Saturday, January 8, 2011

Romans


Romans 1:1-7

#10A Solemnities A Context (4th Sunday of Advent A)

#467 Weekday Year I Context (Monday of the 28th Week in Ordinary Time)

Paul, a slave of Christ Jesus,
called to be an apostle and set apart for the gospel of God,
which he promised previously through his prophets in the holy Scriptures,
the gospel about his Son, descended from David according to the flesh,
but established as Son of God in power
according to the Spirit of holiness
through resurrection from the dead, Jesus Christ our Lord.
Through him we have received the grace of apostleship,
to bring about the obedience of faith,
for the sake of his name, among all the Gentiles,
among whom are you also, who are called to belong to Jesus Christ;
to all the beloved of God in Rome, called to be holy.
Grace to you and peace from God our Father
and the Lord Jesus Christ.
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Commentary on Rom 1:1-7

St. Paul introduces himself to the Christian churches in Rome with this opening message from his letter. We note that the Apostle has seen clearly that all that was promised by the Law of Moses and the Hebrew Prophets was fulfilled in Christ, thus establishing continuity with the Jewish faith. In typical fashion, the introduction includes a statement of purpose (apostolate of the Gospel of Christ) and a profession of faith. Specifically, he directs his remarks to the Gentiles, also called to faith. It is implicit in this greeting that the profession of faith is shared by the church in Rome.

CCC: Rom 1:1 876; Rom 1:3-4 648; Rom 1:3 437, 496; Rom 1:4 445, 695; Rom 1:5 143, 494, 2087
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Romans 1:16-25

#468 Weekday Year I Context (Tuesday of the 28th Week in Ordinary Time)

Brothers and sisters:
I am not ashamed of the Gospel.
It is the power of God for the salvation of everyone who believes:
for Jew first, and then Greek.
For in it is revealed the righteousness of God from faith to faith;
as it is written, “The one who is righteous by faith will live.”

The wrath of God is indeed being revealed from heaven
against every impiety and wickedness
of those who suppress the truth by their wickedness.
For what can be known about God is evident to them,
because God made it evident to them.
Ever since the creation of the world,
his invisible attributes of eternal power and divinity
have been able to be understood and perceived in what he has made.
As a result, they have no excuse;
for although they knew God
they did not accord him glory as God or give him thanks.
Instead, they became vain in their reasoning,
and their senseless minds were darkened.
While claiming to be wise, they became fools
and exchanged the glory of the immortal God
for the likeness of an image of mortal man
or of birds or of four-legged animals or of snakes.

Therefore, God handed them over to impurity
through the lusts of their hearts
for the mutual degradation of their bodies.
They exchanged the truth of God for a lie
and revered and worshiped the creature rather than the creator,
who is blessed forever. Amen.
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Commentary on Rom 1:16-25

St. Paul, after his opening introduction and prayer, takes up the major theme of his letter to the Romans, salvation through faith. The critical and unbelieving reception he received is acknowledged in the opening lines: “I am not ashamed of the gospel.

This passage goes on to point out the purposely disrespectful attitude of  “those who suppress the truth,” since God’s presence is made clear in his creation. In spite of this evidence, they have made graven images of people (and animals) to worship. These amoral people have degraded themselves with their excesses. And God, whom they have abandoned for creatures, has handed them over to this degradation of body and mind.

CCC: Rom 1:17 1814; Rom 1:18-32 401, 2087; Rom 1:18-25 57; Rom 1:18 2125; Rom 1:19-20 32, 287, 1147; Rom 1:24-27 2357
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Romans 2:1-11

#469 Weekday Year I Context (Wednesday of the 28th Week in Ordinary Time)

You, O man, are without excuse, every one of you who passes judgment.
For by the standard by which you judge another you condemn yourself,
since you, the judge, do the very same things.
We know that the judgment of God on those who do such things is true.
Do you suppose, then, you who judge those who engage in such things
and yet do them yourself,
that you will escape the judgment of God?
Or do you hold his priceless kindness, forbearance, and patience
in low esteem, unaware that the kindness of God
would lead you to repentance?
By your stubbornness and impenitent heart,
you are storing up wrath for yourself
for the day of wrath and revelation
of the just judgment of God,
who will repay everyone according to his works,
eternal life to those who seek glory, honor, and immortality
through perseverance in good works,
but wrath and fury to those who selfishly disobey the truth
and obey wickedness.
Yes, affliction and distress will come upon everyone
who does evil, Jew first and then Greek.
But there will be glory, honor, and peace for everyone
who does good, Jew first and then Greek.
There is no partiality with God.
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Commentary on Rom 2:1-11

St. Paul begins a rather long discourse on the impartiality of God toward Jew and Gentile alike. He begins by indicating that those who judge others have no moral superiority. The standard applied to others will be applied by God to them in the final judgment (see also Matthew 7:5ff). This judgment, St. Paul says, will be measured out to Jews and Gentiles as will salvation for those who demonstrate their faithfulness through good works.

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Romans 3:21-25, 28

#85A Solemnities A Context (9th Sunday in Ordinary Time A)

Brothers and sisters,
Now the righteousness of God has been manifested apart from the law,
though testified to by the law and the prophets,
the righteousness of God through faith in Jesus Christ
for all who believe.
For there is no distinction;
all have sinned and are deprived of the glory of God.
They are justified freely by his grace
through the redemption in Christ Jesus,
whom God set forth as an expiation,
through faith, by his blood.
For we consider that a person is justified by faith apart from works of the law.
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Commentary on Rom 3:21-25, 28

St. Paul begins this section with a statement that indicates Jesus is the “new covenant”. As Moses laid his covenant embodied in the Law at the feet of the people, now Jesus comes to fulfill the Law and the Prophets (“Now the righteousness of God has been manifested apart from the law, though testified to by the law and the prophets”).

The passage concludes with a statement that is at odds with St. James letter as St. Paul seems to indicate that we are justified (that is made just, without sin) by faith alone (See also James 2:14-24, 26). These two statements are reconciled by the final verse in this selection as St. Paul points out that his reference is to popular piety (“…we consider that a person is justified by faith apart from works of the law” (emphasis added)) as proposed by Pharisaic traditions that have not bearing on the love of God and others which constitutes actions of faith.

CCC: Rom 3:21-26 1992; Rom 3:21-22 2543; Rom 3:22 1987; Rom 3:23 399, 705, 2809; Rom 3:25 433, 1460
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Romans 3:21-30

#470 Weekday Year I Context (Thursday of the 28th Week in Ordinary Time)

Brothers and sisters:
Now the righteousness of God has been manifested apart from the law,
though testified to by the law and the prophets,
the righteousness of God through faith in Jesus Christ
for all who believe.
For there is no distinction;
all have sinned and are deprived of the glory of God.
They are justified freely by his grace
through the redemption in Christ Jesus,
whom God set forth as an expiation,
through faith, by his Blood, to prove his righteousness
because of the forgiveness of sins previously committed,
through the forbearance of God–
to prove his righteousness in the present time,
that he might be righteous
and justify the one who has faith in Jesus.

What occasion is there then for boasting? It is ruled out.
On what principle, that of works?
No, rather on the principle of faith.
For we consider that a person is justified by faith
apart from works of the law.
Does God belong to Jews alone?
Does he not belong to Gentiles, too?
Yes, also to Gentiles, for God is one
and will justify the circumcised on the basis of faith
and the uncircumcised through faith.
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Commentary on Rom 3:21-30

St. Paul begins this section with a statement that indicates Jesus as the “new covenant.” As Moses laid his covenant embodied in the Law at the feet of the people, now Jesus comes to fulfill the Law and the Prophets (“Now the righteousness of God has been manifested apart from the law, though testified to by the law and the prophets”).

The passage continues with a statement that appears to be at odds with St. James' letter as St. Paul seems to indicate that we are justified (that is made just, without sin) by faith alone (see also James 2:14-24, 26). These two statements are reconciled in v.28, as St. Paul points out that his reference is to popular piety (“…we consider that a person is justified by faith apart from works of the law” (emphasis added)) as proposed by Pharisaic traditions that have no bearing on the love of God and others which constitutes actions of faith.

The passage concludes with a statement of universality. The Lord is God of all peoples and the Jews (who are now seeing the Law and Prophets fulfilled in Jesus) are justified based upon their claim as the chosen people, while the Gentiles are justified by their faith in Jesus the Christ.

CCC: Rom 3:21-26 1992; Rom 3:21-22 2543; Rom 3:22 1987; Rom 3:23 399, 705, 2809; Rom 3:25 433, 1460
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Romans 4:1-8

#471 Weekday Year I Contest (Friday of the 28th Week in Ordinary Time)

Brothers and sisters:
What can we say that Abraham found,
our ancestor according to the flesh?
Indeed, if Abraham was justified on the basis of his works,
he has reason to boast;
but this was not so in the sight of God.
For what does the Scripture say?
Abraham believed God, and it was credited to him as righteousness.
A worker’s wage is credited not as a gift, but as something due.
But when one does not work,
yet believes in the one who justifies the ungodly,
his faith is credited as righteousness.
So also David declares the blessedness of the person
to whom God credits righteousness apart from works:

Blessed are they whose iniquities are forgiven
and whose sins are covered.
Blessed is the man whose sin the Lord does not record.
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Commentary on Rom 4:1-8

In this passage, St. Paul addresses the gift of salvation through faith in the One True God. It is a gift given to Abraham and David who worked to follow God’s command but did not “earn” faith through these actions. Rather, it was a gift as was the salvation that flowed through it.

This selection may seem to contradict St. James' statement that our justification or salvation comes only through faith supported by actions. However he (St. James) was speaking of extremists who used St. Paul’s argument to support moral self-determination.

CCC: Rom 4:3 146
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Romans 4:13, 16-18, 22

#543 Proper of Saints Context (Solemnity of St. Joseph, Husband of the Blessed Virgin Mary, Mar 19)

Brothers and sisters:
It was not through the law
that the promise was made to Abraham and his descendants
that he would inherit the world,
but through the righteousness that comes from faith.
For this reason, it depends on faith,
so that it may be a gift,
and the promise may be guaranteed to all his descendants,
not to those who only adhere to the law
but to those who follow the faith of Abraham,
who is the father of all of us, as it is written,
I have made you father of many nations.
He is our father in the sight of God,
in whom he believed, who gives life to the dead
and calls into being what does not exist.
He believed, hoping against hope,
that he would become the father of many nations,
according to what was said, Thus shall your descendants be.
That is why it was credited to him as righteousness.
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Commentary on Rom 4:13, 16-18, 22

St. Paul continues his discourse on justification through faith. He reconciles Jewish History as it applies to gentiles. He reasserts that Abraham was given the promise, not because of adherence to the Law, but because of God’s love. By defining God’s people as the descendants of Abraham, he includes all peoples in the inheritance of Christ. This reconciliation is through faith, not the Law of Moses, and not simply heritage. In an intense theological statement, St. Paul states that the Law has the negative function of bringing deep-seated rebellion against God to the surface in specific sins.

CCC: Rom 4:16-21 706, 2572; Rom 4:17 298; Rom 4:18-21 723; Rom 4:18 146, 165, 1819
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Romans 4:13, 16-18

#472 Weekday Year I Context (Saturday of the 28th Week in Ordinary Time)

Brothers and sisters:
It was not through the law
that the promise was made to Abraham and his descendants
that he would inherit the world,
but through the righteousness that comes from faith.
For this reason, it depends on faith,
so that it may be a gift,
and the promise may be guaranteed to all his descendants,
not to those who only adhere to the law
but to those who follow the faith of Abraham,
who is the father of all of us, as it is written,
I have made you father of many nations.
He is our father in the sight of God,
in whom he believed, who gives life to the dead
and calls into being what does not exist.
He believed, hoping against hope,
that he would become the father of many nations,
according to what was said, Thus shall your descendants be.
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Commentary on Rom 4:13, 16-18

St. Paul continues his discourse on justification through faith. In this passage he reasserts that Abraham was given the promise that he would be blessed with prosperity, not because of adherence to the Law, but because of God’s love. In an intense theological statement, St. Paul states that the Law has the negative function of bringing deep-seated rebellion against God to the surface in specific sins.

CCC: Rom 4:16-21 706, 2572; Rom 4:17 298; Rom 4:18-21 723; Rom 4:18 146, 165, 1819
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Romans 4:18-25

#88A Solemnities A Context (10th Sunday in Ordinary Time A)

Brothers and sisters:
Abraham believed, hoping against hope,
that he would become “the father of many nations, ”
according to what was said, “Thus shall your descendants be.”
He did not weaken in faith when he considered his own body
as already dead - for he was almost a hundred years old -
and the dead womb of Sarah.
He did not doubt God’s promise in unbelief;
rather, he was strengthened by faith and gave glory to God
and was fully convinced that what he had promised he was also able to do.
That is why it was credited to him as righteousness.
But it was not for him alone that it was written that it was credited to him;
it was also for us, to whom it will be credited,
who believe in the one who raised Jesus our Lord from the dead,
who was handed over for our transgressions
and was raised for our justification.
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Commentary on Rom 4:18-25

St. Paul recalls the faithfulness of Abraham and Sarah in spite of their ages God promised they would have descendants – a promise fulfilled in Isaac. This faithfulness earned him the label of righteous. Righteousness St. Paul says carries down to all who are faithful to God’s Son, Jesus because of his sacrificial act.

CCC: Rom 4:18-21 723; Rom 4:18 146, 165, 1819; Rom 4:20 146; Rom 4:25 517, 519, 654, 977
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Romans 4:20-25

#473 Weekday Year I Context (Monday of the 29th Week in Ordinary Time)

Brothers and sisters:
Abraham did not doubt God’s promise in unbelief;
rather, he was empowered by faith and gave glory to God
and was fully convinced that what God had promised
he was also able to do.
That is why it was credited to him as righteousness.
But it was not for him alone that it was written
that it was credited to him;
it was also for us, to whom it will be credited,
who believe in the one who raised Jesus our Lord from the dead,
who was handed over for our transgressions
and was raised for our justification.
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Commentary on Rom 4:20-25

St. Paul continues to develop his “salvation through faith” apologia. In this passage he again uses Abraham (clearly addressing a predominantly Jewish audience) whose faith in God caused him to behave in righteous ways. In fact, it was his unreserved faith that raised him to his beloved status. Faith in Jesus must be on the same level since his passion was suffered for our salvation. We note once more that the use of the word “justification” equates to one being “just as if they had not sinned.”

CCC: Rom 4:20 146; Rom 4:25 517, 519, 654, 977
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Romans 5:1-2, 5-8

#28A Solemnities A Contest (3rd Sunday of Lent A)

#765 Ritual Mass Context (I. For the Conferral of Christian Initiation, 4. Confirmation, 6.)

Brothers and sisters:
Since we have been justified by faith,
we have peace with God through our Lord Jesus Christ,
through whom we have gained access by faith
to this grace in which we stand,
and we boast in hope of the glory of God.

And hope does not disappoint,
because the love of God has been poured out into our hearts
through the Holy Spirit who has been given to us.
For Christ, while we were still helpless,
died at the appointed time for the ungodly.
Indeed, only with difficulty does one die for a just person,
though perhaps for a good person one might even find courage to die.
But God proves his love for us
in that while we were still sinners Christ died for us.
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Commentary on Rom 5:1-2, 5-8

In the previous chapter, St. Paul has established that through faith in Jesus Christ, the Christian is justified (recreated just as if they had not sinned).  The apostle now begins a discussion of how this justification is experienced. The reconciled Christian will be saved, sharing with hope in the risen Christ.

"The justified are endowed with theological virtues. By faith, they live in peace with God and have access to his grace; in hope, they long for the glory of God that awaits them; and in love, they show that the charity of the Spirit dwells in their hearts (CCC 1813). Equipped in this way, believers can become more like Christ through endurance and suffering (CCC 618)."[17]

“Popular piety frequently construed reverses and troubles as punishment for sin; cf John 9:2. Paul therefore assures believers that God's justifying action in Jesus Christ is a declaration of peace. The crucifixion of Jesus Christ displays God's initiative in certifying humanity for unimpeded access into the divine presence. Reconciliation is God's gift of pardon to the entire human race.”[2]

CCC: Rom 5:3-5 2734, 2847; Rom 5:5 368, 733, 1820, 1964, 2658; Rom 5:8 604
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Romans 5:1-5

#166C Solemnities C Context (Solemnity of the Most Holy Trinity C)

#525 Proper of Saints Context (St. Blase, Feb 3)

#716 Commons Context (Common of Martyrs)

Brothers and sisters:
Since we have been justified by faith,
we have peace with God through our Lord Jesus Christ,
through whom we have gained access by faith
to this grace in which we stand,
and we boast in hope of the glory of God.
Not only that, but we even boast of onr afflictions,
knowing that affliction produces endurance,
and endurance, proven character,
and proven character, hope,
and hope does not disappoint,
because the love of God has been poured out into our hearts
through the Holy Spirit that has been given to us.
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Commentary on Rom 5:1-5

In this passage St. Paul declares the peace of Christ which flows to the faithful from the Father through Jesus who cast out sin and death for our salvation. The complete acceptance of our earthly station is made possible by the Holy Spirit who flows from the Father and the Son into our hearts.

