See NAB footnote on Matthew 7:1
[10] The Navarre Bible, “Gospels and Acts”, Scepter Publishers, Princeton, NJ, © 2002, pp. 396
[11] See NAB footnote on Luke 8:1-3
[12] See Jerome Biblical Commentary, Prentice Hall, Inc., © 1968, 44:84 pp.140
[13] See NAB footnote on Luke 9:1-6
[14] See Jerome Biblical Commentary, Prentice Hall, Inc., © 1968, 44:92.
[15] See NAB footnote on Matthew 23:26
[16] See NAB footnotes on Luke 12:8ff
[17] The Navarre Bible, Gospels and Acts, Scepter Publishers, Princeton, NJ, © 2002, pp.437.
[18] See NAB footnote on Luke 13:6-9
[19]The Navarre Bible, Gospels and Acts, Scepter Publishers, Princeton, NJ, © 2002, pp. 452
[20] See NAB footnote on Luke 16:9
[21] “Gospel and Acts” The Navarre Bible, Four Courts Press, Kill Lane, Blackrock, Co. Dublin, Ireland Copyright © 2008, pp 457
[22] See Jerome Biblical Commentary, Prentice Hall, Inc., © 1968, 44:123, pp.150
[23] See NAB footnote for Lk 17: 11-19
[24] Jerome Biblical Commentary, Prentice Hall, Inc., © 1968, 44:125, pp.150
[25] Ignatius Catholic Study Bible, © 2010, Ignatius Press, San Francisco, CA. pp.140
[26 Ignatius Catholic Study Bible, © 2010, Ignatius Press, San Francisco, CA. pp.144-145
[27] ibid
[28] See NAB footnote on Luke 21:1-4
[29] See Jerome Biblical Commentary, Prentice Hall, Inc., © 1968, 44:97.
[30] The Navarre Bible, Gospels and Acts, Scepter Publishers, Princeton, NJ, © 2002, pp.363
[31]See Jerome Biblical Commentary, Prentice Hall, Inc., © 1968, 44:97
[32] History of the Church from Christ to Constantine Vol. 3,Ch 5, 3
[33] The Navarre Bible, “Gospels and Acts”, Scepter Publishers, Princeton, NJ, © 2002, pp. 489
[34] Ignatius Catholic Study Bible, © 2010, Ignatius Press, San Francisco, CA. pp.149
[35] Jerome Biblical Commentary, Prentice Hall, Inc., © 1968, 44:159, pp. 158
[36] The Navarre Bible, “Gospels and Acts”, Scepter Publishers, Princeton, NJ, © 2002, pp. 494
[37] Jerome Biblical Commentary, Prentice Hall, Inc., © 1968, 44:173, pp. 162
[38] Ignatius Catholic Study Bible, © 2010, Ignatius Press, San Francisco, CA. pp. 137
[39] The Navarre Bible: Text and Commentaries, Four Courts Press, Kill Lane, Blackrock, Co. Dublin, Ireland
[40] ibid
[41] See NAB footnote on Luke 17:7-10
[42] Ignatius Catholic Study Bible, © 2010, Ignatius Press, San Francisco, CA. pp. 147
[43] Jerome Biblical Commentary, Prentice Hall, Inc., © 1968, 44:120, pp.149
[44] Ignatius Catholic Study Bible, © 2010, Ignatius Press, San Francisco, CA. pp. 140
[45] Ignatius Catholic Study Bible, © 2010, Ignatius Press, San Francisco, CA. pp. 47
[46] Ignatius Catholic Study Bible, © 2010, Ignatius Press, San Francisco, CA. pp. 146
[47] The Navarre Bible, “Gospels and Acts”, Scepter Publishers, Princeton, NJ, © 2002, pp. 513
[48] Jerome Biblical Commentary, Prentice Hall, Inc., © 1968, 44:149, pp. 155
[49] The Navarre Bible, “Gospels and Acts”, Scepter Publishers, Princeton, NJ, © 2002, pp. 350
[50] The Navarre Bible, “Gospels and Acts”, Scepter Publishers, Princeton, NJ, © 2002, pp. 395-396
[51] "Lazarus and the Rich Man" Notes © 1996, 1999, 2002 by T.L. Hubeart
[52] The Navarre Bible, “Gospels and Acts”, Scepter Publishers, Princeton, NJ, © 2002, pp. 516
[53] The Navarre Bible, “Gospels and Acts”, Scepter Publishers, Princeton, NJ, © 2002, pp. 423
[54] Catholic Bible Dictionary, © 2009 by Scott W. Hahn pp. 361

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