“Popular piety frequently construed reverses and troubles as punishment for sin; cf John 9:2. Paul therefore assures believers that God's justifying action in Jesus Christ is a declaration of peace. The crucifixion of Jesus Christ displays God's initiative in certifying humanity for unimpeded access into the divine presence. Reconciliation is God's gift of pardon to the entire human race.”[1]

CCC: Rom 5:3-5 2734, 2847; Rom 5:5 368, 733, 1820, 1964, 2658
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Romans 5:5-11

#668^ Proper of Saints Context (The Commemoration of All the Faithful Departed, Nov 2)

#998 Votive Mass Context (The Most Sacred Heart of Jesus, 1.)

#1014 Mass for the Dead Context (Mass for the Dead, 1.)

Brothers and sisters:
Hope does not disappoint,
because the love of God has been poured out into our hearts
through the Holy Spirit that has been given to us.
For Christ, while we were still helpless,
died at the appointed time for the ungodly.
Indeed, only with difficulty does one die for a just person,
though perhaps for a good person
one might even find courage to die.
But God proves his love for us
in that while we were still sinners Christ died for us.
How much more then, since we are now justified by his Blood,
will we be saved through him from the wrath.
Indeed, if, while we were enemies,
we were reconciled to God through the death of his Son,
how much more, once reconciled,
will we be saved by his life.
Not only that,
but we also boast of God through our Lord Jesus Christ,
through whom we have now received reconciliation.
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Commentary on Rom 5:5-11

St. Paul speaks of the hope of Christians who have been made holy, sanctified, “justified” by their faith in Christ Jesus. This faith was “poured out into our hearts through the Holy Spirit” [in Baptism]. (This link between Christ and the Holy Spirit begins the apostle’s Trinitarian theology.)

Justification was not through some merit of theirs (ours), but through God’s infinite mercy. The demonstration of this mercy was Christ’s sacrifice for those who called him “enemy.” While still burdened by sin (the Law of Moses defined sin, and all were sinners because of this), Jesus became the sacrifice of atonement. His blood reconciled us to the Father by removing the sin that kept us apart.

CCC: Rom 5:3-5 2734, 2847; Rom 5:5 368, 733, 1820, 1964, 2658; Rom 5:8 604; Rom 5:10 603, 1825
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Romans 5:5b-11

#172C Solemnities C Context (Solemnity of the Most Sacred Heart of Jesus C)

Brothers and sisters:
The love of God has been poured out into our hearts
through the Holy Spirit that has been given to us.
For Christ, while we were still helpless,
died at the appointed time for the ungodly.
Indeed, only with difficulty does one die for a just person,
though perhaps for a good person
one might even find courage to die.
But God proves his love for us
in that while we were still sinners Christ died for us.
How much more then, since we are now justified by his blood,
will we be saved through him from the wrath.
Indeed, if, while we were enemies,
we were reconciled to God through the death of his Son,
how much more, once reconciled,
will we be saved by his life.
Not only that,
but we also boast of God through our Lord Jesus Christ,
through whom we have now received reconciliation.
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Commentary on Rom 5:5b-11

In this selection of St. Paul’s letter to the Romans, the apostle speaks of how the love of Christ is not just for those who are righteous, but for those who are sinners as well.  His love of all mankind (exemplified as the Sacred Heart of Jesus) was demonstrated vividly, as he laid down his life so we might be reconciled to God.

The Apostle speaks of the hope of Christians who have been made holy, sanctified, “justified” by their faith in Christ Jesus. This faith was “poured out into our hearts through the Holy Spirit” [in Baptism]. (This connection between Christ and the Holy Spirit begins the apostle’s Trinitarian theology.)

Justification is not through some merit of theirs (or ours), but through God’s infinite mercy. The demonstration of mercy was Christ’s sacrifice for those who called him “enemy.” While still burdened by sin (the Law of Moses defined sin and all were sinners because of this), Jesus became the sacrifice of atonement. His blood reconciled us to the Father by removing the sin that kept us apart.

CCC: Rom 5:3-5 2734, 2847; Rom 5:5 368, 733, 1820, 1964, 2658; Rom 5:8 604; Rom 5:10 603, 1825
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Romans 5:6-11

#91A Solemnities A Context (11th Sunday in Ordinary Time A)

Brothers and sisters:
Christ, while we were still helpless,
yet died at the appointed time for the ungodly.
Indeed, only with difficulty does one die for a just person,
though perhaps for a good person
one might even find courage to die.
But God proves his love for us
in that while we were still sinners Christ died for us.
How much more then, since we are now justified by his blood,
will we be saved through him from the wrath.
Indeed, if, while we were enemies,
we were reconciled to God through the death of his Son,
how much more, once reconciled, will we be saved by his life.
Not only that,
but we also boast of God through our Lord Jesus Christ,
through whom we have now received reconciliation.
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Commentary on Rom 5:6-11

In this selection of St. Paul’s letter to the Romans, the apostle speaks of how the love of Christ is not just for those who are righteous, but for those who are sinners as well. His love of all mankind was demonstrated vividly as he laid down his life so we might be reconciled to God.

The Apostle speaks of the hope of Christians who have been made holy, sanctified, “justified” by their faith in Christ Jesus. This faith was “poured out into our hearts through the Holy Spirit” [in Baptism]. (This linkage between Christ and the Holy Spirit begins the apostle’s Trinitarian theology)

Justification was not through some merit of theirs (ours) but through God’s infinite mercy. The demonstration of this mercy was Christ’s sacrifice for those who called him “enemy.” While still burdened by sin (the Law of Moses defined sin and all were sinners because of this), Jesus became the sacrifice of atonement. His blood reconciled us to the Father by removing the sin that kept us apart.

CCC: Rom 5:8 604; Rom 5:10 603, 1825
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Romans 5:12-19*

#22A Solemnities A Context (1st Sunday of Lent A)

Brothers and sisters:
Through one man sin entered the world,
and through sin, death,
and thus death came to all men, inasmuch as all sinned—
for up to the time of the law, sin was in the world,
though sin is not accounted when there is no law.
But death reigned from Adam to Moses,
even over those who did not sin
after the pattern of the trespass of Adam,
who is the type of the one who was to come.

But the gift is not like the transgression.
For if by the transgression of the one, the many died,
how much more did the grace of God
and the gracious gift of the one man Jesus Christ
overflow for the many.
And the gift is not like the result of the one who sinned.
For after one sin there was the judgment that brought condemnation;
but the gift, after many transgressions, brought acquittal.
For if, by the transgression of the one,
death came to reign through that one,
how much more will those who receive the abundance of grace
and of the gift of justification
come to reign in life through the one Jesus Christ.
In conclusion, just as through one transgression
condemnation came upon all,
so, through one righteous act,
acquittal and life came to all.
For just as through the disobedience of the one man
the many were made sinners,
so, through the obedience of the one,
the many will be made righteous.
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Commentary on Rom 5:12-19

The first verses of this longer form of the reading recall the original sin of Adam and Eve recounted in Genesis 3:1-7. Through this action, says St. Paul, sin entered the world, although before the Law of Moses, sin was not defined and therefore “…sin is not accounted when there was no law.” "Although to some extent the People of God in the Old Testament had tried to understand the pathos of the human condition in the light of the history of the fall narrated in Genesis, they could not grasp this story's ultimate meaning, which is revealed only in the light of the death and Resurrection of Jesus Christ. We must know Christ as the source of grace in order to know Adam as the source of sin. The Spirit-Paraclete, sent by the risen Christ, came to "convict the world concerning sin",(see John 16.8) by revealing him who is its Redeemer."(CCC 388)

St. Paul continues describing how, through one man, sin entered the world. But, the mercy of God was even greater in providing Jesus, his Son, through whom all sins were forgiven in his one heroic action, the Passion.

CCC: Rom 5:12-21 388; Rom 5:12 400, 402, 602, 612, 1008; Rom 5:18-19 605; Rom 5:18 402; Rom 5:19-21 1009; Rom 5:19-20 411; Rom 5:19 397, 402, 532, 615, 623; Rom 5:20-21 1848; Rom 5:20 312, 385, 412, 420
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Or
Shorter Form: Romans 5:12, 17-19

Brothers and sisters:
Through one man sin entered the world,
and through sin, death,
and thus death came to all men, inasmuch as all sinned.

For if, by the transgression of the one,
death came to reign through that one,
how much more will those who receive the abundance of grace
and of the gift of justification
come to reign in life through the one Jesus Christ.
In conclusion, just as through one transgression
condemnation came upon all,
so, through one righteous act,
acquittal and life came to all.
For just as through the disobedience of the one man
the many were made sinners,
so, through the obedience of the one,
the many will be made righteous.
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Commentary on Rom 5:12, 17-19

In the shorter version the specific reference to Adam and the Law of Moses are omitted focusing the emphasis on Christ’s righteous act through which “acquittal and life came to all.” This selection specifically recalls the original sin of Adam and Eve recorded in Genesis 3:1-7. Through this action, says St. Paul, sin entered the world although before the Law of Moses, sin was not defined and therefore, “sin is not accounted when there was no law.

CCC: Rom 5:12-21 388; Rom 5:12 400, 402, 602, 612, 1008; Rom 5:18-19 605; Rom 5:18 402; Rom 5:19-21 1009; Rom 5:19-20 411; Rom 5:19 397, 402, 532, 615, 623
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Romans 5:12, 15b, 17-19, 20b-21

#474 Weekday Year I Context (Tuesday of the 29th Week in Ordinary Time)

Brothers and sisters:
Through one man sin entered the world,
and through sin, death,
and thus death came to all men, inasmuch as all sinned.

If by that one person’s transgression the many died,
how much more did the grace of God
and the gracious gift of the one man Jesus Christ
overflow for the many.
For if, by the transgression of the one,
death came to reign through that one,
how much more will those who receive the abundance of grace
and the gift of justification
come to reign in life through the one Jesus Christ.
In conclusion, just as through one transgression
condemnation came upon all,
so, through one righteous act
acquittal and life came to all.
For just as through the disobedience of one man
the many were made sinners,
so, through the obedience of the one
the many will be made righteous.
Where sin increased, grace overflowed all the more,
so that, as sin reigned in death,
grace also might reign through justification
for eternal life through Jesus Christ our Lord.
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Commentary on Rom 5:12, 15b, 17-19, 20b-21

St. Paul uses this simile of sin and righteousness to describe the effects of Jesus on the world. He recalls that sin entered the world through Adam’s original sin (“as through one person sin entered the world”). Through a number of iterative comparisons (the transgressions of the one offset by the sacrifice of God; offset by the gift of justification; offset by one righteous act), he establishes that, through Christ’s entry into the world, sin and death are defeated for those upon whom his grace falls.

CCC: Rom 5:12-21 388; Rom 5:12 400, 402, 602, 612, 1008; Rom 5:18-19 605; Rom 5:18 402; Rom 5:19-21 1009; Rom 5:19-20 411; Rom 5:19 397, 402, 532, 615, 623; Rom 5:20-21 1848; Rom 5:20 312, 385, 412, 420
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Romans 5:12, 17-19

#710 Commons Context (Common of the Blessed Virgin Mary, First Option)

#20O-I BVM Context (Holy Mary, the New Eve, Ordinary Time, 20)

Brothers and sisters:
Through one man sin entered the world,
and through sin, death,
and thus death came to all men, inasmuch as all sinned.

For if, by the transgression of the one,
death came to reign through that one,
how much more will those who receive the abundance of grace
and of the gift of justification
come to reign in life through the one Jesus Christ.
In conclusion, just as through one transgression
condemnation came upon all,
so, through one righteous act,
acquittal and life came to all.
For just as through the disobedience of the one man
the many were made sinners,
so, through the obedience of the one,
the many will be made righteous.
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Commentary on Rom 5:12, 17-19

This selection recalls the original sin of Adam and Eve recorded in Genesis 3:1-7. Though this action, says St. Paul, sin entered the world although before the Law of Moses, sin was not defined and therefore “…sin is not accounted when there was no law.”. Just as sin entered through on man, it is washed away through Jesus Christ “… acquittal and life came to all.”

CCC: Rom 5:12-21 388; Rom 5:12 400, 402, 602, 612, 1008; Rom 5:18-19 605; Rom 5:18 402; Rom 5:19-21 1009; Rom 5:19-20 411; Rom 5:19 397, 402, 532, 615, 623
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Romans 5:12-15

#94A Solemnities A Context (12th Sunday in Ordinary Time A)

Brothers and sisters:
Through one man sin entered the world,
and through sin, death,
and thus death came to all men, inasmuch as all sinned—
for up to the time of the law, sin was in the world,
though sin is not accounted when there is no law.
But death reigned from Adam to Moses,
even over those who did not sin
after the pattern of the trespass of Adam,
who is the type of the one who was to come.

But the gift is not like the transgression.
For if by the transgression of the one the many died,
how much more did the grace of God
and the gracious gift of the one man Jesus Christ
overflow for the many.
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Commentary on Rom 5:12-15

St. Paul has just concluded a description of the sin of Adam, the “original sin.” Through this action, says St. Paul, sin entered the world; although before the Law of Moses, sin was not defined and therefore “…sin is not accounted when there was no law.” Nevertheless, even though sin was not defined before Moses, “…death reigned from Adam to Moses” (sin is sin even when unnamed).

St. Paul continues describing how, through one man, Adam, sin entered the world. But the mercy of God was even greater in providing Jesus, His Son, the “New Adam,” through whom all sins were forgiven in his one heroic sacrifice of atonement.

CCC: Rom 5:12-21 388; Rom 5:12 400, 402, 602, 612, 1008
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Romans 5:17-21

#668^ Proper of Saints Context (The Commemoration of All the Faithful Departed, Nov 2)

#1014 Mass for the Dead Context (Mass for the Dead, 2.)

Brothers and sisters:
If, by the transgression of the one,
death came to reign through that one,
how much more will those who receive the abundance of grace
and of the gift of Justification
come to reign in life through the one Jesus Christ.
In conclusion, just as through one transgression
condemnation came upon all,
so, through one righteous act,
acquittal and life came to all.
For just as through the disobedience of the one man
the many were made sinners,
so through the obedience of one
the many will be made righteous.
The law entered in so that transgression might increase
but, where sin increased, grace overflowed all the more, so that,
as sin reigned in death,
grace also might reign through justification for eternal life
through Jesus Christ our Lord.
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Commentary on Rom 5:17-21

St. Paul, in speaking of the “…transgression of the one” is speaking of original sin – the “one” who opened the gates of sin and death being Adam. Those gates were closed and life was restored in Christ Jesus, “the one”, who through his death and resurrection removed the stain of sin from all mankind. The gift of Justification, as the author calls it, recreates God’s favorite creation, making all as if they had never sinned. The Apostle reiterates this logic saying that just as through one sin all were made sinners; through Christ’s act of atonement, all were recreated, washed clean from sin in his baptism.

In v.20, St. Paul once more uses existential logic, saying that “The law entered in so that transgression might increase”; essentially saying that by defining sins (transgressions) the actions so defined in the law brought to light the transgressions committed. Through the grace of Christ and through the mercy of God these transgressions were forgiven.

CCC: Rom 5:18-19 605; Rom 5:18 402; Rom 5:19-21 1009; Rom 5:19-20 411; Rom 5:19 397, 402, 532, 615, 623; Rom 5:20-21 1848; Rom 5:20 312, 385, 412, 420
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Romans 6:2-14

#949 Mass for Various Needs Context (IV. For Various Needs, 27. For the Remission of Sins, First Option)

Brotliers and sisters:
How can we who died to sin yet live in it?
Are you unaware that we who were baptized into Christ Jesus
  were baptized into his death?
We were indeed buried with him through baptism into death,
  so that, just as Christ was raised from the dead
  by the glory of the Father,
  we too might live in newness of life.

For if we have grown into union with him through a death like his,
  we shall also be united with him in the resurrection.
We know that our old self was crucified with him,
  so that our sinful body might be done away with,
  that we might no longer be in slavery to sin.
For a dead person has been absolved from sin.
If, then, we have died with Christ,
  we believe that we shall also live with him.
We know that Christ, raised from the dead, dies no more;
  death no longer has power over him.
As to his death, he died to sin once and for all;
  as to his life, he lives for God.
Consequently, you too must think of yourselves as being dead to sin
  and living for God in Christ Jesus.

Therefore, sin must not reign over your mortal bodies
  so that you obey their desires.
And do not present the parts of your bodies to sin
  as weapons for wickedness,
  but present yourselves to God as raised from the dead to life
  and the parts of your bodies to God as weapons for righteousness.
For sin is not to have any power over you,
  since you are not under the law but under grace.
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Commentary on Rom 6:2-14

This reading from Romans reminds the Christian that all who have been joined to Christ in Baptism are also joined to his death. Without inevitable death of the body there is no resurrection and St. Paul teaches that, since Christ came so his followers could be absolved from sin, the great promise is that those baptized in the faith will rise with him, free from all sin. The image is also a powerful reminder that in Baptism, the new Christian dies to sin - in fact rises from the font as a new creation freed from sin, even the original sin of Adam that opened the gates of death.

St. Paul continues exhorting the Romans to holiness.  They are united with Christ and therefor are free from sin.  They are to act as such, as "weapons for righteousness" because, unlike their Hebrew brethren, they are under God's grace, not just the Law of Moses.

CCC: Rom 6:3-9 1006; Rom 6:3-4 1214, 1227, 1987; Rom 6:4-5 790; Rom 6:4 537, 628, 648, 654, 658, 730, 977, 1697; Rom 6:5 1694, 2565; Rom 6:8-11 1987; Rom 6:10 1085; Rom 6:11 1694
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Romans 6:2-4, 12-14

#863 Mass for Various Needs Context (I. For the Holy Church, For the Laity, 2.)

Brothers and sisters:
How can we who died to sin yet live in It?
Or are you unaware that we who were baptized into Christ Jesus
  were baptized into his death?
We were Indeed buried with him through baptism into death,
  so that. Just as Christ was raised from the dead
  by the glory of the Father,
  we too might live in newness of life.

Therefore, sin must not reign over your mortal bodies
  so that you obey their desires.
And do not present the parts of your bodies to sin
  as weapons for wickedness,
  but present yourselves to God as raised from the dead to life
  and the parts of your bodies to God as weapons for righteousness.
For sin is not to have any power over you,
  since you are not under the law but under grace.
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Commentary on Rom 6:2-4, 12-14

This reading from Romans reminds the Christian that all who have been joined to Christ in Baptism are also joined to his death. Without inevitable death of the body there is no resurrection and St. Paul teaches that, since Christ came so his followers could be absolved from sin, the great promise is that those baptized in the faith will rise with him, free from all sin. The image is also a powerful reminder that in Baptism, the new Christian dies to sin - in fact rises from the font as a new creation freed from sin, even the original sin of Adam that opened the gates of death.

St. Paul continues exhorting the Romans to holiness.  They are united with Christ and therefor are free from sin.  They are to act as such, as "weapons for righteousness" because, unlike their Hebrew brethren, they are under God's grace, not just the Law of Moses.

CCC: Rom 6:3-9 1006; Rom 6:3-4 1214, 1227, 1987; Rom 6:4-5 790; Rom 6:4 537, 628, 648, 654, 658, 730, 977, 1697
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Romans 6:3-11*

#41ABC Solemnities ABC Context (Easter Vigil in the Holy Night of Easter)

#752 Ritual Mass Context (I. For the Conferral of Christian Initiation, 1. Catechumenate and Christian Initiation of Adults, 3.)

#812 Ritual Mass Context (VIII. For the Consecration of Virgins and Religious Profession,3.)

Brothers and sisters:
Are you unaware that we who were baptized into Christ Jesus
were baptized into his death?
We were indeed buried with him through baptism into death,
so that, just as Christ was raised from the dead
by the glory of the Father,
we too might live in newness of life.

For if we have grown into union with him through a death like his,
we shall also be united with him in the resurrection.
We know that our old self was crucified with him,
so that our sinful body might be done away with,
that we might no longer be in slavery to sin.
For a dead person has been absolved from sin.
If, then, we have died with Christ,
we believe that we shall also live with him.
We know that Christ, raised from the dead, dies no more;
death no longer has power over him.
As to his death, he died to sin once and for all;
as to his life, he lives for God.
Consequently, you too must think of yourselves as being dead to sin
and living for God in Christ Jesus.
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Commentary on Rom 6:3-11

This reading from Romans reminds the Christian that all who have been joined to Christ in Baptism are also joined to his death. Without the inevitable death of the body there is no resurrection. St. Paul teaches that, since Christ came to insure his followers could be absolved from sin, the great promise is that those baptized in the faith will rise with him, free from all sin.

"In all those who have been baptized these same events in Christ's life are in some way reproduced. "Our past sins have been wiped out by the action of grace. Now, so as to stay dead to sin after Baptism, personal effort is called for, although God's grace continues to be with us, providing us with great help" (Chrysostom, "Hom. on Rom.", 11). This personal effort might be encapsulated in a resolution: "May we never die through sin; may our spiritual resurrection be eternal" (St. J. Escriva, "Holy Rosary", 1st Glorious Mystery)."[19]

CCC: Rom 6:3-9 1006; Rom 6:3-4 1214, 1227, 1987; Rom 6:4-5 790; Rom 6:4 537, 628, 648, 654, 658, 730, 977, 1697; Rom 6:5 1694, 2565; Rom 6:8-11 1987; Rom 6:10 1085; Rom 6:11 1694
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OR Short Form (offered only for Conferral of Christian Initiation)

Romans 6:3-4, 8-11

Brothers and sisters:
Are you unaware that we who were baptized into Christ Jesus
were baptized into his death?
We were indeed buried with him through baptism into death,
so that, just as Christ was raised from the dead
by the glory of the Father,
we too might live in newness of life.
If, then, we have died with Christ,
we believe that we shall also live with him.
We know that Christ, raised from the dead, dies no more;
death no longer has power over him.
As to his death, he died to sin once and for all;
as to his life, he lives for God.
Consequently, you too must think of yourselves as being dead to sin
and living for God in Christ Jesus.
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Commentary on Rom 6:3-4, 8-11

This reading from Romans reminds the Christian that all who have been joined to Christ in Baptism are also joined to his death. In this shorter form, some of the redundancy is omitted and focus is placed more heavily on death to sin.

CCC: Rom 6:3-9 1006; Rom 6:3-4 1214, 1227, 1987; Rom 6:4-5 790; Rom 6:4 537, 628, 648, 654, 658, 730, 977, 1697; Rom 6:8-11 1987; Rom 6:10 1085; Rom 6:11 1694
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Romans 6:3-9*

#668^ Proper of Saints Context (The Commemoration of All the Faithful Departed, Nov 2)

#1014 Mass for the Dead Context (Mass for the Dead, 5 [Sorter Form Offered])

Brothers and sisters:
Are you unaware that we who were baptized into Christ Jesus
were baptized into his death?
We were indeed buried with him through baptism into death,
so that, just as Christ was raised from the dead
by the glory of the Father,
we too might live in newness of life.

For if we have grown into union with him through a death like his,
we shall also be united with him in the resurrection.
We know that our old self was crucified with him,
so that our sinful body might be done away with,
that we might no longer be in slavery to sin.
For a dead person has been absolved from sin.
If, then, we have died with Christ,
we believe that we shall also live with him.
We know that Christ, raised from the dead, dies no more;
death no longer has power over him.
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Commentary on Rom 6:3-9

St. Paul expresses both the hope and the theology behind our belief in the resurrection of the faithful with Christ. In Baptism we receive the adoption of God. As His children we join His Only Begotten Son, and pass, as he did, through death to new life.

“This passage of the epistle, which reveals the key truths concerning Baptism, also reminds us of the profound meaning of this rite which Christ established, its spiritual effects in Christians and its far-reaching effects with respect to the Christian life. Thus, we can apply to Baptism what St. Thomas Aquinas says about all the sacraments: "Three aspects of sanctification may be considered -- its very cause, which is Christ's Passion; its form, which is grace and the virtues; and its ultimate end, which is eternal life. And all these are signified by the sacraments. Consequently, a sacrament is a sign which is both a reminder of the past, that is, of the Passion of Christ, and an indication of what is effected in us by Christ's Passion, and a foretelling and pledge of future glory" ("Summa Theologiae", III, q. 60, a. 3).”[10]

CCC: Rom 6:3-9 1006; Rom 6:3-4 1214, 1227, 1987; Rom 6:4-5 790; Rom 6:4 537, 628, 648, 654, 658, 730, 977, 1697; Rom 6:8-11 1987
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Or
Shorter Form Romans 6:3-4,8-9

Brothers and sisters:
Are you unaware that we who were baptized into Christ Jesus
were baptized into his death?
We were indeed buried with him through baptism into death,
so that, just as Christ was raised from the dead
by the glory of the Father,
we too might live in newness of life.

If, then, we have died with Christ,
we believe that we shall also live with him.
We know that Christ, raised from the dead, dies no more;
death no longer has power over him.
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Commentary on Rom 6:3-4, 8-9

St. Paul expresses both the hope and the theology behind our belief in the resurrection of the faithful with Christ. In Baptism we are receive the adoption of God. As His children we join His Only Son and pass, as he did through death to new life.

CCC: Rom 6:3-9 1006; Rom 6:3-4 1214, 1227, 1987; Rom 6:4-5 790; Rom 6:4 537, 628, 648, 654, 658, 730, 977, 1697; Rom 6:8-11 1987
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Romans 6:3-4, 8-11

#97A Solemnities A Context (13th Sunday in Ordinary Time A)

Brothers and sisters:
Are you unaware that we who were baptized into Christ Jesus
were baptized into his death?
We were indeed buried with him through baptism into death,
so that, just as Christ was raised from the dead
by the glory of the Father,
we too might live in newness of life.

If, then, we have died with Christ,
we believe that we shall also live with him.
We know that Christ, raised from the dead, dies no more;
death no longer has power over him.
As to his death, he died to sin once and for all;
as to his life, he lives for God.
Consequently, you too must think of yourselves as dead to sin
and living for God in Christ Jesus.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Rom 6:3-4, 8-11

This reading from Romans reminds the Christian that all who have been joined to Christ in Baptism are also joined to his death. Without the inevitable death of the body, there is no resurrection. St. Paul teaches that, since Christ came so his followers could be absolved from sin, the great promise is that those baptized in the faith will rise with him, free from all sin.

CCC: Rom 6:3-9 1006; Rom 6:3-4 1214, 1227, 1987; Rom 6:4-5 790; Rom 6:4 537, 628, 648, 654, 658, 730, 977, 1697; Rom 6:8-11 1987
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Romans 6:3-4, 8-9

#1020 Mass for the Dead Context (Funerals for Baptized Children, 1.)

Brothers and sisters:
Are you unaware that we who were baptized into Christ Jesus
  were baptized into his death?
We were indeed buried with him through baptism into death,
  so that, just as Christ was raised from the dead
  by the glory of the Father,
  we too might live in newness of life.

If, then, we have died with Christ,
  we believe that we shall also live with him.
We know that Christ, raised from the dead, dies no more;
  death no longer has power over him.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Rom 6:3-4, 8-9

This reading from Romans reminds the Christian that all who have been joined to Christ in Baptism are also joined to his death. Without inevitable death of the body there is no resurrection and St. Paul teaches that, since Christ came so his followers could be absolved from sin, the great promise is that those baptized in the faith will rise with him, free from all sin. It is this promise that provides us with consolation for those who go before us in death, that as a consequence of Christ's sacrifice, those who have been take in Baptism as his adopted sons and daughters share the inheritance of eternal life.

CCC: Rom 6:3-9 1006; Rom 6:3-4 1214, 1227, 1987; Rom 6:4-5 790; Rom 6:4 537, 628, 648, 654, 658, 730, 977, 1697; Rom 6:8-11 1987
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Romans 6:3-5

#757 Ritual Mass Context (I. For the Conferral of Christian Initiation, 2. Conferral of Infant Baptism, 1.)

Brothers and sisters:
Are you unaware that we who were baptized into Christ Jesus
  were baptized into his death?
We were indeed buried with him through baptism into death,
  so that, just as Christ was raised from the dead
  by the glory of the Father,
  we too might live in newness of life.

For if we have grown into union with him through a death like his,
  we shall also be united with him in the resurrection.
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Commentary on Rom 6:3-5

This reading from Romans reminds the Christian that all who have been joined to Christ in Baptism are also joined to his death. Without inevitable death of the body there is no resurrection and St. Paul teaches that, since Christ came so his followers could be absolved from sin, the great promise is that those baptized in the faith will rise with him, free from all sin.

CCC: Rom 6:3-9 1006; Rom 6:3-4 1214, 1227, 1987; Rom 6:4-5 790; Rom 6:4 537, 628, 648, 654, 658, 730, 977, 1697
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Romans 6:12-18

#475 Weekday Year I Context (Wednesday of the 29th Week in Ordinary Time)

Brothers and sisters:
Sin must not reign over your mortal bodies
so that you obey their desires.
And do not present the parts of your bodies to sin
as weapons for wickedness,
but present yourselves to God as raised from the dead to life
and the parts of your bodies to God
as weapons for righteousness.
For sin is not to have any power over you,
since you are not under the law but under grace.

What then? Shall we sin because we are not under the law
but under grace?
Of course not!
Do you not know that if you present yourselves
to someone as obedient slaves,
you are slaves of the one you obey,
either of sin, which leads to death,
or of obedience, which leads to righteousness?
But thanks be to God that, although you were once slaves of sin,
you have become obedient from the heart
to the pattern of teaching to which you were entrusted.
Freed from sin, you have become slaves of righteousness.
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Commentary on Rom 6:12-18

In the first part of this selection, St. Paul exhorts the Romans to remain faithful to the teachings of Christ and to avoid sin. He uses the unique existential argument that the Law of Moses defines sin, and, therefore, Christians are not under the Law but under the grace of Christ.

In the second part he defends the argument that obedience to Christ sets his audience on the road to salvation, since obeying Christ’s commandments leads to righteousness and frees them from sin, which was introduced by Adam and defined by the Law.

CCC: Rom 6:12 2819; Rom 6:17 197, 1237, 1733
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Romans 6:19-23

#476 Weekday Year I Context (Thursday of the 29th Week in Ordinary Time)

Brothers and sisters:
I am speaking in human terms because of the weakness of your nature.
For just as you presented the parts of your bodies as slaves to impurity
and to lawlessness for lawlessness,
so now present them as slaves to righteousness for sanctification.
For when you were slaves of sin, you were free from righteousness.
But what profit did you get then
from the things of which you are now ashamed?
For the end of those things is death.
But now that you have been freed from sin and have become slaves of God,
the benefit that you have leads to sanctification,
and its end is eternal life.
For the wages of sin is death,
but the gift of God is eternal life in Christ Jesus our Lord.
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Commentary on Rom 6:19-23

St. Paul now adds an active dimension to his discussion of salvation. Up to this point he has focused on faith in Christ. He now expands his argument to include the consequences of the actions of the person. He points out that, through sinful acts death is achieved (death of the spirit through guilt “…from the things of which you are now ashamed”), but through acts of righteousness sanctification (holiness) is achieved. He concludes this passage with the famous verse:” For the wages of sin is death, but the gift of God is eternal life in Christ Jesus our Lord.

CCC: Rom 6:19 1995; Rom 6:22 1995; Rom 6:23 1006, 1008
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Romans 7:18-25a

#477 Weekday Year I Context (Friday of the 29th Week in Ordinary Time)

Brothers and sisters:
I know that good does not dwell in me, that is, in my flesh.
The willing is ready at hand, but doing the good is not.
For I do not do the good I want,
but I do the evil I do not want.
Now if I do what I do not want, it is no longer I who do it,
but sin that dwells in me.
So, then, I discover the principle
that when I want to do right, evil is at hand.
For I take delight in the law of God, in my inner self,
but I see in my members another principle
at war with the law of my mind,
taking me captive to the law of sin that dwells in my members.
Miserable one that I am!
Who will deliver me from this mortal body?
Thanks be to God through Jesus Christ our Lord.
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Commentary on Rom 7:18-25a

St. Paul continues his existential apologia about over-dependence on the letter of the Law: “…persons who do not experience the justifying grace of God, and Christians who revert to dependence on law as the criterion for their relationship with God, will recognize a rift between their reasoned desire for the goodness of the law and their actual performance that is contrary to the law. Unable to free themselves from the slavery of sin and the power of death, they can only be rescued from defeat in the conflict by the power of God's grace working through Jesus Christ.”[7]

CCC: Rom 7 1963; Rom 7:16 1963; Rom 7:22 1995; Rom 7:23 2542
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Romans 8:1-11

#478 Weekday Year I Context (Saturday of the 29th Week in Ordinary Time)

Brothers and sisters:
Now there is no condemnation for those who are in Christ Jesus.
For the law of the spirit of life in Christ Jesus
has freed you from the law of sin and death.
For what the law, weakened by the flesh, was powerless to do,
this God has done:
by sending his own Son in the likeness of sinful flesh
and for the sake of sin, he condemned sin in the flesh,
so that the righteous decree of the law might be fulfilled in us,
who live not according to the flesh but according to the spirit.
For those who live according to the flesh
are concerned with the things of the flesh,
but those who live according to the spirit
with the things of the spirit.
The concern of the flesh is death,
but the concern of the spirit is life and peace.
For the concern of the flesh is hostility toward God;
it does not submit to the law of God, nor can it;
and those who are in the flesh cannot please God.
But you are not in the flesh;
on the contrary, you are in the spirit,
if only the Spirit of God dwells in you.
Whoever does not have the Spirit of Christ does not belong to him.
But if Christ is in you,
although the body is dead because of sin,
the spirit is alive because of righteousness.
If the Spirit of the one who raised Jesus from the dead dwells in you,
the one who raised Christ from the dead
will give life to your mortal bodies also,
through his Spirit that dwells in you.
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Commentary on Rom 8:1-11

In the first section of this passage from St Paul’s letter to the Romans the Evangelist differentiates between the disconnected Law that leads to death and the Law connected and fulfilled in Christ that leads to salvation. He goes on to say that those who concern themselves more with the material world have chosen death while those who have elected to pursue life in the spirit have chosen life eternal.

The Apostle expands upon the idea that through the Law of Moses sin entered the word. This occurred through the existential mechanism of defining sin. Here he expresses the idea that only through Christ Jesus can one be freed from sin and death. The Law of Moses cannot accomplish this freedom, is “powerless to do so” since it is “weakened by the flesh”; that is implemented as it is understood by mankind. Christ, who came to fulfill the law provides the means of freedom from sin and death for Christians, since they live in the spirit, coming to righteousness. He focuses on what Disciples of Christ must do to please God which must come through the spirit, not the flesh. Paul makes it clear that the Spirit is "of God," for the new principle of Christian vitality is derived from the same source as all the other divine manifestations of salvation. The baptized Christian is not only "in the Spirit," but the Spirit is now said to dwell in him.

CCC: Rom 8:2 782; Rom 8:3 602; Rom 8:9 693; Rom 8:11 632, 658, 693, 695, 989, 990
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Romans 8:1-4

#610 Proper of Saints Context (St. Alphonsus Liguori, Aug 1)

Brothers and sisters:
Now there is no condemnation for those who are in Christ Jesus.
For the law of the spirit of life in Christ Jesus
has freed you from the law of sin and death.
For what the law, weakened by the flesh, was powerless to do,
this God has done:
by sending his own Son in the likeness of sinful flesh
and for the sake of sin, he condemned sin in the flesh,
so that the righteous decree of the law might be fulfilled in us,
who live not according to the flesh but according to the spirit.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Rom 8:1-4

St. Paul expands upon the idea that through the Law of Moses sin entered the world. This occurred through the existential mechanism of defining sin. Here he expresses the idea that only through Christ Jesus can one be freed from sin and death. The Law of Moses cannot accomplish this freedom, is “powerless to do so” since it is “weakened by the flesh”; that is implemented as it is understood by mankind. Christ, who came to fulfill the law, provides the means of freedom from sin and death for Christians, since they live in the spirit, coming to righteousness.

CCC: Rom 8:2 782; Rom 8:3 602
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Romans 8:8-11

#34A Solemnities A Context (5th Sunday of Lent)

Brothers and sisters:
Those who are in the flesh cannot please God.
But you are not in the flesh;
on the contrary, you are in the spirit,
if only the Spirit of God dwells in you.
Whoever does not have the Spirit of Christ does not belong to him.
But if Christ is in you,
although the body is dead because of sin,
the spirit is alive because of righteousness.
If the Spirit of the one who raised Jesus from the dead dwells in you,
the one who raised Christ from the dead
will give life to your mortal bodies also,
through his Spirit dwelling in you.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Rom 8:8-11

St. Paul focuses on what disciples of Christ must do to please God which must come through the spirit, not the flesh. Paul makes it clear that the Spirit is "of God," for the new principle of Christian vitality is derived from the same source as all the other divine manifestations of salvation. The baptized Christian is not only "in the Spirit," but the Spirit is now said to dwell in him.

"St. John Chrysostom makes an acute observation: if Christ is living in the Christian, then the divine Spirit, the Third Person of the Trinity, is also present in him. If this divine Spirit is absent, then indeed death reigns supreme, and with it the wrath of God, rejection of His laws, separation from Christ, and expulsion of our Guest. And he adds: "But when one has the Spirit within, what can be lacking? With the Spirit one belongs to Christ, one possesses Him, one vies for honor with the angels. With the Spirit, the flesh is crucified, one tastes the delight of an immortal life, one has a pledge of future resurrection and advances rapidly on the path of virtue. This is what Paul calls putting the flesh to death" ("Hom. On Rom.", 13)."[18]

CCC: Rom 8:2 782; Rom 8:3 602; Rom 8:9 693; Rom 8:11 632, 658, 693, 695, 989, 990
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Romans 8:8-17

#63C Solemnities C Context (Pentecost Sunday C)

Brothers and sisters:
Those who are in the flesh cannot please God.
But you are not in the flesh;
on the contrary, you are in the spirit,
if only the Spirit of God dwells in you.
Whoever does not have the Spirit of Christ does not belong to him.
But if Christ is in you,
although the body is dead because of sin,
the spirit is alive because of righteousness.
If the Spirit of the one who raised Jesus from the dead dwells in you,
the one who raised Christ from the dead
will give life to your mortal bodies also,
through his Spirit that dwells in you.
Consequently, brothers and sisters,
we are not debtors to the flesh,
to live according to the flesh.
For if you live according to the flesh, you will die,
but if by the Spirit you put to death the deeds of the body,
you will live.

For those who are led by the Spirit of God are sons of God.
For you did not receive a spirit of slavery to fall back into fear,
but you received a Spirit of adoption,
through whom we cry, “Abba, Father!”
The Spirit himself bears witness with our spirit
that we are children of God,
and if children, then heirs,
heirs of God and joint heirs with Christ,
if only we suffer with him
so that we may also be glorified with him.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Rom 8:8-17

St. Paul focuses on the Holy Spirit indwelling as a consequence of Baptism. The Holy Spirit once received overrules the flesh and the faithful become one in Christ. Christians, by reason of the Spirit's presence within them, enjoy not only new life but also a new relationship to God, that of adopted children and heirs through Christ, whose sufferings and glory they share.

CCC: Rom 8:9 693; Rom 8:11 632, 658, 693, 695, 989, 990
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Romans 8:9, 11-13

#100A Solemnities A Context (14th Sunday in Ordinary Time A)

Brothers and sisters:
You are not in the flesh;
on the contrary, you are in the spirit,
if only the Spirit of God dwells in you.
Whoever does not have the Spirit of Christ does not belong to him.
If the Spirit of the one who raised Jesus from the dead dwells in you,
the one who raised Christ from the dead
will give life to your mortal bodies also,
through his Spirit that dwells in you.
Consequently, brothers and sisters,
we are not debtors to the flesh,
to live according to the flesh.
For if you live according to the flesh, you will die,
but if by the Spirit you put to death the deeds of the body,
you will live.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Rom 8:9, 11-13

After his warning in Romans 7 against the wrong route to fulfillment of the objective of holiness expressed in Romans 6:22, Paul points his addressees to the correct way. Through the redemptive work of Christ, Christians have been liberated from the terrible forces of sin and death. Holiness was impossible so long as the flesh (or our "old self") was alive. The same Spirit that enlivens Christians for holiness will also resurrect their bodies at the last day. Christian life is, therefore, the experience of a constant challenge to put to death the evil deeds of the body through life of the spirit (Romans 8:13).[3]

CCC: Rom 8:9 693; Rom 8:11 632, 658, 693, 695, 989, 990
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Romans 8:12-17

#479 Weekday Year I Context (Monday of the 30th Week in Ordinary Time)

Brothers and sisters,
we are not debtors to the flesh,
to live according to the flesh.
For if you live according to the flesh, you will die,
but if by the spirit you put to death the deeds of the body,
you will live.

For those who are led by the Spirit of God are sons of God.
For you did not receive a spirit of slavery to fall back into fear,
but you received a spirit of adoption,
through which we cry, “Abba, Father!”
The Spirit himself bears witness with our spirit
that we are children of God,
and if children, then heirs,
heirs of God and joint heirs with Christ,
if only we suffer with him
so that we may also be glorified with him.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Rom 8:12-17

St. Paul continues his discourse about the importance of making life in the spirit a priority as opposed to the life of the “un-spiritual.” He reminds his Christian audience that, when they became Christians they were not made slaves, but adopted as children of God. They are able, he tells them, to call God the Heavenly Father, “Abba,” the familial term used by Jesus, emphasizing that they are co-heirs with Christ whose sufferings and glory they share.

CCC: Rom 8:9 693; Rom 8:11 632, 658, 693, 695, 989, 990; Rom 8:14-17 1996; Rom 8:14 259, 693, 1831, 2543; Rom 8:15 257, 693, 1303, 1972, 2777; Rom 8:16 2639; Rom 8:17 1265, 1460, 1831
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Romans 8:14-17, 26-27

#749 Ritual Mass Context (I. Catechumenate and Christian Initiation of Adults, Presentation of the Lord's Prayer, First Option)

Brothers and sisters:
Those who are led by the Spirit of God are sons of God.
For you did not receive a spirit of slavery to fall back into fear,
  but you received a spirit of adoption,
  through which we cry, "Abba, Father!"
The Spirit himself bears witness with our spirit
  that we are children of God,
  and if children, then heirs,
  heirs of God and Joint heirs with Christ,
  if only we suffer with him
  so that we may also be glorified with him.

In the same way, the Spirit too comes to the aid of our weakness;
  for we do not know how to pray as we ought,
  but the Spirit himself intercedes with inexpressible groanings.

And the one who searches hearts
  knows what is the intention of the Spirit,
  because he intercedes for the holy ones
  according to God's will.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Rom 8:14-17, 26-27

St. Paul continues his discourse about the importance of making life in the spirit a priority as opposed to the life of the “unspiritual”. He reminds his Christian audience that when they became Christians they were not made slaves but adopted children of God. Able, he tells them, of calling God “Abba” the familial term used by Jesus, emphasizing that they are coheirs with Christ whose sufferings and glory they share.

Concluding, the Apostle speaks about the impact the Holy Spirit has upon prayer. Even if one cannot express their needs, the Paraclete will search it out and intercede for Christ’s followers.

CCC: Rom 8:14-17 1996; Rom 8:14 259, 693, 1831, 2543; Rom 8:15 257, 693, 1303, 1972, 2777; Rom 8:16 2639; Rom 8:17 1265, 1460, 1831; Rom 8:26-39 2739; Rom 8:26-27 2634; Rom 8:26 741, 2559, 2630, 2736; Rom 8:27 2543, 2736, 2766
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Romans 8:14-17

#165B Solemnities B Context (Solemnity of the Most Holy Trinity B)

#765 Ritual Mass Context (I. For the Conferral of Christian Initiation, 4. Confirmation, 7.)

#792 Ritual Mass Context (V. For the Pastoral Care of the Sick and the Dying, 1. Anointing of the Sick, 1.)

Brothers and sisters:
For those who are led by the Spirit of God are sons of God.
For you did not receive a spirit of slavery to fall back into fear,
but you received a Spirit of adoption,
through whom we cry, "Abba, Father!"
The Spirit himself bears witness with our spirit
that we are children of God,
and if children, then heirs,
heirs of God and joint heirs with Christ,
if only we suffer with him
so that we may also be glorified with him.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Rom 8:14-17

St. Paul continues his discourse about the importance of making life in the spirit a priority as opposed to the life of the “unspiritual”. He reminds his Christian audience that when they became Christians they were not made slaves but adopted children of God. Able, he tells them, of calling God “Abba” the familial term used by Jesus, emphasizing that they are coheirs with Christ whose sufferings and glory they share.

CCC: Rom 8:14-17 1996; Rom 8:14 259, 693, 1831, 2543; Rom 8:15 257, 693, 1303, 1972, 2777; Rom 8:16 2639; Rom 8:17 1265, 1460, 1831
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Romans 8:14-23

#668^ Proper of Saints Context (The Commemoration of All the Faithful Departed, Nov 2)

#1014 Mass for the Dead Context (Mass for the Dead, 4.)

Brothers and sisters:
Those who are led by the Spirit of God are sons of God.
For you did not receive a spirit of slavery to fall back into fear,
but you received a spirit of adoption,
through which we cry, "Abba, Father!"
The Spirit itself bears witness with our spirit
that we are children of God,
and if children, then heirs,
heirs of God and joint heirs with Christ,
if only we suffer with him
so that we may also be glorified with him.
I consider that the sufferings of this present time are as nothing
compared with the glory to be revealed for us.
For creation awaits with eager expectation
the revelation of the children of God;
for creation was made subject to futility,
not of its own accord but because of the one who subjected it,
in hope that creation itself
would be set free from slavery to corruption
and share in the glorious freedom of the children of God.
We know that all creation is groaning in labor pains even until now;
and not only that, but we ourselves,
who have the firstfruits of the Spirit,
we also groan within ourselves
as we wait for adoption, the redemption of our bodies.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Rom 8:14-23

St. Paul continues his discourse about the importance of making life in the spirit a priority as opposed to the life of the “unspiritual”. He reminds his Christian audience that when they became Christians they were not made slaves but adopted as children of God. Able, he tells them, to call God the Heavenly Father “Abba” the familial term used by Jesus, emphasizing that they are co-heirs with Christ whose sufferings and glory they share.

“Paul contends, on the basis of cost-benefit analysis, that even our heaviest burdens of suffering are fare outweighed by the glory that awaits us (2 Corinthians 4:17). Though the afflictions of our time on earth are inescapable, the Spirit helps to make them bearable (Romans 8:26). Suffering is all part of God’s plan to mold us into the image of Christ (Romans 8:29).”[12]

“The glory that believers are destined to share with Christ far exceeds the sufferings of the present life. Paul considers the destiny of the created world to be linked with the future that belongs to the believers. As it shares in the penalty of corruption brought about by sin, so also will it share in the benefits of redemption and future glory that comprise the ultimate liberation of God's people.”[13]

CCC: Rom 8:14-17 1996; Rom 8:14 259, 693, 1831, 2543; Rom 8:15 257, 693, 1303, 1972, 2777; Rom 8:16 2639; Rom 8:17 1265, 1460, 1831; Rom 8:18-23 280; Rom 8:18 1721; Rom 8:19-23 1046; Rom 8:20 400; Rom 8:21 1741; Rom 8:22 2630; Rom 8:23-24 2630; Rom 8:23 735
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Romans 8:18-23

#103A Solemnities A Context (15th Sunday in Ordinary Time A)

Brothers and sisters:
I consider that the sufferings of this present time are as nothing
compared with the glory to be revealed for us.
For creation awaits with eager expectation
the revelation of the children of God;
for creation was made subject to futility,
not of its own accord but because of the one who subjected it,
in hope that creation itself
would be set free from slavery to corruption
and share in the glorious freedom of the children of God.
We know that all creation is groaning in labor pains even until now;
and not only that, but we ourselves,
who have the firstfruits of the Spirit,
we also groan within ourselves
as we wait for adoption, the redemption of our bodies.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Rom 8:18-23

“Paul contends, on the basis of cost-benefit analysis, that even our heaviest burdens of suffering are far outweighed by the glory that awaits us (2 Corinthians 4:17). Though the afflictions of our time on earth are inescapable, the Spirit helps to make them bearable (Romans 8:26). Suffering is all part of God’s plan to mold us into the image of Christ (Romans 8:29).”[4]

“The glory that believers are destined to share with Christ far exceeds the sufferings of the present life. Paul considers the destiny of the created world to be linked with the future that belongs to the believers. As it shares in the penalty of corruption brought about by sin, so also will it share in the benefits of redemption and future glory that comprise the ultimate liberation of God's people.”[5]

CCC:  Rom 8:18-23 280; Rom 8:18 1721; Rom 8:19-23 1046; Rom 8:20 400; Rom 8:21 1741; Rom 8:22 2630; Rom 8:23-24 2630; Rom 8:23 735
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Romans 8:18-30

#883 Mass for Various Needs Context (II. For Public Needs, 13. For the Country or a City or For Those Who Serve in Public Office or For the Congress or For the President or For the Progress of Peoples, 2.)

#939 Mass for Various Needs Context (III. In Various Public Circumstances, 25. In Time of Earthquake or For Rain or For Good Weather or To avert storms or For Any Need, First Option)

Brothers and sisters:
I consider that the sufferings of this present time are as nothing
  compared with the glory to be revealed for us.
For creation awaits with eager expectation
  the revelation of the children of God;
  for creation was made subject to futility,
  not of its own accord but because of the one who subjected it,
  in hope that creation itself
  would be set free from slavery to corruption
  and share in the glorious freedom of the children of God.
We know that all creation is groaning in labor pains even until now;
  and not only that, but we ourselves,
  who have the firstfruits of the Spirit,
  we also groan within ourselves
  as we wait for adoption, the redemption of our bodies.
For in hope we were saved.
Now hope that sees is not hope.
For who hopes for what one sees?
But if we hope for what we do not see, we wait with endurance.

In the same way, the Spirit too comes to the aid of our weakness;
  for we do not know how to pray as we ought,
  but the Spirit himself intercedes with inexpressible groanings.
And the one who searches hearts
  knows what is the intention of the Spirit,
  because he intercedes for the holy ones
  according to God's will.

We know that all things work for good for those who love God,
  who are called according to his purpose.
For those he foreknew he also predestined
  to be conformed to the image of his Son,
  so that he might be the firstborn
  among many brothers.

And those he predestined he also called;
  and those he called he also justified;
  and those he justified he also glorified.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Rom 8:18-30

“The glory that believers are destined to share with Christ far exceeds the sufferings of the present life. Paul considers the destiny of the created world to be linked with the future that belongs to the believers. As it shares in the penalty of corruption brought about by sin, so also will it share in the benefits of redemption and future glory that comprise the ultimate liberation of God's people (Romans 8:19-22).

After patient endurance in steadfast expectation, the full harvest of the Spirit's presence will be realized. On earth believers enjoy the first-fruits, i.e., the Spirit, as a guarantee of the total liberation of their bodies from the influence of the rebellious old self (Romans 8:23).”[8]

St. Paul next speaks about the impact the Holy Spirit has upon prayer. Even if one cannot express their needs, the Paraclete will search it out and intercede for Christ’s followers.

The Evangelist outlines the Christian vocation as God intended it to be. Because Christ existed eternally those called to him were carefully chosen or elected from the beginning of time to be called to salvation. “Predestined: [means] Selected for divine adoption by an eternal decree of God (Ephesians 1:4). Predestination is a mystery revealed but not fully understood; what we know for certain is that God is free to act as he chooses (Psalm 135:6) and man is free to accept or reject his blessings (Romans 2:6-8Sirach 15:11-13).No one is predestined by God for eternal damnation (CCC 1037).”[9]

CCC: Rom 8:18-23 280; Rom 8:18 1721; Rom 8:19-23 1046; Rom 8:20 400; Rom 8:21 1741; Rom 8:22 2630; Rom 8:23-24 2630; Rom 8:23 735; Rom 8:26-39 2739; Rom 8:26-27 2634; Rom 8:26 741, 2559, 2630, 2736; Rom 8:27 2543, 2736, 2766; Rom 8:28-30 1821, 2012; Rom 8:28 313, 395; Rom 8:29 257, 381, 501, 1161, 1272, 2790
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Romans 8:18-27

#792 Ritual Mass Context (V. Pastoral Care of the Sick and Dying, 1. Anointing of the Sick, 2.)

Brothers and sisters:
I consider that the sufferings of this present time are as nothing
  compared with the glory to be revealed for us.
For creation awaits with eager expectation
  the revelation of the children of God;
  for creation was made subject to futility,
  not of its own accord but because of the one who subjected it,
  in hope that creation itself
  would be set free from slavery to corruption
  and share in the glorious freedom of the children of God.
We know that all creation is groaning in labor pains even until now;
  and not only that, but we ourselves,
  who have the firstfruits of the Spirit,
  we also groan within ourselves
  as we wait for adoption, the redemption of our bodies.
For in hope we were saved.
Now hope that sees is not hope.
For who hopes for what one sees?
But if we hope for what we do not see, we wait with endurance.

In the same way, the Spirit too comes to the aid of our weakness;
  for we do not know how to pray as we ought,
  but the Spirit himself intercedes with inexpressible groanings.
And the one who searches hearts
  knows what is the intention of the Spirit,
  because he intercedes for the holy ones
  according to God's will.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Rom 8:18-27

“The glory that believers are destined to share with Christ far exceeds the sufferings of the present life. Paul considers the destiny of the created world to be linked with the future that belongs to the believers. As it shares in the penalty of corruption brought about by sin, so also will it share in the benefits of redemption and future glory that comprise the ultimate liberation of God's people (Romans 8:19-22).

After patient endurance in steadfast expectation, the full harvest of the Spirit's presence will be realized. On earth believers enjoy the first-fruits, i.e., the Spirit, as a guarantee of the total liberation of their bodies from the influence of the rebellious old self (Romans 8:23).”[8]

St. Paul next speaks about the impact the Holy Spirit has upon prayer. Even if one cannot express their needs, the Paraclete will search it out and intercede for Christ’s followers.

CCC: Rom 8:18-23 280; Rom 8:18 1721; Rom 8:19-23 1046; Rom 8:20 400; Rom 8:21 1741; Rom 8:22 2630; Rom 8:23-24 2630; Rom 8:23 735; Rom 8:26-39 2739; Rom 8:26-27 2634; Rom 8:26 741, 2559, 2630, 2736; Rom 8:27 2543, 2736, 2766
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Romans 8:18-25

#480 Weekday Year I Context (Tuesday of the 30th Week in Ordinary Time)

Brothers and sisters:
I consider that the sufferings of this present time are as nothing
compared with the glory to be revealed for us.
For creation awaits with eager expectation
the revelation of the children of God;
for creation was made subject to futility,
not of its own accord but because of the one who subjected it,
in hope that creation itself
would be set free from slavery to corruption
and share in the glorious freedom of the children of God.
We know that all creation is groaning in labor pains even until now;
and not only that, but we ourselves,
who have the firstfruits of the Spirit,
we also groan within ourselves
as we wait for adoption, the redemption of our bodies.
For in hope we were saved.
Now hope that sees for itself is not hope.
For who hopes for what one sees?
But if we hope for what we do not see, we wait with endurance.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Rom 8:18-25

“The glory that believers are destined to share with Christ far exceeds the sufferings of the present life. Paul considers the destiny of the created world to be linked with the future that belongs to the believers. As it shares in the penalty of corruption brought about by sin, so also will it share in the benefits of redemption and future glory that comprise the ultimate liberation of God's people (Romans 8:19-22).

"After patient endurance in steadfast expectation, the full harvest of the Spirit's presence will be realized. On earth believers enjoy the first-fruits, i.e., the Spirit, as a guarantee of the total liberation of their bodies from the influence of the rebellious old self (Romans 8:23).”[8]

CCC: Rom 8:18-23 280; Rom 8:18 1721; Rom 8:19-23 1046; Rom 8:20 400; Rom 8:21 1741; Rom 8:22 2630; Rom 8:23-24 2630; Rom 8:23 735
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Romans 8:22-27

#62ABC Solemnities ABC Context (Pentecost at the Vigil Mass)

#657 Proper of Saints Context (St. Teresa of Jesus, Oct 15)

Brothers and sisters:
We know that all creation is groaning in labor pains even until
now;
and not only that, but we ourselves,
who have the firstfruits of the Spirit,
we also groan within ourselves
as we wait for adoption, the redemption of our bodies.
For in hope we were saved.
Now hope that sees is not hope.
For who hopes for what one sees?
But if we hope for what we do not see, we wait with endurance.

In the same way, the Spirit too comes to the aid of our weakness;
for we do not know how to pray as we ought,
but the Spirit himself intercedes with inexpressible groanings.
And the one who searches hearts
knows what is the intention of the Spirit,
because he intercedes for the holy ones
according to God's will.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Rom 8:22-27

In this passage, St. Paul builds upon the theme that Christian life is lived in the spirit and is destined for the glory of God. Through the Spirit, the Christian becomes a “Child of God.” The imagery portrays the Christian adoption in the Spirit as the “firstfruits”; the gift of the first return from the harvest of God that blesses the entire harvest. In the spirit, hope manifests itself, not in the present world, but in the eternal life to come, which is awaited with patient endurance of the material.

As the Christian struggles to be reborn in the Spirit, again using the imagery of a woman in labor “groaning” in her labor, the Spirit given facilitates a transformation or rebirth. The weakness becomes strength in the spirit and the person transformed into an object of God’s will.

CCC: Rom 8:22 2630; Rom 8:23-24 2630; Rom 8:23 735; Rom 8:26-39 2739; Rom 8:26-27 2634; Rom 8:26 741, 2559, 2630, 2736; Rom 8:27 2543, 2736, 2766
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Romans 8:26-30

#481 Weekday Year I Context (Wednesday of the 30th Week in Ordinary Time)

#533 Proper of Saints Context (Seven Founders of the Servite Order, Feb 17)

#740 Commons Context (Common of Holy Men and Women)

Brothers and sisters:
The Spirit comes to the aid of our weakness;
for we do not know how to pray as we ought,
but the Spirit himself intercedes with inexpressible groanings.
And the one who searches hearts
knows what is the intention of the Spirit,
because he intercedes for the holy ones
according to God's will.
We know that all things work for good for those who love God,
who are called according to his purpose.
For those he foreknew he also predestined
to be conformed to the image of his Son,
so that he might be the firstborn
among many brothers.
And those he predestined he also called;
and those he called he also justified;
and those he justified he also glorified.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Rom 8:26-30

In the first paragraph of this selection St. Paul speaks about the impact the Holy Spirit has upon prayer. Even if one cannot express their needs, the Paraclete will search it out and intercede for Christ’s followers.

In the second part of the reading the Evangelist outlines the Christian vocation as God intended it to be. Because Christ existed eternally those called to him were carefully chosen or elected from the beginning of time to be called to salvation. “Predestined: [means] Selected for divine adoption by an eternal decree of God (Ephesians 1:4). Predestination is a mystery revealed but not fully understood; what we know for certain is that God is free to act as he chooses (Psalm 135:6) and man is free to accept or reject his blessings (Romans 2:6-8; Sirach 15:11-13).No one is predestined by God for eternal damnation (CCC 1037).”[9]

CCC: Rom 8:26-39 2739; Rom 8:26-27 2634; Rom 8:26 741, 2559, 2630, 2736; Rom 8:27 2543, 2736, 2766; Rom 8:28-30 1821, 2012; Rom 8:28 313, 395; Rom 8:29 257, 381, 501, 1161, 1272, 2790
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Romans 8:26-27

#106A Solemnities A Context (16th Sunday in Ordinary Time A)

#765 Ritual Mass Context (I. For the Conferral of Christian Initiation, 4. Confirmation, 8.)

Brothers and sisters:
The Spirit comes to the aid of our weakness;
for we do not know how to pray as we ought,
but the Spirit himself intercedes with inexpressible groanings.
And the one who searches hearts
knows what is the intention of the Spirit,
because he intercedes for the holy ones
according to God’s will.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Rom 8:26-27

In the previous verses, St. Paul’s dialogue has been explaining to the Romans that the glory of Christ will be shared by those who believe in him, and the sufferings of the present life are preparatory to future redemption. It is through the Holy Spirit that interior faith is communicated to God in prayer. Even the imperfect intent of the Christian is received because of the intercession of the Holy Spirit and because of God’s love and mercy.

CCC:  Rom 8:26-39 2739; Rom 8:26-27 2634; Rom 8:26 741, 2559, 2630, 2736; Rom 8:27 2543, 2736, 2766
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Romans 8:28-39

#761 Ritual Mass Context (I. For the Conferral of Christian Initiation, 3. For the Reception of Baptized Christians into the Full Communion of the Catholic Church, 1.)

Brothers and sisters:
We know that all things work for good for those who love God
  who are called according to his purpose.
For those he foreknew he also predestined
  to be conformed to the image of his Son,
  so that he might be the firstborn
  among many brothers.
And those he predestined he also called;
  and those he called he also justified;
  and those he justified he also glorified.

What then shall we say to this?
If God is for us, who can be against us?
He who did not spare his own Son
  but handed him over for us all,
  how will he not also give us everything else along with him?
Who will bring a charge against God's chosen ones?
It is God who acquits us.
Who will condemn?
It is Christ Jesus who died, rather, was raised,
  who also is at the right hand of God,
  who indeed intercedes for us.
What will separate us from the love of Christ?
Will anguish, or distress, or persecution, or famine,
  or nakedness, or peril, or the sword?

As it is written:

  For your sake we are being slain all the day;
    we are looked upon as sheep to be slaughtered.

No, in all these things we conquer overwhelmingly
  through him who loved us.
For 1 am convinced that neither death, nor life,
  nor angels, nor principalities,
  nor present things, nor future things,
  nor powers, nor height, nor depth,
  nor any other creature will be able to separate us
  from the love of God in Christ Jesus our Lord.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Rom 8:28-39

St. Paul here outlines the call to a life in Christ. He reflects that God so loves his children that he called some individuals to participate in his redemptive plan at a deeper level. Because Christ existed eternally those called to him were carefully chosen or elected from the beginning of time to be called to salvation. These “elect”, because of their unwavering service to God will also be glorified.

The Apostle bursts into a hymn proclaiming the victory over death and suffering experienced by the faithful, lifted up by God in Christ. The premise that the love of God assures salvation to the faithful is strengthened as the evangelist asks the rhetorical question “What will separate us from the love of Christ?” Over all obstacles (human, physical, and metaphysical – “height and depth” probably referred to ancient astrological terms indicating the closest proximity and the most distant star from the zenith.) were the love of God expressed in Christ is the unshakable foundation Christian life and hope.

The Apostle quotes Psalm 44:23 as his song denies that even death is a barrier between the faithful and God’s love. No earthly or spiritual force can stand against such love as that shown in Christ Jesus.

CCC: Rom 8:26-39 2739; Rom 8:28-30 1821, 2012; Rom 8:28 313, 395; Rom 8:29 257, 381, 501, 1161, 1272, 2790; Rom 8:31 2852; Rom 8:32 603, 706, 2572; Rom 8:34 1373, 2634
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Romans 8:28-32, 35, 37-39

#752 Ritual Mass Context (I. For the Conferral of Christian Initiation, 1. Catechumenate and Christian Initiation of Adults, Christian Initiation Apart From the Easter Vigil, 4.)

Brothers and sisters:
We know that all things work for good for those who love God,
  who are called according to his purpose.
For those he foreknew he also predestined
  to be conformed to the image of his Son,
  so that he might be the firstborn
  among many brothers.
And those he predestined he also called;
  and those he called he also justified;
  and those he justified he also glorified.

What then shall we say to this?
If God is for us, who can be against us?
He who did not spare his own Son
  but handed him over for us all,
  how will he not also give us everything else along with him?
What will separate us from the love of Christ?
Will anguish, or distress, or persecution, or famine,
  or nakedness, or peril, or the sword?

No, in all these things we conquer overwhelmingly
  through him who loved us.
For I am convinced that neither death, nor life,
  nor angels, nor principalities,
  nor present things, nor future things,
  nor powers, nor height, nor depth,
  nor any other creature will be able to separate us
  from the love of God in Christ Jesus our Lord.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Rom 8:28-32, 35, 37-39

St. Paul here outlines the call to a life in Christ. He reflects that God so loves his children that he called some individuals to participate in his redemptive plan at a deeper level. Because Christ existed eternally those called to him were carefully chosen or elected from the beginning of time to be called to salvation. These “elect”, because of their unwavering service to God will also be glorified.

The Apostle bursts into a hymn proclaiming the victory over death and suffering experienced by the faithful, lifted up by God in Christ. The premise that the love of God assures salvation to the faithful is strengthened as the evangelist asks the rhetorical question “What will separate us from the love of Christ?” Over all obstacles (human, physical, and metaphysical – “height and depth” probably referred to ancient astrological terms indicating the closest proximity and the most distant star from the zenith.) were the love of God expressed in Christ is the unshakable foundation Christian life and hope.

CCC: Rom 8:26-39 2739; Rom 8:28-30 1821, 2012; Rom 8:28 313, 395; Rom 8:29 257, 381, 501, 1161, 1272, 2790; Rom 8:31 2852; Rom 8:32 603, 706, 2572
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Romans 8:28-32

#757 Ritual Mass Context (I. For the Conferral of Christian Initiation, 2. Conferral of Infant Baptism, 2.)

Brothers and sisters:
We know that all things work for good for those who love God,
  who are called according to his purpose.
For those he foreknew he also predestined
  to be conformed to the image of his Son,
  so that he might be the firstborn
  among many brothers.
And those he predestined he also called;
  and those he called he also justified;
  and those he justified he also glorified.

What then shall we say to this?
If God is for us, who can be against us?
He who did not spare his own Son
  but handed him over for us all,
  how will he not also give us everything else along with him?
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Rom 8:28-32

St. Paul here outlines the call to a life in Christ. He reflects that God so loves his children that he called some individuals to participate in his redemptive plan at a deeper level. Because Christ existed eternally those called to him were carefully chosen or elected from the beginning of time to be called to salvation. These “elect”, because of their unwavering service to God will also be glorified. (Note: This reading used on the Feast of the Nativity of the Blessed Virgin Mary clearly points to her glorious vocation and the honored place she has in heaven and on earth). In the adoption of Baptism the holy bath places the new Christian in the ranks of the saints standing firmly with Christ in the battle against sin and death.

CCC: Rom 8:26-39 2739; Rom 8:28-30 1821, 2012; Rom 8:28 313, 395; Rom 8:29 257, 381, 501, 1161, 1272, 2790; Rom 8:31 2852; Rom 8:32 603, 706, 2572
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Romans 8:28-30

#109A Solemnities A Context (17th Sunday in Ordinary Time A)

#636 Proper of Saints Context (Feast of the Nativity of the Blessed Virgin Mary, Sep 8)

#710 Commons Context (Common of the Blessed Virgin Mary)

Brothers and sisters:
We know that all things work for good for those who love God,
who are called according to his purpose.
For those he foreknew he also predestined
to be conformed to the image of his Son,
so that he might be the firstborn
among many brothers and sisters.
And those he predestined he also called;
and those he called he also justified;
and those he justified he also glorified.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Rom 8:28-30

St. Paul outlines the call to a life in Christ. He reflects that God so loves his children. He called some individuals to participate in his redemptive plan at a deeper level. Because Christ existed eternally, those called to him were carefully chosen, or elected from the beginning of time, to be called to salvation. These “elect,” because of their unwavering service to God, will also be glorified. The Church recognizes this call to holiness.  It also recognizes that, while all are called, those who accept this call must do it from the heart (on-going conversion) in order to be justified and glorified.

Created with free will, many will choose an easier path.  This passage is among several that are central to the Calvinist idea of predestination. (Note: This reading used on the Feast of the Nativity of the Blessed Virgin Mary clearly points to her glorious vocation and the honored place she has in heaven and on earth.)

CCC: Rom 8:26-39 2739; Rom 8:28-30 1821, 2012; Rom 8:28 313, 395; Rom 8:29 257, 381, 501, 1161, 1272, 2790
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Romans 8:31b-39

#482 Weekday Year I Context (Thursday of the 30th Week in Ordinary Time)

#538 Proper of Saints Context (Sts. Perpetua and Felicity, Mar 7)

#592 Proper of Saints Context (First Holy Martyrs of Rome, Jun 30)

#642A^ Proper of Saints Context (Sts. Andrew Kim Taegon And Paul Chong Hasang, Sep 19)

#716 Commons Context (Common of Martyrs)

#863 Mass for Various Needs Context (I. For the Holy Church, 9. For the Laity, 3.)

#939 Mass for Various Needs Context (III. In Various Public Circumstances, 25. In time of Earthquake or for Rain or for Good Weather or to Avert Storms or for Any Need, Second Option)

#11L BVM Context (The Blessed Virgin Mary at the Foot of the Cross I, Lent 11)

Brothers and sisters:
If God is for us, who can be against us?
He who did not spare his own Son
but handed him over for us all,
how will he not also give us everything else along with him?
Who will bring a charge against God's chosen ones?
It is God who acquits us.
Who will condemn?
It is Christ Jesus who died, rather, was raised,
who also is at the right hand of God,
who indeed intercedes for us.
What will separate us from the love of Christ?
Will anguish, or distress, or persecution, or famine,
or nakedness, or peril, or the sword?
As it is written:

For your sake we are being slain all the day;
we are looked upon as sheep to be slaughtered.

No, in all these things we conquer overwhelmingly
through him who loved us.
For I am convinced that neither death, nor life,
nor angels, nor principalities,
nor present things, nor future things,
nor powers, nor height, nor depth,
nor any other creature will be able to separate us
from the love of God in Christ Jesus our Lord.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Rom 8:31b-39

St. Paul bursts into a hymn proclaiming the victory over death and suffering experienced by the faithful, lifted up by God in Christ. The premise that the love of God assures salvation to the faithful is strengthened as the evangelist asks the rhetorical question “What will separate us from the love of Christ?” Over all obstacles (human, physical, and metaphysical – “height and depth” probably referred to ancient astrological terms indicating the closest proximity and the most distant star from the zenith), is the love of God expressed in Christ as the unshakable foundation of Christian life and hope.

The Apostle quotes Psalm 44:23 as his song denies that even death is a barrier between the faithful and God’s love. No earthly or spiritual force can stand against such love as that shown in Christ Jesus.

CCC: Rom 8:26-39 2739; Rom 8:31 2852; Rom 8:32 603, 706, 2572; Rom 8:34 1373, 2634
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Romans 8:31b-34

26B Solemnities B Context (2nd Sunday of Lent B)

Brothers and sisters:
If God is for us, who can be against us?
He who did not spare his own Son
but handed him over for us all,
how will he not also give us everything else along with him?

Who will bring a charge against God's chosen ones?
It is God who acquits us, who will condemn?
Christ Jesus it is who died—or, rather, was raised—
who also is at the right hand of God,
who indeed intercedes for us.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Rom 8:31b-34

St. Paul bursts into a hymn proclaiming the victory over death and suffering experienced by the faithful, lifted up by God in Christ. The premise that the love of God assures salvation to the faithful is strengthened as the evangelist asks the rhetorical question “If God is for us, who can be against us?

CCC: Rom 8:31 2852; Rom 8:32 603, 706, 2572; Rom 8:34 1373, 2634
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Romans 8:31b-35, 37-39

#668^ Proper of Saints Context (The Commemoration of All the Faithful Departed, Nov 2)

#792 Ritual Mass Context (V. Pastoral Care of the Sick and Dying, 1. Anointing of the Sick, 3.)

#802 Ritual Mass Context (VI. For the Conferral of the Sacrament of Marriage, 1.)

#1014 Mass for the Dead Context (5.)

Brothers and sisters:
If God is for us, who can be against us?
He who did not spare his own Son
but handed him over for us all,
will he not also give us everything else along with him?
Who will bring a charge against God's chosen ones?
It is God who acquits us.
Who will condemn?

It is Christ Jesus who died, rather, was raised,
who also is at the right hand of God,
who indeed intercedes for us.
What will separate us from the love of Christ?
Will anguish, or distress or persecution, or famine,
or nakedness, or peril, or the sword?

No, in all these things, we conquer overwhelmingly
through him who loved us.
For I am convinced that neither death, nor life,
nor angels, nor principalities,
nor present things, nor future things,
nor powers, nor height, nor depth,
nor any other creature will be able to separate us
from the love of God in Christ Jesus our Lord.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Rom 8:31 b-35, 37-39

St. Paul bursts into a hymn proclaiming the victory over death and suffering experienced by the faithful, lifted up by God in Christ. The premise that the love of God assures salvation to the faithful is strengthened as the evangelist asks the rhetorical question “What will separate us from the love of Christ?” All obstacles will be overcome were the love of God, expressed in Christ, is the unshakable foundation Christian life and hope. No earthly or spiritual force can stand against such love as that shown in Christ Jesus.

CCC: Rom 8:31 2852; Rom 8:32 603, 706, 2572; Rom 8:34 1373, 2634
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Romans 8:35, 37-39

#112A Solemnities A Context (18th Sunday in Ordinary Time A)

Brothers and sisters:
What will separate us from the love of Christ?
Will anguish, or distress, or persecution, or famine,
or nakedness, or peril, or the sword?
No, in all these things we conquer overwhelmingly
through him who loved us.
For I am convinced that neither death, nor life,
nor angels, nor principalities,
nor present things, nor future things,
nor powers, nor height, nor depth,
nor any other creature will be able to separate us
from the love of God in Christ Jesus our Lord.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Rom 8:35, 37-39

The premise that the love of God assures salvation to the faithful is strengthened as the evangelist asks the rhetorical question “What will separate us from the love of Christ?” Over all obstacles (human, physical, and metaphysical – “height and depth” probably referred to ancient astrological terms indicating the closest proximity and the most distant star from the zenith.) were the love of God expressed in Christ is the unshakable foundation Christian life and hope.

CCC: Rom 8:31 2852; Rom 8:32 603, 706, 2572; Rom 8:34 1373, 2634
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Romans 9:1-5

#115A Solemnities A Context (19th Sunday in Ordinary Time A)

#483 Weekday Year I Context (Friday of the 30th Week in Ordinary Time)

Brothers and sisters:
I speak the truth in Christ, I do not lie;
my conscience joins with the Holy Spirit in bearing me witness
that I have great sorrow and constant anguish in my heart.
For I could wish that I myself were accursed and cut off from Christ
for the sake of my own people,
my kindred according to the flesh.
They are Israelites;
theirs the adoption, the glory, the covenants,
the giving of the law, the worship, and the promises;
theirs the patriarchs, and from them,
according to the flesh, is the Christ,
who is over all, God blessed forever. Amen.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Rom 9:1-5

“The apostle speaks in strong terms of the depth of his grief over the unbelief of his own people. He would willingly undergo a curse himself for the sake of their coming to the knowledge of Christ (Romans 9:3; cf Leviticus 27:28-29). His love for them derives from God's continuing choice of them and from the spiritual benefits that God bestows on them and through them on all of humanity.”[6]

CCC: Rom 9:4-5 839; Rom 9:5 449
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Romans 10:8-13

#24C Solemnities C Context (1st Sunday of Lent C)

#748 Ritual Mass Context (I. For the Conferral of Christian Initiation, Presentation of the Creed, First Option)

Brothers and sisters:
What does Scripture say?
The word is near you,
in your mouth and in your heart

—that is, the word of faith that we preach—,
for, if you confess with your mouth that Jesus is Lord
and believe in your heart that God raised him from the dead,
you will be saved.
For one believes with the heart and so is justified,
and one confesses with the mouth and so is saved.
For the Scripture says,
No one who believes in him will be put to shame.
For there is no distinction between Jew and Greek;
the same Lord is Lord of all,
enriching all who call upon him.
For “everyone who calls on the name of the Lord will be saved.”
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Commentary on Rom 10:8-13

The author of the Letter to the Romans (probably from the Pauline Community) provides a confession of faith in Jesus and the view of the universal invitation to Christ. Anyone who calls on Christ in sincerity and believes in his divinity has access to his mercy and salvation.

Taken in the context, this reading is part of a larger apologetic discourse about Christ being the one who brings salvation, as opposed to the view held by some Jews that it came from the Law of Moses. In those circumstances and at that time in history, this reading takes on a different meaning: professing Christ openly could result in persecution and even death.

CCC: Rom 10:9 343, 186, 449; Rom 10:12-13 2739; Rom 10:13 2666
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Romans 10:9-18

#684 Proper of Saints Context (Feast of St. Andrew)

#873 Mass for Various Needs Context (I. For the Holy Church 11. For the Evangelization of Peoples 4.)

Brothers and sisters:
If you confess with your mouth that Jesus is Lord
and believe in your heart that God raised him from the dead,
you will be saved.
For one believes with the heart and so is justified,
and one confesses with the mouth and so is saved.
The Scripture says,
No one who believes in him will be put to shame.
There is no distinction between Jew and Greek;
the same Lord is Lord of all,
enriching all who call upon him.
For everyone who calls on the name of the Lord will be saved.

But how can they call on him in whom they have not believed?
And how can they believe in him of whom they have not heard?
And how can they hear without someone to preach?
And how can people preach unless they are sent?
As it is written,
How beautiful are the feet of those who bring the good news!
But not everyone has heeded the good news;
for Isaiah says, Lord, who has believed what was heard from us?
Thus faith comes from what is heard,
and what is heard comes through the word of Christ.
But I ask, did they not hear?
Certainly they did; for

Their voice has gone forth to all the earth,
and their words to the ends of the world.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Rom 10:9-18

As part of his dialogue regarding why the Jews had failed in their mission, St. Paul calls upon the Roman Christians to profess their belief that Jesus is the Son of God, divine in his own person. The Jewish converts could not say the name of God but referred instead to Yahweh as “Lord.” By asking the Christians to “…confess with your mouth that Jesus is Lord“, they professed their belief in his divinity and what flowed from that profession was justification (to be made just as if one had not sinned). In justification is salvation since the physical act of confessing with the lips must come from an interior faith from the heart.

The Evangelist continues his call to faith explaining that this path to salvation is open to all peoples (“There is no distinction between Jew and Greek"). This invitation does not have any prerequisites (i.e. one does not have to have come to belief through Judaism) to be unified in Christ, paraphrasing Isaiah 28:16.

In the next section (v. 14-21) St. Paul poses questions as to why the Jewish people forfeited their status as favorites in the eyes of God. Perhaps there were reasons which he rhetorically proposes and then rejects: did they not hear; did they not understand? To the question, have they not heard? St. Paul responds quoting Psalm 19:5, which concludes this passage.

CCC: Rom 10:9 343, 186, 449; Rom 10:12-13 2739; Rom 10:13 2666; Rom 10:14-15 875; Rom 10:17 875
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Romans 11:1-2a, 11-12, 25-29

#484 Weekday Year I Context (Saturday of the 30th Week in Ordinary Time)

Brothers and sisters:
I ask, then, has God rejected his people?
Of course not!
For I too am a child of Israel, a descendant of Abraham,
of the tribe of Benjamin.
God has not rejected his people whom he foreknew.
Do you not know what the Scripture says about Elijah,
how he pleads with God against Israel?

Hence I ask, did they stumble so as to fall?
Of course not!
But through their transgression
salvation has come to the Gentiles,
so as to make them jealous.
Now if their transgression is enrichment for the world,
and if their diminished number is enrichment for the Gentiles,
how much more their full number.

I do not want you to be unaware of this mystery, brothers and sisters,
so that you will not become wise in your own estimation:
a hardening has come upon Israel in part,
until the full number of the Gentiles comes in,
and thus all Israel will be saved, as it is written:

The deliverer will come out of Zion,
he will turn away godlessness from Jacob;
and this is my covenant with them
when I take away their sins.

In respect to the Gospel, they are enemies on your account;
but in respect to election,
they are beloved because of the patriarch.
For the gifts and the call of God are irrevocable.
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Commentary on Rom 11:1-2a, 11-12, 25-29

St. Paul asks his Jewish audience if God has rejected them. The answer: “Of course not!” identifies the Evangelist as an Israelite, and begins his ironic description of how God used the rejection of the Messiah as a reason to invite the Gentiles to participate in God's salvation. He goes on, in the passages omitted, to indicate that the Israel remains holy in the eyes of God, but the majority, which has rejected the Lord, paved the way for God’s plan to invite the world into that favored status.

The text he quotes is Isaiah 59:20-21 joined with Isaiah 27:9 providing a positive offering to the Jews, whom he had previously condemned (v.8ff) for rejecting the Lord. The concluding verse makes it clear that, even though the Jewish people who rejected the Gospel of Christ are “enemies on your account,” their election as the chosen people is irrevocable – the offer of salvation is not withdrawn.

CCC: Rom 11:12 674; Rom 11:13-26 755; Rom 11:25 591, 674; Rom 11:26 674; Rom 11:28 60; Rom 11:29 839
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Romans 11:13-15, 29-32

#118A Solemnities A Context (20th Sunday in Ordinary Time A)

Brothers and sisters:
I am speaking to you Gentiles.
Inasmuch as I am the apostle to the Gentiles,
I glory in my ministry in order to make my race jealous
and thus save some of them.
For if their rejection is the reconciliation of the world,
what will their acceptance be but life from the dead?

For the gifts and the call of God are irrevocable.
Just as you once disobeyed God
but have now received mercy because of their disobedience,
so they have now disobeyed in order that,
by virtue of the mercy shown to you,
they too may now receive mercy.
For God delivered all to disobedience,
that he might have mercy upon all.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Rom 11:13-15, 29-32

St. Paul’s concern for the Hebrew people who have rejected Christ becomes clear in this passage as he states clearly that one of the reasons he became “apostle to the Gentiles” was to make the Jews jealous. He does so in order that they would recant their rejection of the peace and eternal life offered by salvation in Christ, and accept the promise offered by the Messiah.

The concluding verse makes it clear that even though the Jewish people who rejected the Gospel of Christ are “enemies on your account” (v. 28), their election as the chosen people is irrevocable – the offer of salvation is not withdrawn.

CCC: Rom 11:13-26 755; Rom 11:25 591, 674; Rom 11:26 674; Rom 11:28 60; Rom 11:29 839; Rom 11:31 674; Rom 11:32 1870
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Romans 11:29-36

#485 Weekday Year I Context (Monday of the 31st Week in Ordinary Time)

Brothers and sisters:
The gifts and the call of God are irrevocable.

Just as you once disobeyed God
but have now received mercy
because of their disobedience,
so they have now disobeyed in order that,
by virtue of the mercy shown to you,
they too may now receive mercy.
For God delivered all to disobedience,
that he might have mercy upon all.

Oh, the depth of the riches and wisdom and knowledge of God!
How inscrutable are his judgments and how unsearchable his ways!

For who has known the mind of the Lord
or who has been his counselor?
Or who has given him anything
that he may be repaid?

For from him and through him and for him are all things.
To God be glory forever. Amen.
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Commentary on Rom 11:29-36

This passage is St. Paul’s final reflection on salvation assured for the believers, justified by the love of God. The apostle has illustrated this theme by showing that God’s plan of salvation does not contradict the promise made to Israel. He now provides this hymn to a merciful God. In it he quotes Isaiah (Greek version of Isaiah 40:13 and Job 41:11a) to emphasize that God is indebted to no one, either for his plan or his gifts to the people. All he gives come from his love and mercy. As he concludes his discourse on sin and forgiveness, he indicates that what God has given (grace and faith) will not be revoked and cannot be undone. The second part of this reading celebrates the wisdom of God’s plan of salvation.

CCC: Rom 11:29 839; Rom 11:31 674; Rom 11:32 1870
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Romans 11:33-36

#121A Solemnities A Context (21st Sunday in Ordinary Time A)

Oh, the depth of the riches and wisdom and knowledge of God!
How inscrutable are his judgments and how unsearchable his ways!
For who has known the mind of the Lord
or who has been his counselor?
Or who has given the Lord anything
that he may be repaid?
For from him and through him and for him are all things.
To him be glory forever. Amen.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Rom 11:33-36

This passage is St. Paul’s final reflection on salvation assured for those justified by the love of God. The apostle has illustrated this theme by showing that God’s plan of salvation does not contradict the promise made to Israel. He next provides this hymn to a merciful God. In it he quotes Isaiah (the Greek version of Isaiah 40:13; and Job (Job 41:11a)) to emphasize that God is indebted to no one, either for his plan or his gifts to the people. All he gives come from his love and mercy.

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Romans 12:1-2

#124A Solemnities A Context (22nd Sunday in Ordinary Time A)

I urge you, brothers and sisters, by the mercies of God,
to offer your bodies as a living sacrifice,
holy and pleasing to God, your spiritual worship.
Do not conform yourselves to this age
but be transformed by the renewal of your mind,
that you may discern what is the will of God,
what is good and pleasing and perfect.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Rom 12:1-2

St. Paul begins a new topic with these verses from his letter to the Romans. The demands of the “new life” of the Christian are laid out, beginning with the idea of complete dedication to the ideals of their faith. This dedication is expressed here in language reminiscent of the ritual sacrifice of animals as holocaust (burnt offering) in the Hebrew and pagan ceremonies, but using the bodies of the faithful in this context. The clear idea is that the Christian, like an animal sacrificed to God as a holocaust - completely burned and offered up to the Lord- is to be wholly given to Christ (see also Leviticus 1:3ff). Purified in the fire of faith they are untainted by the sins of the world (“Do not conform yourselves to this age”) but, in following the will of God, are a pleasing sacrifice to him.

CCC: Rom 12-15 1454, 1971; Rom 12:1 2031; Rom 12:2 2520, 2826
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Romans 12:1-2, 9-18*

#802 Ritual Mass Context (VI. For the Conferral of the Sacrament of Marriage, 2.)

I urge you, brothers and sisters, by the mercies of God,
  to offer your bodies as a living sacrifice,
  holy and pleasing to God, your spiritual worship.
Do not conform yourselves to this age
  but be transformed by the renewal of your mind,
  that you may discern what is the will of God,
  what is good and pleasing and perfect.

Let love be sincere;
  hate what is evil,
  hold on to what is good;
  love one another with mutual affection;
  anticipate one another in showing honor.
Do not grow slack in zeal,
  be fervent in spirit,
  serve the Lord.
Rejoice in hope,
  endure in affliction,
  persevere in prayer.
Contribute to the needs of the holy ones,
  exercise hospitality.
Bless those who persecute you,
  bless and do not curse them.
Rejoice with those who rejoice,
  weep with those who weep.
Have the same regard for one another;
   do not be haughty but associate with the lowly;
   do not be wise in your own estimation.
 Do not repay anyone evil for evil;
   be concerned for what is noble in the sight of all.
 If possible, on your part, live at peace with all.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Rom 12:1-2, 9-18

St. Paul begins a new topic with these verses from his letter to the Romans. The demands of the “New Life” of the Christian are laid out; beginning with the idea of complete dedication to the ideals of their faith. This dedication is expressed here in language reminiscent of the ritual sacrifice of animals in the Hebrew and pagan ceremonies but using the bodies of the faithful in this context. The clear idea is the Christian, like an animal sacrificed to God, is to be wholly given to Christ, untainted by the sins of the world (“Do not conform yourselves to this age”) but, in following the will of God – a pleasing sacrifice to him.

The Evangelist uses the analogy of the “Body” (the Body of Christ) with each part of the body serving an important purpose though each different for the others. "For he who does not love his brother whom he has seen, cannot love God whom he has not seen" (1 John 4:20). Similarly, it can be said that Christians, that is "servants of the Lord", unless they serve their brethren whom they see before them, cannot serve God either. Serving God, in other words, ultimately means alleviating "the needs of the saints" and offering hospitality to strangers, after the example of the patriarchs Abraham and Lot (Genesis 18:2-5; Genesis 19:2-3; cf. Hebrews 13:2)."[15] In the second part of the selection the Evangelist gives a litany of exhortations to live the love of Christ, following his command to love one another sincerely and to forgive those who persecute them.

CCC: Rom 12-15 1454, 1971; Rom 12:1 2031; Rom 12:2 2520, 2826; Rom 12:9-13 1971; Rom 12:11 2039; Rom 12:12 1820; Rom 12:14 1669, 2636
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Or Shorter Form:
Romans 12:1-2, 9-13

I urge you, brothers and sisters, by the mercies of God,
  to offer your bodies as a living sacrifice,
  holy and pleasing to God, your spiritual worship.
Do not conform yourselves to this age
  but be transformed by the renewal of your mind,
  that you may discern what is the will of God,
  what is good and pleasing and perfect.

Let love be sincere;
   hate what is evil,
   hold on to what is good;
   love one another with mutual affection;
   anticipate one another in showing honor.
 Do not grow slack in zeal,
   be fervent in spirit,
   serve the Lord.
 Rejoice in hope,
   endure in affliction,
   persevere in prayer.
 Contribute to the needs of the holy ones,
   exercise hospitality.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Rom 12:1-2, 9-13

In the shorter form, the litany of exhortations regarding the virtues so Christian love is shortened somewhat. The focus, however, remains.  To follow Christ, who is love, one must reject all that opposes love and embrace the hope and joy of God with vigor and zeal; becoming Christ-like in all things.

CCC: Rom 12-15 1454, 1971;  Rom 12:1 2031; Rom 12:2 2520, 2826; Rom 12:9-13 1971; Rom 12:11 2039; Rom 12:12 1820
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Romans 12:1-13

#812 Ritual Mass Context (VIII. For the Consecration of Virgins and Religious Profession, 4.)

#863 Mass for Various Needs Context (I. For the Holy Church, 9. For the Laity, 4.)

I urge you, brothers and sisters, by the mercies of God,
  to offer your bodies as a living sacrifice,
  holy and pleasing to God, your spiritual worship.
Do not conform yourselves to this age
  but be transformed by the renewal of your mind,
  that you may discern what is the will of God,
  what is good and pleasing and perfect.

For by the grace given to me I tell everyone among you
  not to think of himself more highly than one ought to think,
  but to think soberly,
  each according to the measure of faith that God has apportioned.
For as in one body we have many parts,
  and all the parts do not have the same function,
  so we, though many, are one Body in Christ
  and individually parts of one another.
Since we have gifts that differ according to the grace given to us,
   let us exercise them:
   if prophecy, in proportion to the faith;
   if ministry, in ministering;
   if one is a teacher, in teaching;
   if one exhorts, in exhortation;
   if one contributes, in generosity;
   if one is over others, with diligence;
   if one does acts of mercy, with cheerfulness.

 Let love be sincere;
   hate what is evil,
   hold on to what is good;
   love one another with mutual affection;
   anticipate one another in showing honor.
 Do not grow slack in zeal,
   be fervent in spirit,
   serve the Lord.
 Rejoice in hope,
   endure in affliction,
   persevere in prayer.
 Contribute to the needs of the holy ones,
   exercise hospitality.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Rom 12:1-13

St. Paul begins a new topic with these verses from his letter to the Romans. The demands of the “New Life” of the Christian are laid out; beginning with the idea of complete dedication to the ideals of their faith. This dedication is expressed here in language reminiscent of the ritual sacrifice of animals in the Hebrew and pagan ceremonies but using the bodies of the faithful in this context. The clear idea is the Christian, like an animal sacrificed to God, is to be wholly given to Christ, untainted by the sins of the world (“Do not conform yourselves to this age”) but, in following the will of God – a pleasing sacrifice to him.

"Because worldly wisdom and values are often deformed (Romans 1:21, 28), Christians must allow God to transform them into the image of Christ (Romans 8:29, 2 Corinthians 3:18) The grace of the Spirit enables us to interpret our lives and evaluate the influences of our culture with respect to the Gospel, in all things. God's will should be the central object of our discernment for it alone is acceptable and perfect (CCC 2520, 2826)"[16]

The Evangelist uses the analogy of the “Body” (the Body of Christ) with each part of the body serving an important purpose though each different for the others. "For he who does not love his brother whom he has seen, cannot love God whom he has not seen" (1 John 4:20). Similarly, it can be said that Christians, that is "servants of the Lord", unless they serve their brethren whom they see before them, cannot serve God either. Serving God, in other words, ultimately means alleviating "the needs of the saints" and offering hospitality to strangers, after the example of the patriarchs Abraham and Lot (Genesis 18:2-5Genesis 19:2-3; cf. Hebrews 13:2)."[15]

CCC: Rom 12-15 1454, 1971; Rom 12:1 2031; Rom 12:2 2520, 2826; Rom 12:4 1142; Rom 12:5 1372; Rom 12:5 1372; Rom 12:6-8 2004; Rom 12:6 114; Rom 12:8 2039; Rom 12:9-13 1971; Rom 12:11 2039; Rom 12:12 1820
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Romans 12:3-13

#670 Proper of Saints Context (St. Charles Borromeo, Nov 4)

#722 Commons Context (Common of Pastors)

#953 Mass for Various Needs Context (IV. For Various Needs, 28. For the Promotion of Charity or To Foster Harmony of For Family and Friends, First Option)

Brothers and sisters:
By the grace given to me I tell everyone among you
not to think of himself more highly than one ought to think,
but to think soberly,
each according to the measure of faith that God has apportioned.
For as in one body we have many parts,
and all the parts do not have the same function,
so we, though many, are one Body in Christ
and individually parts of one another.
Since we have gifts that differ according to the grace given to us,
let us exercise them:
if prophecy, in proportion to the faith;
if ministry, in ministering;
if one is a teacher, in teaching;
if one exhorts, in exhortation;
if one contributes, in generosity;
if one is over others, with diligence;
if one does acts of mercy, with cheerfulness.

Let love be sincere;
hate what is evil,
hold on to what is good;
love one another with mutual affection;
anticipate one another in showing honor.
Do not grow slack in zeal,
be fervent in spirit,
serve the Lord.
Rejoice in hope,
endure in affliction,
persevere in prayer.
Contribute to the needs of the holy ones,
exercise hospitality.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Rom 12:3-13

St. Paul speaks to a community that is one in faith in Christ. He tells the community that in their union the gifts of each must serve the needs of all and these gifts need to be exercised. The Evangelist uses the analogy of the “Body” (the Body of Christ) with each part of the body serving an important purpose though each different from the others. In the second part of the selection the Evangelist gives a litany of exhortations to live the love of Christ, following his command to love one another sincerely and to forgive those who persecute them.

CCC: Rom 12-15 1454, 1971; Rom 12:4 1142; Rom 12:5 1372; Rom 12:5 1372; Rom 12:6-8 2004; Rom 12:6 114; Rom 12:8 2039; Rom 12:9-13 1971; Rom 12:11 2039; Rom 12:12 1820
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Romans 12:4-8

#771 Ritual Mass Context (II. For the Conferral of Holy Orders, 5.)

Brothers and sisters:
As in one body we have many parts,
  and all the parts do not have the same function,
  so we, though many, are one Body in Christ
  and individually parts of one another.

Since we have gifts that differ according to the grace given to us,
  let us exercise them:
  if prophecy, in proportion to the faith;
  if ministry, in ministering;
  if one is a teacher, in teaching;
  if one exhorts, in exhortation;
  if one contributes, in generosity;
  if one is over others, with diligence;
  if one does acts of mercy, with cheerfulness.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Rom 12:4-8

St. Paul speaks to a community that is one in faith in Christ. He tells the community that in their union the gifts of each must serve the needs of all and these gifts need to be exercised. The Evangelist uses the analogy of the “Body” (the Body of Christ) with each part of the body serving an important purpose though each different for the others. In the second part of the selection the

"No virtue worthy of its name can foster selfishness.  Every virtue necessarily works for the good of our own soul and to the good of those around us [...]. Ties of solidarity should bind us all and, besides, in the order of grace we are united by the supernatural likes of the Communion of Saints" (St. Josemaria Escriva, Friends of God, 76) [14].  Evangelist gives a litany of exhortations to live the love of Christ, following his command to love one another sincerely and to forgive those who persecute them.

CCC: Rom 12-15 1454, 1971; Rom 12:4 1142; Rom 12:5 1372; Rom 12:5 1372; Rom 12:6-8 2004; Rom 12:6 114; Rom 12:8 2039
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Romans 12:5-16ab

#486 Weekday Year I Context (Tuesday of the 31st Week in Ordinary Time)

Brothers and sisters:
We, though many, are one Body in Christ
and individually parts of one another.
Since we have gifts that differ according to the grace given to us,
let us exercise them:
if prophecy, in proportion to the faith;
if ministry, in ministering;
if one is a teacher, in teaching;
if one exhorts, in exhortation;
if one contributes, in generosity;
if one is over others, with diligence;
if one does acts of mercy, with cheerfulness.

Let love be sincere;
hate what is evil,
hold on to what is good;
love one another with mutual affection;
anticipate one another in showing honor.
Do not grow slack in zeal,
be fervent in spirit,
serve the Lord.
Rejoice in hope,
endure in affliction,
persevere in prayer.
Contribute to the needs of the holy ones,
exercise hospitality.
Bless those who persecute you,
bless and do not curse them.
Rejoice with those who rejoice,
weep with those who weep.
Have the same regard for one another;
do not be haughty but associate with the lowly.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Rom 12:5-16ab

St. Paul speaks to a community that is one in faith in Christ. He tells the community that, in their union, the gifts of each must serve the needs of all, and these gifts need to be exercised. "No virtue worthy of its name can foster selfishness.  Every virtue necessarily works for the good of our own soul and to the good of those around us [...]. Ties of solidarity should bind us all and, besides, in the order of grace we are united by the supernatural likes of the Communion of Saints" (St. Josemaria Escriva, Friends of God, 76) [14].  The evangelist gives a litany of exhortations to live the love of Christ, following his command to love one another sincerely and to forgive those who persecute them.

CCC: Rom 12-15 1454, 1971; Rom 12:5 1372; Rom 12:6-8 2004; Rom 12:6 114; Rom 12:8 2039; Rom 12:9-13 1971; Rom 12:11 2039; Rom 12:12 1820; Rom 12:14 1669, 2636
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Romans 12:9-16b

#572 Proper of Saints Context (Feast of the Visitation of the Blessed Virgin Mary, May 31)

#928 Mass for Various Needs Context (III. In Various Public Circumstances, 22. For Refugees and Exiles,1.)

Brothers and sisters: Let love be sincere;
hate what is evil,
hold on to what is good;
love one another with mutual affection;
anticipate one another in showing honor.
Do not grow slack in zeal,
be fervent in spirit,
serve the Lord.
Rejoice in hope,
endure in affliction,
persevere in prayer.
Contribute to the needs of the holy ones,
exercise hospitality.
Bless those who persecute you,
bless and do not curse them.
Rejoice with those who rejoice,
weep with those who weep.
Have the same regard for one another,
do not be haughty but associate with the lowly;
do not be wise in your own estimation.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Rom 12:9-16

St. Paul gives a litany of instructions to those who wish to remain faithful to Christ’s teachings. He is speaking to a community that is one in faith in Christ. He tells the community that, in their union, the gifts of each must serve the needs of all, and these gifts need to be exercised. In this selection the Evangelist gives a litany of exhortations to live the love of Christ, following his command to love one another sincerely, and to forgive those who persecute them.

CCC: Rom 12-15 1454, 1971; Rom 12:9-13 1971; Rom 12:11 2039; Rom 12:12 1820; Rom 12:14 1669, 2636
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Romans 13:8-10

#127A Solemnities A Context (23rd Sunday in Ordinary Time A)

#487 Weekday Year I Context (Wednesday of the 31st Week in Ordinary Time)

Brothers and sisters:
Owe nothing to anyone, except to love one another;
for the one who loves another has fulfilled the law.
The commandments, “You shall not commit adultery;
you shall not kill; you shall not steal; you shall not covet, ”
and whatever other commandment there may be,
are summed up in this saying, namely,
“You shall love your neighbor as yourself.”
Love does no evil to the neighbor;
hence, love is the fulfillment of the law.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Rom 13:8-10

St. Paul, in this reading from his Letter to the Romans, restates the second half of the great commandment. The apostle says that following Christ’s commandment to love one another automatically fulfills any other commandment of the law governing Christian interaction. St. Paul essentially paraphrases Jesus' own teaching from St. Matthew’s Gospel as the Lord debated the Sadducees and Pharisees in Matthew 22:34ff.

CCC: Rom 12-15 1454, 1971; Rom 13:8-10 1824, 2196; Rom 13:8 2845; Rom 13:9-10 2055
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Romans 13:11-14

#1A Context (1st Sunday of Advent A)

Brothers and sisters:
You know the time;
it is the hour now for you to awake from sleep.
For our salvation is nearer now than when we first believed;
the night is advanced, the day is at hand.
Let us then throw off the works of darkness
and put on the armor of light;
let us conduct ourselves properly as in the day,
not in orgies and drunkenness,
not in promiscuity and lust,
not in rivalry and jealousy.
But put on the Lord Jesus Christ,
and make no provision for the desires of the flesh.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Rom 13:11-14

St. Paul calls the Romans to repentance, reminding them that the time of salvation, the day of the Lord’s return, is closer than it was when they first heard the word of God. He calls them to act as children of the light, and to throw off sinfulness. He tells them to put on Christ and become spiritually focused. These verses provide the motivation for the love that is encouraged in Romans 13:8-10.

CCC: Rom 12-15 1454, 1971
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Romans 14:7-12

#488 Weekday Year I Context (Thursday of the 31st Week in Ordinary Time)

Brothers and sisters:
None of us lives for oneself, and no one dies for oneself.
For if we live, we live for the Lord,
and if we die, we die for the Lord;
so then, whether we live or die, we are the Lord’s.
For this is why Christ died and came to life,
that he might be Lord of both the dead and the living.
Why then do you judge your brother or sister?
Or you, why do you look down on your brother or sister?
For we shall all stand before the judgment seat of God;
for it is written:

As I live, says the Lord, every knee shall bend before me,
and every tongue shall give praise to God.

So then each of us shall give an account of himself to God.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Rom 14:7-12

St. Paul makes it clear that Jesus died and rose that he might be Lord of the dead and the living. All are one in the Lord. Based upon this unity, the Evangelist chastises those who judge others (in the context of this section, this chastisement is directed at those who follow Mosaic Law scrupulously condemning those who do not). He reminds the community, loosely quoting Isaiah 45:23 which was also foundational for the Kenotic Hymn (Philippians 2:10) and in turn shared the imagery from Psalm 95:6, that on the last day we will all stand before the same God to be judged.

CCC: Rom 12-15 1454, 1971; Rom 14 1971; Rom 14:7 953; Rom 14:9 668
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Romans 14:7-9, 10c-12

#668^ Proper of Saints Context (The Commemoration of All the Faithful Departed, Nov 2)

#964 Mass for Various Needs Context (IV. For Various Needs, 31. For the Grace of a Happy Death)

#1014 Mass for the Dead Context (Mass for the Dead, 6.)

Brothers and sisters:
None of us lives for oneself, and no one dies for oneself.
For if we live, we live for the Lord,
and if we die, we die for the Lord;
so then, whether we live or die, we are the Lord's.
For this is why Christ died and came to life,
that he might be Lord of both the dead and the living.
Why then do you judge your brother?
Or you, why do you look down on your brother?
For we shall all stand before the Judgment seat of God;
for it is written:

As I live, says the Lord, every knee shall bend before me,
and every tongue shall give praise to God.

So then each of us shall give an account of himself to God.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Rom 14:7-9, 10c-12

Two of St. Paul’s themes are tied together in this short passage from his letter to the Romans. By stating that those who profess faith in Jesus accept his adoption – life is no longer separate from God but one in the Lord through this adoption (see also Romans 6:3ff). The second theme is the salvation brought about by the resurrection. In the resurrection, Christ defeated death and all of the souls previously dead in sin because of Adam, were now freed through Jesus’ sacrifice. He became the Lord of the living and the dead.

He reminds the community, loosely quoting Isaiah 45:23 which was also foundational for the Kenotic Hymn (Philippians 2:10) and in turn shared the imagery from Psalm 95:6, that on the last day we will all stand before the same God to be judged.

CCC: Rom 12-15 1454, 1971; Rom 14 1971; Rom 14:7 953; Rom 14:9 668
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Romans 14:7-9

#130A Solemnities A Context (24th Sunday in Ordinary Time A)

#1020 Mass for the Dead Context (For Baptized Children, 2.)

Brothers and sisters:
None of us lives for oneself, and no one dies for oneself.
For if we live, we live for the Lord,
and if we die, we die for the Lord;
so then, whether we live or die, we are the Lord's.
For this is why Christ died and came to life,
that he might be Lord of both the dead and the living.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Rom 14:7-9

Two of St. Paul’s themes are tied together in this short passage from his letter to the Romans. By stating that those who profess faith in Jesus accept his adoption – life is no longer separate from God, but one in the Lord through this adoption (see also Romans 6:3ff). The second theme is the salvation brought about by the resurrection. In the resurrection, Christ defeated death and all of the souls previously dead in sin because of Adam, were now freed through Jesus’ sacrifice. He became the Lord of the living and the dead.

CCC: Rom 12-15 1454, 1971; Rom 14 1971; Rom 14:7 953; Rom 14:9 668
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Romans 15:1b-3a, 5-7, 13 ^

#802 Ritual Mass Context (VI. For the Conferral of the Sacrament of Marriage, 3.)

Brothers and sisters:
We ought to put up with the failings of the weak and not to please ourselves;
 let each of us please our neighbor for the good,
 for building up.
For Christ did not please himself.
May the God of endurance and encouragement
 grant you to think in harmony with one another,
 in keeping with Christ Jesus,
 that with one accord you may with one voice
 glorify the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ.
Welcome one another, then, as Christ welcomed you,
  for the glory of God.
May the God of hope fill you with all joy and peace in believing,
 so that you may abound in hope by the power of the Holy Spirit.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commentary on Rom 15:1b-3a, 5-7, 13

St. Paul encourages the community to be patient and forgiving; "For Christ did not please himself; but, as it is written, 'The insults of those who insult you fall upon me.”", a paraphrase from Psalm 69 which in turn refers to messianic suffering on our behalf. Through that vision comes the hope of the faithful and Paul’s exhortation to be unified in that common hope.

CCC: Rom 12-15 1454, 1971; Rom 15:5-6 2627; Rom 15:5 520; Rom 15:13 162, 2627, 2657
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Romans 15:4-9

#4A Sundays Context (2nd Sunday of Advent A)

Brothers and sisters:
Whatever was written previously was written for our instruction,
that by endurance and by the encouragement of the Scriptures
we might have hope.
May the God of endurance and encouragement
grant you to think in harmony with one another,
in keeping with Christ Jesus,
that with one accord you may with one voice
glorify the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ.

Welcome one another, then, as Christ welcomed you,
for the glory of God.
For I say that Christ became a minister of the circumcised
to show God’s truthfulness,
to confirm the promises to the patriarchs,
but so that the Gentiles might glorify God for his mercy.
As it is written:
Therefore, I will praise you among the Gentiles
and sing praises to your name.
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Commentary on Rom 15:4-9

In the first paragraph of this passage, St. Paul speaks of “what was written previously."  In this, the apostle was referring to v.3: "For Christ did not please himself; but, as it is written, 'The insults of those who insult you fall upon me,'" a paraphrase from Psalm 69, which in turn refers to messianic suffering on our behalf. Through that vision comes the hope of the faithful, and Paul’s encouragement to be unified in that common hope.

The second paragraph calls for unity among all who believe in Christ. He did not come only to fulfill the Hebrew Prophecy (“the promises to the patriarchs”) but to all peoples. In the verse immediately following this selection he cites Deuteronomy 32:43 as his source.

CCC: Rom 12-15 1454, 1971; Rom 15:5-6 2627; Rom 15:5 520
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Romans 15:14-21

#489 Weekday Year I Context (Friday of the 31st Week in Ordinary Time)

I myself am convinced about you, my brothers and sisters,
that you yourselves are full of goodness,
filled with all knowledge, and able to admonish one another.
But I have written to you rather boldly in some respects to remind you,
because of the grace given me by God
to be a minister of Christ Jesus to the Gentiles
in performing the priestly service of the Gospel of God,
so that the offering up of the Gentiles may be acceptable,
sanctified by the Holy Spirit.
In Christ Jesus, then, I have reason to boast in what pertains to God.
For I will not dare to speak of anything
except what Christ has accomplished through me
to lead the Gentiles to obedience by word and deed,
by the power of signs and wonders,
by the power of the Spirit of God,
so that from Jerusalem all the way around to Illyricum
I have finished preaching the Gospel of Christ.
Thus I aspire to proclaim the Gospel
not where Christ has already been named,
so that I do not build on another’s foundation,
but as it is written:

Those who have never been told of him shall see,
and those who have never heard of him shall understand.

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Commentary on Rom 15:14-21

This passage begins the conclusion to St. Paul’s Letter to the Romans. He starts by reiterating his faith in the members of the community, that they have faithfully received the Gospel he preaches and are able to apply it to one another appropriately. He continues by establishing his own Christ-given authority to bring the Gentiles to faith in the Lord, into full communion with the whole of the faithful. The Evangelist also states once more that what he has taught to the Gentiles he has received from Christ, and the same message has been proclaimed throughout his travels.

He concludes the selection by quoting Isaiah 52:15 which “…concerns the Servant of the Lord. According to Isaiah, the Servant is first of all Israel, which was to bring the knowledge of Yahweh to the nations. In Romans 9-11 Paul showed how Israel failed in this mission. Therefore, he himself undertakes almost singlehandedly Israel's responsibility as the Servant and moves as quickly as possible with the gospel through the Roman Empire.”[11]

CCC: Rom 12-15 1454, 1971; Rom 15:16 1070; Rom 15:19 693
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Romans 16:3-9, 16, 22-27

#490 Weekday Year I Context (Saturday of the 31st Week in Ordinary Time)

Brothers and sisters:
Greet Prisca and Aquila, my co-workers in Christ Jesus,
who risked their necks for my life,
to whom not only I am grateful but also all the churches of the Gentiles;
greet also the Church at their house.
Greet my beloved Epaenetus,
who was the firstfruits in Asia for Christ.
Greet Mary, who has worked hard for you.
Greet Andronicus and Junia,
my relatives and my fellow prisoners;
they are prominent among the Apostles
and they were in Christ before me.
Greet Ampliatus, my beloved in the Lord.
Greet Urbanus, our co-worker in Christ,
and my beloved Stachys.
Greet one another with a holy kiss.
All the churches of Christ greet you.

I, Tertius, the writer of this letter, greet you in the Lord.
Gaius, who is host to me and to the whole Church, greets you.
Erastus, the city treasurer,
and our brother Quartus greet you.

Now to him who can strengthen you,
according to my Gospel and the proclamation of Jesus Christ,
according to the revelation of the mystery kept secret for long ages
but now manifested through the prophetic writings and,
according to the command of the eternal God,
made known to all nations to bring about the obedience of faith,
to the only wise God, through Jesus Christ
be glory forever and ever. Amen.
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Commentary on Rom 16:3-9, 16, 22-27

This selection from the last chapter of St. Paul’s Letter to the Romans is part of what is known as “Letter of Recommendations to Phoebe.” It was probably sent to the Church in Ephesus as opposed to Rome. In it the writer extols the virtue of members of the community by name, commending them for their work on behalf of the community. In verse 22: “Tertius, the writer of this letter” is St. Paul’s scribe.

The selection concludes with a doxology or short hymn to the Lord that concludes the letter (both the selection and the whole letter to the Romans) in praise of Christ Jesus.

CCC: Rom 16:25-27 2641; Rom 16:26 143, 1204, 2087
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Romans 16:25-27

#11B Solemnities B Context (4th Sunday of Advent B)

Brothers and sisters:
To him who can strengthen you,
according to my gospel and the proclamation of Jesus Christ,
according to the revelation of the mystery kept secret for long ages
but now manifested through the prophetic writings and,
according to the command of the eternal God,
made known to all nations to bring about the obedience of faith,
to the only wise God, through Jesus Christ
be glory forever and ever. Amen.
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Commentary on Rom 16:25-27

This selection from the last chapter of St. Paul’s Letter to the Romans is part of what is known as “Letter of Recommendations to Phoebe”. It was probably sent to the Church in Ephesus as opposed to Rome. The selection is a doxology or short hymn to the Lord that concludes the letter (both the selection and the whole letter to the Romans) in praise of Christ Jesus.

CCC: Rom 16:25-27 2641; Rom 16:26 143, 1204, 2087
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^ Citation was omitted from Lectionary Index

[1] See NAB footnote on Romans 5:1-11
[2] See NAB Footnote on Romans 5:1-11
[3] Taken in part from the NAB footnote on Romans 8:1-13
[4] Ignatius Catholic Study Bible, © 2010, Ignatius Press, San Francisco, CA. pp.268
[5] See NAB footnote on Romans 8:18ff
[6] See NAB footnote on Romans 9:1-5
[7] See NAB footnote on Romans 7:18ff
[8] See NAB footnote on Romans 8:18-25
[9] Ignatius Catholic Study Bible, © 2010, Ignatius Press, San Francisco, CA. pp.268
[10] Letters of St. Paul , The Navarre Bible, Four Courts Press, 2003 pp. 91
[11] See NAB footnote on Romans 15:21
[12] Ignatius Catholic Study Bible, © 2010, Ignatius Press, San Francisco, CA. pp.268
[13] See NAB footnote on Romans 8:18ff
[14] Letters of St. Paul , The Navarre Bible, Four Courts Press, 2003 pp. 122
[15] Letters of St. Paul , The Navarre Bible, Four Courts Press, 2003 pp. 123
[16] Ignatius Catholic Study Bible, © 2010, Ignatius Press, San Francisco, CA. pp.275
[17] Ignatius Catholic Study Bible, © 2010, Ignatius Press, San Francisco, CA. pp. 263
[18] The Navarre Bible: “Letters of St. Paul”, Scepter Publishers, Princeton, NJ, © 2003, pp. 100
[19] The Navarre Bible: “Letters of St. Paul”, Scepter Publishers, Princeton, NJ, © 2003, pp. 93

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